Middle Persian
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Middle Persian
Middle Persian
(P?rs?k or P?rs?g)
RegionSasanian Empire (224-651)
EthnicityPersian people
EraEvolved into Early New Persian by the 9th century; thereafter used only by Zoroastrian priests for exegesis and religious instruction
Indo-European
Early form
Pahlavi scripts, Manichaean alphabet, Avestan alphabet, Pazend
Language codes
pal
Either:
pal - Zoroastrian Middle Persian ("Pahlavi")
xmn - Manichaean Middle Persian (Manichaean script)
Glottologpahl1241 
Linguasphere58-AAC-ca

Middle Persian or Pahlavi, also known by its endonym P?rs?k or P?rs?g () in its later form,[1][2] is a Western Middle Iranian language which became the literary language of the Sasanian Empire. For some time after the Sasanian collapse, Middle Persian continued to function as a prestige language.[3] It descended from Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenid Empire and is the linguistic ancestor of Modern Persian, the official language of Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan.

Name

"Middle Iranian" is the name given to the middle stage of development of the numerous Iranian languages and dialects.[4] The middle stage of the Iranian languages begins around 450 BCE and ends around 650 CE. One of those Middle Iranian languages is Middle Persian, i.e. the middle stage of the language of the Persians, an Iranian people of Persia proper, which lies in the south-western highlands on the border with Babylonia. The Persians called their language Parsik, meaning "Persian".

Another Middle Iranian language was Parthian, i.e. the language of the northwestern Iranian peoples of Parthia proper, which lies along the southern/south-eastern edge of the Caspian sea and is adjacent to the boundary between western and eastern Iranian languages. The Parthians called their language Parthawik, meaning "Parthian". Via regular sound changes Parthawik became Pahlawik, from which the word 'Pahlavi' eventually evolved. The -ik in parsik and parthawik was a regular Middle Iranian appurtenant suffix for "pertaining to". The New Persian equivalent of -ik is -i.

When the Arsacids (who were Parthians) came to power in the 3rd-century BCE, they inherited the use of written Greek (from the successors of Alexander the Great) as the language of government. Under the cultural influence of the Greeks (Hellenization), some Middle Iranian languages, such as Bactrian, also had begun to be written in Greek script. But yet other Middle Iranian languages began to be written in a script derived from Aramaic. This occurred primarily because written Aramaic had previously been the written language of government of the former Achaemenids, and the government scribes had carried that practice all over the empire. This practice had led to others adopting Imperial Aramaic as the language of communications, both between Iranians and non-Iranians, as well as between Iranians.[5] The transition from Imperial Aramaic to Middle Iranian took place very slowly, with a slow increase of more and more Iranian words so that Aramaic with Iranian elements gradually changed into Iranian with Aramaic elements.[6] Under Arsacid hegemony, this Aramaic-derived writing system for Iranian languages came to be associated with the Parthians in particular (it may have originated in the Parthian chancellories[6]), and thus the writing system came to be called pahlavi "Parthian" too.[7]

Aside from Parthian, Aramaic-derived writing was adopted for at least four other Middle Iranian languages, one of which was Middle Persian. In the 3rd-century CE, the Parthian Arsacids were overthrown by the Sassanids, who were natives of the south-west and thus spoke Middle Persian as their native language. Under Sassanid hegemony, the Middle Persian language became a prestige dialect and thus also came to be used by non-Persian Iranians. In the 7th-century, the Sassanids were overthrown by the Arabs. Under Arab influence, Iranian languages began be written in Arabic script (adapted to Iranian phonology), while Middle Persian began to rapidly evolve into New Persian and the name parsik became Arabicized farsi. Not all Iranians were comfortable with these Arabic-influenced developments, in particular, members of the literate elite, which in Sassanid times consisted primarily of Zoroastrian priests. Those former elites vigorously rejected what they perceived as 'Un-Iranian', and continued to use the "old" language (i.e. Middle Persian) and Aramaic-derived writing system.[7] In time, the name of the writing system, pahlavi "Parthian", began to be applied to the "old" Middle Persian language as well, thus distinguishing it from the "new" language, farsi.[7] Consequently, 'pahlavi' came to denote the particularly Zoroastrian, exclusively written, late form of Middle Persian.[8] Since almost all surviving Middle Persian literature is in this particular late form of exclusively written Zoroastrian Middle Persian, in popular imagination the term 'Pahlavi' became synonymous with Middle Persian itself.

The ISO 639 language code for Middle Persian is pal, which reflects the post-Sasanian era use of the term Pahlavi to refer to the language and not only the script.

Transition from Old Persian

In the classification of the Iranian languages, the Middle Period includes those languages which were common in Iran from the fall of the Achaemenid Empire in the fourth century BCE up to the fall of the Sasanian Empire in the seventh century CE.

The most important and distinct development in the structure of Iranian languages of this period is the transformation from the synthetic form of the Old Period (Old Persian and Avestan) to an analytic form:

Transition to New Persian

The modern-day descendants of Middle Persian are New Persian and Luri. The changes between late Middle and Early New Persian were very gradual, and in the 10th-11th centuries, Middle Persian texts were still intelligible to speakers of Early New Persian. However, there are definite differences that had taken place already by the 10th century:

  • Sound changes, such as
    • the dropping of unstressed initial vowels
    • the epenthesis of vowels in initial consonant clusters
    • the loss of -g when word final
    • change of initial w- to either b- or (gw- -> g-)
  • Changes in the verbal system, notably the loss of distinctive subjunctive and optative forms, and the increasing use of verbal prefixes to express verbal moods
  • a transition from split ergative back to consistent nominative-accusative morphosyntactic alignment[9][12]
  • Changes in the vocabulary, particularly the establishment of a superstratum or adstratum of Arabic loanwords replacing many Aramaic loans and native terms.
  • The substitution of Arabic script for Pahlavi script.

Surviving literature

Texts in Middle Persian are found in remnants of Sasanian inscriptions and Egyptian papyri, coins and seals, fragments of Manichaean writings, and Zoroastrian literature, most of which was written down after the Sasanian era. The language of Zoroastrian literature (and of the Sasanian inscriptions) is sometimes referred to as Pahlavi - a name that originally referred to the Pahlavi scripts,[13][14] which were also the preferred writing system for several other Middle Iranian languages. Pahlavi Middle Persian is the language of quite a large body of literature which details the traditions and prescriptions of Zoroastrianism, which was the state religion of Sasanian Iran (224 to c. 650) before the Muslim conquest of Persia. The earliest texts in Zoroastrian Middle Persian were probably written down in late Sasanian times (6th-7th centuries), although they represent the codification of earlier oral tradition.[15] However, most texts date from the ninth to the 11th century, when Middle Persian had long ceased to be a spoken language, so they reflect the state of affairs in living Middle Persian only indirectly. The surviving manuscripts are usually 14th-century copies.[13] Other, less abundantly attested varieties are Manichaean Middle Persian, used for a sizable amount of Manichaean religious writings, including many theological texts, homilies and hymns (3rd-9th, possibly 13th century), and the Middle Persian of the Church of the East, evidenced in the Pahlavi Psalter (7th century); these were used until the beginning of the second millennium in many places in Central Asia, including Turpan and even localities in South India.[16] All three differ minimally from one another and indeed the less ambiguous and archaizing scripts of the latter two have helped to elucidate some aspects of the Sasanian-era pronunciation of the former.[17]

Phonology

Vowels

The vowels of Middle Persian were the following:[18]

Front Central Back
Close i:, i u:, u
Mid e:, (e) o:, (o)
Open a:, a

It has been doubted whether the Middle Persian short mid vowels /e/ and /o/ were phonemic, since they do not appear to have a unique continuation in later forms of Persian and no minimal pairs have been found[19][20] The evidence for them is variation between spelling with and without the matres lectionis y and w, as well as etymological considerations.[21] They are thought to have arisen from earlier /a/ in certain conditions, including, for /e/, the presence of a following /n/, sibilant or front vowel in the next syllable, and for /o/, the presence of a following labial consonant or the vowel /u/ in the next syllable.[22] Long /e:/ and /o:/ had appeared first in Middle Persian, since they had developed from the Old Persian diphtongs /ai/ and /aw/.[23]

Consonants

The consonant phonemes were the following:[24]

Labial Labiodental Dental Palatal Velar Laryngeal
Stop p, b t, d k, g
Affricate t, d
Fricative f s, z,

(early ?)

?, (?) x, (xw), (?) h
Nasal m n
Trill r
Lateral l
Approximant w j

A major distinction between the pronunciation of the early Middle Persian of the Arsacid period (until the 3rd century CE) and the Middle Persian of the Sassanid period (3rd - 7th century CE) is due to a process of consonant lenition after voiced sounds that took place during the transition between the two.[25] Its effects were as follows:[26][27]

1. Voiced stops, when occurring after vowels, became semivowels:

/b/ > /w/, /d/ > /j/, /g/ > /w/ or /j/ (the latter after /i/[28])

This process may have taken place very early, but it is nevertheless often the old pronunciation or a transitional one that is reflected in the Pahlavi spelling.

Old Persian naiba- > Middle Persian n?w (Pahlavi TB or nyw'), but:
Old Persian asab?ra- > Middle Persian asv?r 'horseman' (Pahlavi PL?YA, ?swbl?).
Proto-Iranian *p?d- > Middle Persian p?y 'foot' (Pahlavi LGLE, p?d, Manichaean p?y).
Old Persian magu- > Middle Persian mow- 'Magian' (Pahlavi mgw-).
Proto-Iranian *ni-gau?- > Middle Persian niy- 'listen' (Pahlavi nydwh?-, also nydwk(h)?-[29]), Manichaean nyw?).

2. Voiceless stops and affricates, when occurring after vowels as well as other voiced sounds, became voiced:

/p/ > /b/, /t/ > /d/, /k/ > /g/, /t/ > /d/

This process is thought not to have been taken place before Sassanid Pahlavi, and it generally isn't reflected in Pahlavi spelling.

A further stage in this lenition process is expressed in a synchronic alternation: at least at some stage in late Middle Persian (later than the 3rd century), the consonants /b/, /d/, /g/ appear to have had, after vowels, the fricative allophones [?], [ð], [?].[26][30][31][32] This is slightly more controversial for /g/, since there appears to have been a separate phoneme /?/ as well.[33] A parallel development seems to have affected /d/ in the same position, possibly earlier; not only was it weakened to a fricative [?], but it was also depalatalised to [z]. In fact, old Persian [d?] and [?] in any position also produced [z]. Unlike the case with the spirantisation of stops, this change is uncontroversially recognised for Sassanid times.[26][34]

The lenition of voiceless stops and affricates remained largely unexpressed in Pahlavi spelling,[35] which continues to reflect the Arsacid sound values, but is known from the more phonetic Manichaean spelling of texts from Sassanid times.

Arsacid ?ap > Sassanid ?ab (late [?a?]) 'night' (Pahlavi LYLYA, ?p'; Manichaean ?b) [36]
Arsacid pit > Sassanid pid (late [pið]) 'father' (Pahlavi AB, p(y)t', Manichaean pyd)[37]
Arsacid p?rak > Sassanid p?rag (late [pa:ra?]) 'gift' (Pahlavi p?lk')[38]
Arsacid ha? > Sassanid az 'from' (Pahlavi MN, hc, Manichaean ?c or ?z)

As a result of these changes, the voiceless stops and affricates /p/, /t/, /k/, /t/ rarely occurred after vowels - mostly when geminated, which has protected them from the lenition (e.g. waag, sp. wck' 'child'), and due to some other sound changes.[39]

Another difference between Arsacid and Sassanid-era pronunciation is that Arsacid word-initial /y/ produced Sassanid /d/ (another change that is not reflected in the Pahlavi spelling).[40] The sound probably passed through the phase /?/, which may have continued until very late Middle Persian, since Manichaean texts did not identify Indic /d/ with it and introduced a separate sign for the former instead of using the letter for their native sound.[41] Nonetheless, word-initial /y/ was retained/reintroduced in learned borrowings from Avestan.[28]

Arsacid y?m > Sassanid m 'glass' (Pahlavi y?m, Manichaean j?m); but:
Avestan yazata > Middle Persian yazd 'god' (Pahlavi yzdt')

Furthermore, some forms of Middle Persian appear to have preserved ? (from Proto-Iranian /d/ or /t/) after n due to Parthian influence, instead of the usual weakening to z. This pronunciation is reflected in Book Pahlavi, but not in Manichaean texts:

Proto-Iranian *pan?a > pan? (spelt pnc in Book Pahlavi) or panz (spelt pnz in Manichaean)[42]

Judging from the spelling, the consonant /?/ may have been pronounced before /r/ in certain borrowings from Parthian in Arsacid times (unlike native words, which had /h/ for earlier *? in general and /s/ for the cluster *?r in particular), but it had been replaced by /h/ by the Sassanid period:

Arsacid mi?r > Sassanid mihr 'Mithra, contract' (Pahlavi mtr', Manichaean myhr).[43][44][45]

The phoneme /?/ (as opposed to the late allophone of /g/) is rare and occurs almost only in learned borrowings from Avestan and Parthian, e.g. mo? (Pahlavi mgw or mwg 'Magian'), ma? (Pahlavi m?) 'hole, pit'.[41][30][46][47]

The sound /?/ may also have functioned as a marginal phoneme in borrowings as well.[39]

The phoneme /l/ was still relatively rare as well, especially so in Manichaean texts,[41][39] mostly resulting from Proto-Iranian *rd, *rz and, more rarely, *r.[48] It also occurred in the combination /hl/, which was a reflex of Old Persian /r?/ and /rs/ (cf. the words 'Pahlavi' and 'Parthian').[49]

The sound /xw/ may be viewed as a phoneme[50][51] or merely as a combination of /x/ and /w/.[20][30] Usually /x/, /xw/ and /?/ are considered to have been velar; a less common view is that /x/ and /?/ were uvular instead.[52]

Finally, it may be pointed out that most scholars consider the phoneme /w/ as being still a labial approximant,[51][20][30][21] but a few regard it as a voiced labial fricative /v/.[53][54]

The initial clusters of /s/ and a stop (/sp-/, /st-/, /sk-/) had acquired a prosthetic vowel /i/ by the time of the Manichaean Middle Persian texts: ist?yi?n (?st?y?n) 'praise' vs Pahlavi st?yi?n (?st?d?n') 'praise'.

Prosody

Stress was on the last syllable.[41][55] That was due to the fact that any Old Persian post-stress syllables had been apocopated:[51]

Old Persian pati 'at' > Middle Persian pad
Old Persian martiya- 'man' > Middle Persian mard
Old Persian martiyn?m 'man' (genitive-dative plural) > Middle Persian mard?n

It has been suggested that words such as an?y 'other' (Pahlavi spelling AHRN, AHRNyd, Manichaean ?ny) and mah?y 'bigger' (Manichaean mhy) may have been exceptionally stressed on the first syllable, since the last one was apocopated already in the course of the Middle Persian period: the later forms are an (Manichaean ?n), and meh (Pahlavi ms and Manichaean myh);[56] indeed, some scholars have reconstructed them as monosyllabic any, mahy even for Middle Persian.[57]

Scripts

Middle Persian has been written in a number of different scripts.[58] The corpora in different scripts also exhibit other linguistic differences that are partly due to their different ages, dialects and scribal traditions.

The Pahlavi scripts are abjads derived from the imperial variety of the Aramaic alphabet used in the chancelleries of the Achaemenid Empire. As is typical of abjads, they express primarily the consonants in a word form. What sets them apart from other abjads, however, is the use of Heterograms, and more specifically Aramaeograms, i.e. words written in Aramaic (sometimes, in later periods, with distortions) but pronounced in Middle Persian: e.g. LY (Aramaic 'to me') for man 'me, I'. There were about a thousand of these in the Book Pahlavi variety. In addition, their spelling remained very conservative, expressing the pronunciation of the Arsacid period.[58] The two most important subvarieties are:

1.1. Inscriptional Pahlavi, used in the inscriptions of Sassanid kings and officials from the 3rd-4th centuries CE. The 22 letters are written separately and still relatively well distinguished compared to later versions: the only formal coincidences of original Aramaic signs are the pair m and q and the triplet w, ? and r.[59]

1.2. Book Pahlavi, used primarily in Zoroastrian books from the 5th century CE on. Most texts are thought to reflect the stage of the language from the 6th to the 10th centuries CE.[60] (6th-7th centuries for the translations of the Avesta and perhaps some didactic and entertainment literature, 9-10th centuries for the dogmatic and legal texts that form most of the corpus)[61] This is the script that the overwhelming majority of Middle Persian texts is recorded in. A cursive script characterised by many ligatures and by the formal coincidence of originally different Aramaic letters, reducing the number to just 14 distinct signs. Now, also n coincides with the triplet w = ? = r, and in addition, another triplet g, d and y merges too, as does the pair ? and ?. Aramaic ? had also disappeared. In later times, some mergers were disambiguated by means of diacritic signs, following the example of the Arabic abjad: thus, g, d and y were distinguished again; however, this wasn't applied consistently.

Other known Pahlavi varieties are the early Pahlavi found in inscriptions on coins issued in the province of Pars from the 2nd century BC to the 3rd century CE; the relatively conservative Psalter Pahlavi (6th-8th centuries CE), used in a Christian Psalter fragment, which still retains all the letter distinctions that Inscriptional Pahlavi had except the one between t and ?;[59] and the Pahlavi found in papyri from the early 7th century CE, which displays even more letter coincidences than Book Pahlavi.[58]

The Manichaean script was an abjad introduced for the writing of Middle Persian by the prophet Mani (216-274 CE), who based it on his native variety of the Aramaic script of Palmyrene origin. Mani used this script to write the known book buhr?g?n and it continued to be used by Manichaeans until the 9th century to write in Middle Persian, and in various other Iranian languages for even longer.[58] Specifically the Middle Persian Manichaean texts are numerous and thought to reflect mostly the period from the 3rd to the 7th centuries CE.[60] In contrast to the Pahlavi scripts, it is a regular and unambiguous phonetic script that expresses clearly the pronunciation of 3rd century Middle Persian and distinguishes clearly between different letters and sounds, so it provides valuable evidence to modern linguists.[58] Not only did not display any of the Pahlavi coalescences mentioned above, it also had special letters that enabled it to distinguish [p] and [f] (although it didn't always do so), as well as [y] and [d], unique designations for [?], [ð], and [?], and consistent distinctions between the pairs [x] - [h] and [r] - [l].[62][63]

Since knowledge of Pahlavi decreased after the Muslim conquest of Iran, the Zoroastrians occasionally transcribed their religious texts into other, more accessible or unambigious scripts. One approach was to use the Avestan alphabet, a practice known as Pazand; another was to resort to the same Perso-Arabic script that was already being used for New Persian, and that was referred to as P?rs?. Since these methods were used at a relatively late linguistic stage, these transcriptions often reflect a very late pronunciation close to New Persian.[58]

In general, Inscriptional Pahlavi texts have the most archaic linguistic features, Manichaean texts and the Psalter exhibit slightly later, but still relatively early language stages, and while the Pahlavi translations of the Avesta also retain some old features, most other Zoroastrian Book Pahlavi texts (which form the overwhelming majority of the Middle Persian corpus as a whole) are linguistically more innovative.

Transliteration and transcription

Transliteration of Pahlavi script

In view of the many ambiguities of the Pahlavi script, even its transliteration does not usually limit itself to rendering merely the letters as written; rather, letters are usually transliterated in accordance with their origin regardless of the coinciding forms: thus, even though Book Pahlavi has the same letter shapes for original n, w and r, for original ? and ? and for original d, g and y, besides having some ligatures that coincide in shape with certain individual letters, these are all transliterated differently.[64][65] For instance, the spelling of g?spand 'domestic animal' is transliterated gwspnd in spite of the fact that the w and n have the same graphic appearance.[66]

Furthermore, letters used as part of Aramaic heterograms and not intended to be interpreted phonetically are written in capitals: thus the heterogram for the word ?n is rendered ZK, whereas its phonetic spelling is transliterated as ?n' (the final vertical line reflects the so-called 'otiose' stroke, see below[67]). Finally, there is a convention of representing 'distorted/corrupt' letters, which 'should' have appeared in a different shape from a historical point of view, by under- or overlining them: e.g. the heterogram for andar 'in' is transliterated BYN, since it corresponds to Aramaic byn, but the sign that 'should' have been b actually looks like a g.[64][65]

Within Arameograms, scholars have traditionally used the standard Semitological designations of the Aramaic (and generally Semitic) letters, and these include a large number of diacritics and special signs expressing the different Semitic phonemes, which were not distinguished in Middle Persian. In order to reduce the need for these, a different system was introduced by D. N. McKenzie, which dispenses with diacritics as much as possible, often replacing them with vowel letters: A for ?, O for ?, E for H, H for ?, C for ?, for example ORHYA for ?R?Y? (bay 'god, majesty, lord').[68][65][44] For ''?'', which still occurs in heterograms in Inscriptional Pahlavi, ? may be used. Within Iranian words, however, both systems use c for original Aramaic ? and h for original Aramaic ?, in accordance with their Iranian pronunciation (see below). The letter l, when modified with a special horizontal stroke that shows that the pronunciation is /l/ and not /r/, is rendered in the McKenzie system as ?. The traditional system continues to be used by many, especially European scholars.[69] The MacKenzie system is the one used in this article.

Transliteration of Manichaean script

As for Pahlavi, c is used for the transliteration of original Aramaic ? and h for the transliteration of original ?. Original Aramaic h, on the other hand, is sometimes rendered as ?. For original ?, the sign ? is used. The special Manichaean letters for /x/, /f/, [?], /?/ and [ð] are transcribed in accordance with their pronunciation as x, f, ?, ? and ?. Unlike Pahlavi, the Manichaean script uses the letter Ayin also in Iranian words (see below) and it is transliterated in the usual Semitological way as ?.[70][62][63]

Transcription

Since, like most abjads, even the Manichaean script and a maximally disambiguated transliterated form of Pahlavi do not provide exhaustive information about the phonemic structure of Middle Persian words, a system of transcription is also necessary. There are two traditions of transcription of Pahlavi Middle Persian texts: one closer to the spelling and reflecting the Arsacid-era pronunciation, as used by Ch. Bartholomae and H. S. Nyberg (1964)[71] and a currently more popular one reflecting the Sassanid era pronunciation, as used by C. Saleman, W. B. Henning and, in a somewhat revised form, by D. N. MacKenzie (1986).[72][73]

The less obvious features of the usual transcription[30][47][20] are:

1. long vowels are marked with a macron: ?, ?, ?, ?, ? for /a:/, /e:/, /i:/, /o:/, /u:/.

2. The semivowels are marked as follows: w for /w/ and y for /j/.

3. The palatal obstruents are marked with carons as follows: ? for /?/, ? for /t/, ? for /d/ and ? for /?/.

4. The voiceless velar fricative /x/ is marked as x, its labialised counterpart /xw/ is xw, and the (phonemic) voiced velar fricative /?/ is ?.

Spelling

A common feature of Pahlavi as well as Manichaean spelling was that the Aramaic letters ? and ? were adapted to express the sounds /t/ and /h/, respectively. In addition, both could use the letter p to express /f/, and ? to express z after a vowel.

Pahlavi

Arameograms

The widespread use of Aramaeograms in Pahlavi, often existing in parallel with 'phonetic' spellings, has already been mentioned: thus, the same word ha?t 'eight' can be spelt h?t[74] or TWMNYA.[75] A curious feature of the system is that simple word stems sometimes have spellings derived from Aramaic inflected forms: the spellings of verb stems include Aramaic inflectional affixes such as -WN, -TWN or -N and Y-;[76] the spellings of pronouns are often derived from Aramaic prepositional phrases (t 'you' is LK, originally Aramaic lk 'to you', y 'he' is OLE, originally Aramaic ?lh 'onto him'); and inalienable nouns are often noun phrases with pronominal modifiers (pidar 'father' is ABYtl, originally Aramaic ?by 'my father', p?y 'foot' is LGLE, originally Aramaic rglh 'his foot').[77] Furthermore, the Aramaic distinctions between ? and h and between k and q were not always maintained, with the first often replacing the second, and the one between t and ? was lost in all but Inscriptional Pahlavi: thus YKTLWN (pronounced zadan) for Aramaic yq?lwn 'kill', and YHWWN (pronounced b?dan) for Aramaic yhwwn 'be', even though Aramaic h is elsewhere rendered E.[78] In the rest of this article, the Pahlavi spellings will be indicated due to their unpredictability, and the Aramaeograms will be given priority over the 'phonetic' alternatives for the same reason.

If a word expressed by an Arameogram has a grammatical ending or, in many cases, a word-formation suffix, these are generally expressed by phonetic elements: LYLYA?n for ?ab?n 'nights'. However, verbs in Inscriptional Pahlavi are sometimes written as 'bare ideograms', whose interpretation is a major difficulty for scholars.[79]

Historical and ambiguous spelling

It has also been pointed out that the Pahlavi spelling does not express the 3rd century lenitions, so the letters p, t, k and c express /b/, /d/, /g/ and /z/ after vowels, e.g. ?p' for ?ab 'night' and hc for az 'from'. The rare phoneme /?/ was also expressed by the same letter shape as k (however, this sound value is usually expressed in the transliteration).[80] Similarly, the letter d may stand for /y/ after a vowel, e.g. p?d for p?y 'foot' - this is no longer apparent in Book Pahlavi due to the coincidence of the shapes of the original letters y, d and g, but is already clearly seen in Inscriptional and Psalter Pahlavi. Indeed, it even appears to have been the general rule word-finally, regardless of the word's origins,[81] although modern transliterations of words like xwad?y (xwt?d) and m?n?y (mynwd) do not always reflect this analogical / pseudo-historical spelling.[82] Final ?y was regularly written yd.[83] In the same way, (w)b may also correspond to a w in the pronunciation after a vowel.[84] The fortition of initial /y/ to /d/ (or /?/) is not reflected either, so y can express initial /d/, e.g. y?m for m 'glass' (while it still expresses /j/ in the learned word yzdt' for yazd 'god'.

Some even earlier sound changes are not consistently reflected either, such as the transition of /?/ to /h/ in some words (in front of /r/ this reflex is due to Parthian influence, since the Middle Persian reflex should have been /s/). In such words, the spelling may have s[83] or, in front of r - t. For example, g?h 'place, time' is spelt g?s (cf. Old Persian gu) and nig?h '(a) look' is spelt nk?s;[85] ?ahr 'country, town' is spelt ?tr' (cf. Avestan xsa?ra) and mihr 'Mithra, contract, friendship is spelt mtr'. In contrast, the Manichaean spellings are g?h, ng?h, ?hr, myhr. Some other words with earlier /?/ are spelt phonetically in Pahlavi, too: e.g. g?h?n gyh?n 'material world', ?ihr cyhl 'face'.[86] There are also some other cases where /h/ is spelt /t/ after p: ptwnd for paywand 'connection', and /t/ may also stand for /y/ in that position: ptk?l for pahik?r 'strife'.[87]

There are some other phoneme pairs besides /y/ and /d/ that are not distinguished: h (the original Aramaic ?) may stand either for /h/ or for /x/ (hm for ham 'also' as well as hl for xar 'donkey'), whereas the use of original Aramaic h is restricted to heterograms (transliterated E in McKenzie's system, e.g. LGLE for p?y 'foot'). Not only /p/, but also the frequent sound /f/ is expressed by the letter p, e.g. plhw' for farrox 'fortunate'.[88] While the original letter r is retained in some words as an expression of the sound /r/, especially in older frequent words and Aramaeograms (e.g. ?tr' for ?ahr 'country, town', BRTE for duxt 'daughter'),[56] it is far more common for the letter l to have that function, as in the example plhw' for farrox. In the relatively rare cases where l does express /l/, it can be marked as ?.[89]

Expression of vowels

Like many abjads, the system may express not only consonants, but also some vowels by means of certain consonant signs, the so-called matres lectionis. This is usually limited to long vowels:[88] thus, original ? can stand for the vowel /a:/ (e.g. in p?d for p?d), y can stand for /i:/ and /e:/ (e.g.pym for p?m 'pain' and nym for n?m 'half'), and w can stand for /u:/ or /o:/ (swt' for s?d 'profit' and swl for s?r 'salty'). However, short /u/ is also typically expressed like long /u:/ (e.g. swd for suy 'hunger'), whereas short /i/ and the assumed /e/ and /o/ vary beween being expressed like their long counterparts or remaining unexpressed: p(y)t for pid 'father', sl(y)?k for sre?k 'tear', nhwm for nohom 'ninth'.[90] Due to elision of /w/, written yw can also correspond to /e:/: nywk' 'good'.[83] Gemination of consonants was not expressed, e.g. waag, sp. wck' 'child').[39]

In Inscriptional and Psalter Pahlavi, a -y that was not pronounced appears word-finally, e.g. ?hpwhry for ?ahpuhr. Its origin and function are disputed. In Book Pahlavi, it developed into a peculiar convention, the so-called 'otiose' stroke, which resembles w/n/r and is added to demarcate the end of the word after those letters that never connect to the left: m?n' 'house'.[67][83][91][60][92]

Like many abjads, Pahlavi ? can express simply the fact that a word begins in a vowel, e.g. ?pyt' for ab?y?d 'it is necessary' (though two alephs usually aren't written in a row to express an initial long vowel).

Manichaean

In contrast to the historical and ideographic features of Pahlavi, Manichaean spelling is relatively straightforward.[21][93] Like Pahavi, the Manichaean script designates vowel-initial words with ?, but a further spelling convention in it is that it is the letter ?, rather than ?, that is written before initial front vowels, e.g. ?ym for im 'this' (in contrast to Pahlavi ?m (or LZNE). Vowels are marked by matres lectionis in the Manichaean script in the usual way, and long vowels are more likely to be marked.

In spite of the availability of signs for each sound, Manichaean spelling did not always make perfectly phonetic use of them. In particular, not only in Pahlavi but even in Manichaean, the letter p was often used to express /f/, and /z/ after vowels was written etymologically as c: thus, fr?z 'forth' was spelt pr?c, just as in Pahlavi.[21] If the voiced fricatives really occurred as allopohones of /b/, /g/, /d/ in Middle Persian, the special Manichaean signs for fricatives ?, ? and ? usually were not used to express this either. Conversely, the Semitic letters for the consonants q, ? and h (transliterated ? in Manichaean) were retained and used, occasionally, even though they only expressed the same Middle Persian sounds as k and t, and ? (transliterated h in Manichaean). The Manichaean script also has abbreviation marking double dots for the forms ?wd 'and', ?w-? 'and he' and ?w-n 'and they', which may be transcribed as ?, and n. Elisions and plural may also be marked with double dots.[70]

Grammar

The elision of unstressed word-final syllables during the transition from Old to Middle Persian has eliminated many grammatical endings. As a result, compared to the synthetic grammar of Old Persian, Middle Persian belongs to a much more analytic language type, with relatively little inflection and widespread expression of grammatical meanings through syntactic means instead (specifically, use of prepositions and periphrases).[94]

Nominal morphology

Case and number inflection

Early Middle Persian inflection as found in the Sassanid rock inscriptions (3rd-4th centuries CE) still retained a minimal case system for the nominal parts of speech, i.e. nouns, adjectives, pronouns and numerals. It included a direct or subject case (originating from the old nominative) used for the subject and the predicative nominal and an oblique case used for other functions (indirect object, genitive possessor, complement of a preposition, subject/'agent' of the ergative construction).[95][96][91][97] The case distinction was only present in the plural of nouns, in nouns of relationship (family terms) that end in -tar or -dar in the oblique, and in the first person singular pronoun az/an (ANE). The attested system is shown in the table below, using the words mard (GBRA) 'man', pid (AB') 'father' as examples.

direct case oblique case
regular nominals (singular) mard-? (GBRA) mard-? (GBRA)
regular nominals (plural) mard-? (GBRA) mard-?n (GBRA?n')

(in some exceptional words -?n, -?n)

family terms (singular) pid-? (AB') pidar-?

(ABYtl')

family terms (plural) pidar-?

(ABYtl')

pidar-?n

(ABYtl?n')

1st person singular pronoun az / an[98]

(ANE)

man

(L)

The endings -?n and -?n occur in the place of -?n in a decreasing number of exceptions. In Inscriptional Pahlavi, forms such as frazend?n (przndyn') 'of the children' and du?men?n (dw?m(y)nwn') 'of the enemies' are still found. In Manichaean Middle Persian, likewise, forms such as zan?n (spelt znyn), 'women', ruw?n?n 'souls' and du?men?n (dw?mynwn) are preserved.[99] It also has the form aw?n as an equivalent of aw?n 'they, those'.[100] In Book Pahlavi, the generalisation of -?n has advanced to the point where only -?n is preserved, namely in the inflections of the words harw (KRA) and harwisp (hlwsp?') 'every, all' - plural harw?n and harwisp-?n or harwist?n, respectively, as well as optionally of d? (2, TLYN'), 'two' - plural d?w?n or d?n?n.[101]

There is some disagreement and uncertainty about whether the case of the direct object in this early inflectional system was direct or oblique. Originally, it should have been direct in the ergative-absolutive constructions, but possibly oblique in the nominative-accusative ones. It has been claimed that 'the direct object could stand in both cases'[60] or that it is unclear which case specifically the plural direct object took, with a suggested distinction between indefinite and definite direct object taking the direct and the oblique cases, respectively.[102]

For an even more archaic stage, some have claimed that the singular of regular nominals had its own oblique case form, too, and that it was marked by the ending -? (spelt -y), which still occurs on nouns in Inscriptional and Psalter Pahlavi, albeit somewhat unsystematically. This would have been expected, assuming that both oblique forms continue the Old Iranian genitives in *-ahya and *-?nam, respectively. However, this theory has been disputed and rejected by many scholars.[91][60]

The case system broke down in the course of the Middle Persian period, as the oblique case forms were gradually generalised and displaced the direct ones. First, the oblique plural form in -?n (-?n and -?n) was generalised as a general plural form; a few instances of this usage are found as early as in the 6th-8th century Pahlavi Psalter, and while the preserved parts of the 3rd century Sh?buhrag?n may retain it,[60] most other Manichaean texts use -?n as a general plural form and only retain the case distinction in the family terms and the 1st singular pronoun. Finally, even though the Middle Persian translations of the Avesta still retain the old system, most clearly so in the family terms, the other Book Pahlavi Zoroastrian texts display the new system with no case distinctions at all and solely a contrast between singular and plural. At this stage, the old direct and oblique cases of the nouns of relationship such as pid and pidar were preserved only as free variants.[103] At the same time, even when morphologically unexpcressed, the 'underlying' case of a nominal phrase remains relevant throughout the Middle Persian period for the agreement on the verb and the use of the pronominal enclitics, to be described in the relevant sections.

In addition to the plural ending -?n, a new plural suffix -?h? is increasingly common both in later Manichaean texts,[103] where also the variant -?h?n occurs, and especially in Book Pahlavi.[60] It is used with inanimate nouns[104] and has been said to express 'individual plurality': 'the various, individual Xs'.[105][106] At the same time, -?n is still used with inanimate as well as with animate nouns, and is far more common than -?h?.[107] Some examples are ?ahr-?h? (?tryh?) 'countries' and dar-?h? (BBAyh?) 'doors', but also ?i?-?n (MNDOM?n) 'things'. The resulting late Middle Persian system looks as follows, as exemplified with the words mard 'man' and kf 'mountain':

singular default plural individual plural
mard-? (GBRA)


kf-? (kwp)

mard-?n (GBRA?n')

kf-?n (kwp?n)


(in some exceptional words -?n)

kf-?h? (kwpyh?)


(Manichaean -?h?n)

As long as case declension was still preserved, a possessor noun stood in the oblique case. In this older construction, it preceded the possessed noun. After the breakdown of the case system, what remained of this construction was a simple juxtaposition between a possessor noun and a possessed noun, and that was indeed preserved as one possible expression of possession: e.g. d?dag s?l?r (dwtk' srd?l) 'the head of a family', 'the family('s) head', ?hrmazd n?m (?whrmzd ?M) 'the name of Ahuramazda'.[108][109] However, there was also a more explicit option using the relative particle ?, which introduced a following possessor nominal phrase (also in the oblique case, as long as the distinction existed): e.g. s?l?r ? d?dag (srd?l Y dwtk'), n?m ? ?hrmazd (?M y ?whrmzd).[110] This is discussed in more detail in the section on the relative particle.

Definiteness

Indefiniteness may be expressed by the encliticisation of the word ?(w) (spelt '1' or HD) 'one' to a noun: mard-?w (GBRA-1) 'a (certain) man'.[111] This usage has been described by certain scholars as an 'indefinite article',[112] while others do not regard it as such, since its use is far less common than that of the English word a(n).[111]

Adjectives

Agreement

Originally, adjectives had the same inflectional categories as nouns and took the same endings. When used independently as nouns, they still have number inflection: weh-?n (?PYL?n) 'the good (people)'.[97] When they are used as attributive modifers of nouns, however, agreement is optional and, while it remains common in Manichaean Middle Persian, it is increasingly rare in Book Pahlavi, where, e.g. both ab?r?g?n gy?g?n (?pryk?n gyw?k?n ) 'other places' and ab?r?g d?w?n (?pryk' ?DYA?n) 'other demons' have been attested. When the modifying adjective is introduced by the relative particle ?, as well as in predicative position, it never takes the plural suffix: e.g. mard?n ? weh (GBRA?n Y ?PYL) 'good men'.[113][114] Some sources also assert that the original singular oblique case ending -? (-y) is seen in attributive preposed adjectives in some examples: e.g. -? asar karb az asar? rn?h fr?z br?h?n?d (ME? ?sl klp MN ?sly lw?nyh pr?c blyhynyt) 'for he created the eternal form from eternal light'.[115]

Comparison

Comparison of adjectives (as well as adverbs) is regularly expressed with the comparative degree suffix -tar (spelt -tl) and the superlative degree suffix -tom (spelt -twm),[114][116] or possibly -tum;[117] in Manichaean, they also have the allomorphs -dar and -dom after voiced consonants. For example, ab?zag (?p?yck') 'pure' is compared ab?zag-tar 'purer' - ab?zag-tom 'purest'.[116]

There are also some irregular or relict forms reflecting more ancient suffixes (comparative -y or -?y or resulting fronting of the preceding vowel, superlative -ist) and/or suppletion:[116][118][114]

positive comparative superlative meaning
xb/x?b (xwp) weh (?PYL),

Manichaean also wahy or wah?y

(sp. why)

pahlom (p?hlwm),

pom/pa?om (p(?)?wm);

cf. wahi?t (wh?t')

'paradise'

'good'
wazurg/wuzurg (LBA, wc(w)lg) meh (ms),

mahistar (mhstl);

Manichaean also mahy or mah?y (sp. mhy)

mahist (msst') 'big'
kdag/kdak (kwtk') keh

(ks)

kahist (ksst') 'small'
was (KBD) w (wy?),

fr?y (pl?y),

freh (plyh)

fr?yist (pl?yst'),

frahist (plh(y)st')

'much', 'a lot', 'many'
kam (km) kem (kym) kamist (kmyst') 'a little', 'few'
gar?n (gl?n') gr?y

(gl?y)

gr?yist (gl?yst') 'heavy, serious'
nazd (nzd) ------- nazdist (nzdst') 'near', in superlative also 'first'
dag (dw?k') ------- Manichaean:

dist (dw?yst)

'beloved'

In some cases, only a 'superlative' form exists without corresponding positive and comparative forms: b?list (b?lyst') 'supreme, highermost', nidom (nytwm) 'lowermost', b?dom (bytwm) outermost, fradom (AWLA) 'first', abdom (?p?dwm) 'last'.[119]

The object of comparison for an adjective in the comparative degree is introduced by the preposition az (hc) 'from', the subordinating conjunction k? (AYK) 'where, that'[118] or, more rarely, ?iyn (cygwn') 'as':[120] y az/k?/?iyn t zmandtar (OLE MN/AYK/cygwn' LK ?wc?mndtl) 'he is stronger than you.' The object of comparison for an adjective in the superlative degree is introduced by the preposition az (hc) or simply by a possessive construction: y (az) mard?n zmandtom (sp. OLE (MN) GBRA?n ?wc?mndtwm) 'he is the strongest of the men'.[121]

Placement

When adjectives modify a noun without the help of any linking particle, they usually precede them,[122] but may occasionally follow them, too.[123][114] A far more common possibility than either is for the adjective to be introduced by the relative particle ?, on which see the relevant section. Thus, e.g. 'a/the big house' can be expressed as wazurg m?n (LBA m?n'), m?n wazurg (m?n' LBA) or m?n ? wazurg (m?n' Y LBA).

Pronouns

Personal pronouns

The personal pronouns have a stressed form and an enclitic form. They are as follows:[124][125][100]

singular plural
stressed enclitic stressed enclitic
1st person direct case oblique

case


-(i)m (sp. -m)


am?(h) (sp. LNE)

-(i)m?n (sp. -m?n')

Inscriptional Pahlavi: -(i)n (sp. -n')

az / an (sp. ANE) man (sp. L, LY)
2nd person          t (sp. LK) -(i)t (sp. -t) a?m?(h) (sp. LKWM) -(i)t?n (sp. -t?n')
3rd person y (sp. OLE) -(i)? (sp. -?) direct case oblique

case

-(i)n (sp. -n')
y (sp. OLE) awn (sp. OLEn')
Manichaean: aw?n (sp.?wyn)

The enclitic allomorphs with initial /i/ (-im, etc.) are used after consonants. The vowel /u/ or /o/ can also appear instead of /i/, albeit rarely (-um, -om).[100] The spelling variant LY of man is used before the particle -iz (c) 'too': man-iz is spelt LYc.

Case forms and syntactic function

Of the personal pronouns proper, only the first stressed form has an attested case distinction, but the use of the direct case is already archaic in Book Pahlavi, where the form man (L) is generalised. The pronunciation of the direct case form is controversial - Manichaean has only an (?n), whereas the form az has been said to be due to influence from Parthian and its existence has been questioned.[126] In addition, the third person pronoun is originally a demonstrative pronoun and is declined like a noun, so originally the form with the plural suffix -?n - and, presumably, the Manichaean one in -?n - appeared only in the oblique case; however, again, the oblique was generalised in Manichaean and Book Pahlavi. Apart from that, the stressed forms can have all the same syntactic functions as a noun: subject (man w?n?m, sp. L HZYTWNym, 'I see'), object (man w?n?d, sp. L HZYTWNyt', 'he sees me'), complement of a preposition ( man, sp. OL L, 'to me'), and a modifier expressing a possessor. As with nouns, the last option is possible in two ways. The first one, which is significantly rarer, is for the pronoun to be placed before another noun. Much more frequently, it is postposed and linked to the head noun with the relative particle ?. Thus, 'my house' can be expressed as man m?n (L m?n'), but more commonly as m?n ? man (m?n' Y L).[124]

In contrast, the enclitic forms can only have oblique functions: i.e., they cannot correspond to the (non-ergative) subject of the sentence,[110] although a few such cases have been attested in late texts, possibly due to New Persian influence.[127] They can, however, express:

1. an indirect object, e.g. u-? guft Ohrmazd ... (AP? gwpt'/YMRRWNt' ?whrmzd), 'and Ohrmazd told him... ';[128]

2. a possessor, e.g. ka-t ?a?m zr?h ft?d (AMTt AYNE OL zlyh ?wptyt') 'when your eye (i.e. glance) falls on the sea';[129] u-m m?d Spandarmad (APm AM spndrmt') 'and my mother is Spenta Armaiti'[129]

3. the complement of a preposition, e.g. -? andar (ME? BYN) 'which is in it '[130]

4. the agent in an ergative construction, e.g. xwamn ?-m d?d (hwmn' ZYm HZYTWN) 'the dream which I saw',[131]

5. a direct object in a non-ergative construction, e.g. u-? zan! (AP? YKTLWN) 'and kill it!'[130]

Placement of the enclitic pronouns

The enclitic form is usually attached to a word in the beginning of the clause, typically to the first one,[132] and that is often a conjunction or a particle: specifically it occurs frequently after the conjunctions ud 'and' (which appears before these enclitics as the allomorph u- and is spelt AP), ka (AMT) 'when', k? (AYK) 'that, so that', (ME) 'because', after the relative particle ? (then spelt ZY-), the relative pronoun k? (MNW) 'who, which'[133] and the particle ?- (?) 'then'.[134] Two enclitics can occur after each other, in which case the 1st person enclitic comes first, and in the absence of such, the enclitic denoting the agent has priority:[135] e.g. ?n own-im-i? wahi?t nim?d ZK ?wgwnm? wh?t' nmwt' 'in that manner he showed me paradise.'[136]

When the pronoun is logically the complement of a preposition, it is usually nevertheless not attached to it.[135] Still, such examples do occur occasionally[137] and tend then to be written phonetically instead of the usual spelling of the preposition with an Aramaeogram, e.g. az-i? 'from her', spelt hc? rather than MN? as usually, and -m?n 'to us', spelt ?wm?n' instead of OLm?n.[138] More commonly, however, the enclitic is attached to the first word of the clause, so that the preposition that governs it ends up being placed after it,[110] as in the already adduced example -? andar 'which is in it'. The exception are the prepositions pad (PWN) 'at', (OL) 'to' and az (MN) 'from', which do accept the 3rd person enclitic -(i)?, using it both with a singular and with a plural reference, and then appears as the allomorph aw before -i?: padi? (pt?), awi? (?wb?), azi? (hc?).[139] However, if the logical complement is of a non-3rd person, the appropriate enclitic (-(i)m, etc.) is attached to the first word in the clause rather than the preposition, and it is 'resumed' on the preposition itself by the 3rd person enclitic: e.g. u-m awi? (APm ?wbm 'on me'). A relative pronoun can be 'resumed' like this, too: k? ... padi? 'on ... which', and even a noun can, sometimes: Zardu?t ... padi? 'for... Zarathustra'.[140][141]

Reflexive pronouns

There are two reflexive pronouns - a nominal one xwad (BNP?E) 'oneself' and an adjectival one xw (NP?E) 'one's own' (earlier xw?ba?, hence Manichaean xw(b)?.[142][141]

Demonstrative pronouns

The demonstrative pronouns can be used with singular and plural referents, with the exception of y. They are the following:

1. ?n (ZNE) 'this', used deictically as well as preparatively, with a meaning 'the following';

2. (h)?n (ZK, Manichaean h?n) 'that', with a plural ?nn found only in Manichaean, used anaphorically and in a determinative function to indicate a noun followed by a relative clause;

3. y (OLE) 'that' with a plural awn (OLEn'), also used as a 3rd person pronoun;

Some rarer ones are:

4. ?d (HNA) 'this', used deictically, but rare;

5. im (LZNE) 'this' with a plural imn and im?n used in Manichaean, occurring in Book Pahlavi mostly in set phrases such as im cim r?y (LZNE cym l?d) 'for this reason', im rz (LZNE YWM) 'today').[143][144][145]

Some other demonstrative pronouns are ham (hm) 'the same' and and (?nd) 'so much'.[144] Demonstrative adverbs are ?dn (?ytwn'), wn (?wgwn') and h (KN), all three of which mean 'so, thus'; ?dar 'here' (LTME); awar 'hither' (LPNME), which is also used as an imperative 'come here!' and has a plural form awar?d (LPNMEyt'),[146] ?r?n (?wlwn') 'hither'; ?nh (TME) 'there'; n?n (KON) 'now'; ?g (ADYN) 'then, thereupon'; ?- (?) 'then' (normally used with a following enclitic pronoun); h?d (HWEt') 'now, then'; pas (AHL) 'afterwards'; p LOYN' 'before that, earlier'.[147]

Interrogative pronouns

The interrogative pronouns can normally also be used as relative pronouns and introduce dependent clauses, and as well as indefinite pronouns. The main ones are k? (MNW) 'who', (ME) 'what', 'what kind of', 'which', kad?m (kt?m) 'what kind of, which', kad?r (kt?l) 'which' and ?and (cnd) 'how much/many'. The first two and the last one are also used as relative pronouns, i.e. they introduce dependent clauses and mean 'which'. In that use, they can't be preceded by prepositions, so they are instead resumed in the dependent clause by the 3rd person singular enclitic or a demonstrative pronoun: 'from which' can be expressed by k? ... azi? and 'with which' can be k?' ... ab?g.[148] Interrogative adverbs are ?iyn? (cygwn) 'how', k (AYK) 'where' and kay? (AYMT) 'when'.[149] The first two can also introduce dependent clauses as relative pronominal adverbs, meaning 'as' and 'that', respectively. The relative adverb corresponding to kay? (AYMT) is, however, ka (AYT) 'when'.[150][151]

Indefinite pronouns

The specialised indefinite pronouns are:[152]

1. or h (?yc) 'any' (attributive).

2. kas (AY?) 'anybody'. It is also used as a noun: 'a person'.

3. tis (a southwestern form) or ?is (a northwestern form) (sp. MNDOM) 'something'. It is also used as a noun: 'a thing'.

As already mentioned, the interrogative word ?and (cnd) can also be used as an indefinite one: 'any number/amount', whereas ?(w)-?and (?y(w)cnd) is unambiguously indefinite: 'some (number/amount), a few'. An indefinite adverb is hagriz (hklc) 'ever'. The indefinite meaning can be reinforced by the particle -iz, sp. -(y)c, meaning 'too'. Thus kas-iz 'whoever', etc. The form of in this case is extended to g?m-iz 'whatever'.[153]

Together with a negative particle n? 'not' occurring in the same clause, the indefinite pronouns also function as negative ones: 'not ... anybody' > 'nobody' etc.: e.g. kas n? baw?d (AY? LA YHWWNyt') 'there will be nobody.'[152]

Alternative pronouns

Pronouns are an?y (AHRN) 'other' and ab?r?g (?plyk') 'other, further'; a corresponding pronominal adverb is eny? (?yny?) 'otherwise'.[154]

Universal pronouns

There are many pronouns with universal meaning, including har(w) (KRA, hl, Manichaean hrw) 'every' (pl. harw?n) ; ham (hm) 'altogether, all, whole', ham?g (hm?k') 'whole, entire, all', h?m?y?n (h?mwdyn') 'all, the whole', wisp (wsp) 'all, each, every', harwisp hlwsp? (pl. harwisp?n) or harwist 'all, each, every'.[155] A pronominal adverb with universal meaning is ham?(w) (Book Pahlavi hm?y, Manichaean hmyw) 'always'.[156]

The relative particle

Within a nominal phrase, many different kinds of modifiers following the head were introduced by so-called relative particle ? (spelt ZY- in Inscriptional and Psalter Pahlavi, but Y in Book Pahlavi except in front of pronominal enclitics; in Manichaean also ?g, sp. ?yg), which could be roughly translated as 'which'. This is the predecessor of the New Persian construction known as Ez?fe. It could introduce:[157][158]

1. adjectives: kuni?n ? n?k (kwn?n' Y nywk') 'good deed'

2. 'genitive' possessor noun or pronoun phrases: pus ? Ardaw?n (BRE Y ?ldw?n) 'son of Ardawan' 3. prepositional phrases: aw?n ? andar diz 'those in the fortress'

4. dependent clauses: ?n warz?gar ... ? pad ?n deh m?n?d (ZNE wlcykl ... Y PWN ZNE MTA KTLWNyt') 'that farmer that lives in this village'

Besides following the head, the modifier can be attached to a demonstrative pronoun, usually (h)?n (ZK) 'that', but also ?n (ZNE), ?y (OLE) and ?d (HNA), which precedes the head of the phrase:

?n ? ahlaw kas (ZK Y ?hlwb' AY?) 'the righteous person'

?n ?-? p?dixy?h? zan (ZK Y? ?LYTAyh? NY?E) 'the wife he is lawfully married to', lit. 'the wife he lawfully has'.[159][160]

Adverbs

Many adjectives can be used adverbially without any change: Ardaw?n saxt awi?t?ft 'Ardawan was in a great hurry' (?ldwn sht' ?w?t?p?t), lit. 'Ardawan was hurrying greatly'.[115][161] However, adverbs can also be formed from adjectives, as well as from nouns and phrases, by adding the suffix -?h? (-yh?): tuxg-?h? (twxkyh?) 'diligent-ly', d?d-?h? (d?tyh?) 'law-fully'.[147]

Like adjectives, adverbs can be compared; e.g. azabar (hcpl) 'above' - azabartar (hcpltl) 'farther above' - azabartom (hcpltwm) 'farthest above'.[122] Adverbs in -?h? can also be compared: kam-win?h-?h?-tar 'with less sin', lit. 'more little-sin-fully'.

Some common locational adverbs are azabar (hcpl) 'above' and az?r (hcdl or ?dl) 'below', andar?n (BYNlwn' / ?ndlwn') 'inside', b?r?n (bylwn') 'outside',[76] p?r?m?n (pyl?mwn') 'around' and parr?n (plwn' 'away, hence').[162] Many of these are formed as compounds with the noun r?n (lwn') 'direction' as a second element.

For pronominal adverbs, see the sections on the pronouns of the respective types. For directional adverbs commonly co-occurring with verbs, see the section of preverbs.

Verbal morphology

Synthetic forms survive only in the present tense, although it does continue to distinguish to a greater or lesser extent four different moods. The past and perfect tenses are expressed periphrastically, even though there might be a few relicts of a synthetic imperfect in early inscriptions, and there may be a single synthetic imperfect form in Manichaean Middle Persian (see the section on The preterite below).[163]

Stems

A Middle Persian verb has two stems - a present stem and a past stem, which coincides with the past participle.[164][165] Most other synthetic forms are based on the present stem, but the infinitive uses the past stem (as do a few derivational suffixes, see below). The past stem generally ends in -d or -t (after voiced and voiceless consonants, respectively). Sometimes this is the only difference between the stems - this is common for roots in -? (ku? - ku?t, sp. NKSWN-, 'to kill') and is also found e.g. in the verb xwardan (O?TENtn') 'to eat' (xwar- - xward). However, much more commonly, there are other differences and the exact relationship between the two stems is often unpredictable. For example:

Verb meaning and Aramaeogram Present stem Past stem
'to do' (OBYDWN-) kun- kard-
'to go away' (OZLWN-) ?aw- ?ud-
'to bear' (YBLWN-) bar- burd-

Some common patterns of alternation between the final consonants of the two stems are:[166][167]

Verb meaning and Aramaeogram Present stem Past stem
-z- -xt
'to run, flow' E.g. r?z- r?xt
-s-, -z-, -y-, -h- -?t, -st
'to want' (BOYHWN-) E.g. xw?h- xwast
-t-, -d-, -n-, -h- -st
'to bind' (ASLWN-)

'to sit' (YTYBWN-)

E.g. band-

nin-

bast

ni?ast

-w- -ft
'to speak' (YMRRWN-) E.g. g?w- guft

Other notable alternations are seen in ward- - wa?t 'to turn', d?r- - d??t (YHSNN-) 'to hold', nim?y- - nim?d 'to show', zan- - zad (MHYTWN-) 'to hit'.

Some verbs also derive the past stem merely by the addition of a suffix, which, however, does not consist solely of the consonant -t/d. Most commonly it is -?d (-yt'), but a number of verbs also take -?d (-?t') or -ist (-st'):

Verb meaning and Aramaeogram Present stem Past stem
'to work' warz- warz?d
'to stand' (YKOYMWN-) est- est?d
'to seem' (MDMEN-) sah- sahist


The past stem formations in -?d and -ist are typical of denominative verbs, passives in the suffix -?h- and causatives.[168]

Finally, a few stem pairs are clearly suppletive:[169]

Verb meaning and Aramaeogram Present stem Past stem
'to see' (HZYTWN-) w?n- d?d
'to come' (YATWN-) ?y- ?mad

Another form of suppletion is found in the verb meaning 'to be, exist', which has the stem h- (spelt HWE-) in the present tense, but in the preterite it uses the forms of the verb b?dan 'to become, to be', which has the present stem baw- (often contracted simply to b-) and the past stem b?d (spelt YHWWN-).[122]

Personal endings and present tense of the three moods

Overview

The present-tense forms of the four moods are formed by adding the following endings to the present stem:[170][171][172][173][174]

indicative imperative subjunctive optative
1st sing. -?m (sp. -ym)

(-am, sp. -m),

-om, sp. -wm))


-?n

2nd sing. -?h (sp. -yh,

-? (sp. -yd)

-?

(-?, sp. yd,

-ydy)


-?y

(-?(h))


- (sp. -y?)

3rd sing. -?d (sp. -yt')

(-ed, sp. -t')


-?d

-?h (sp. -yh),

-? (sp. -yd)

1st pl. -?m (sp. -ym)

(-am (sp. -m),

-om (sp. -wm))


-?m

2nd pl. -?d (sp. -yt') -?d (sp. -yt') -?d
3rd pl. -?nd (sp. -ynd)

(-and, sp. -nd)

-?nd -?nd h?

(sp. -ynd HNA)

For example, the verb raftan (SGYTWNtn') 'to go' will be conjugated as raw?m (SGYTWNym), raw? (SGYTWNyd), raw?d (SGYTWNyt'), etc. in the indicative, raw (SGYTWN), etc. in the imperative, raw?n (SGYTWN?n), raw?y (SGYTWN?y), raw?d (SGYTWN?t), etc. in the subjunctive, and so on.

The vowel of the endings

The endings containing alternative vowels to ? are not found in Manichaean Middle Persian, except for the 1st person plural -om, which has, conversely, been reported to be the only version there.[175][171] For the 1st person singular ending, most authors list -?m as the normal form, but some consider -am to have been the regular ending in non-Manichaean Middle Persian as opposed to the 1st person plural -?m.[174] Thus, sg. -am : pl.-?m in Pahlavi would correspond to sg. -?m : pl. -om in Manichaean. In general, the apparently random variation of the vowels has been interpreted either as relicts of the inflection of minority stem types or, conversely, as foreshadowings of the New Persian form of the endings.

Furthermore, a small number of verbs had alternative contracted forms for the 3rd singular present with no vowel in the ending at all: e.g. kund for expected kun?d of kardan. Verbs for which such forms are attested include da?tan (YHSNNtn') 'hold' - dad (dt'), raftan (SGYTWNtn') 'go' - rawd (lpd), burdan (YBLWNtn') 'carry' - bard (bld), tan (ctn') 'teach' - t (t'), hdan (hw?ytn') 'dry' - ht (hw?t') 'dries' and fragendan (plkndn') 'lay foundations' - fragend (plknd). In addition, the present stem of b?dan (YHWWNtn') 'become', baw-, is often shortened to b-: b-?d (byt').[176]

Although the 2nd singular imperative has no ending, a vowel -?-' appears in it before enclitics in Manichaean and Psalter Pahlavi, e.g. ahr?m-?-m! (?hr?m?m) 'raise me up!'[177]

Subjunctive and optative

The subjunctive forms for persons other than the third occur in Manichaean Middle Persian, but not in Book Pahlavi.[171] The subjunctive may express a wish (in the present tense) or a hypothetical or conditioned event (the latter mostly in the past tenses) The optative is another way to express a wish. However, the same meaning is expressed by combining the present indicative with separate optative particles: ?(w), sp.?y(w) in Book Pahlavi (e.g. ? d?r?d, sp. ?y YHSNNyt' 'let him possess it') and h?b in Manichaean (e.h. h?b d?r?d hyb d?ryd, the same)[178] The present indicative and the present subjunctive may also express future tense (the former is used especially for near future).[179]

Copula

The synthetic forms of the copula verb follow mostly the same pattern as other verbs, the present stem consisting of the consonant h- (sp. HWE-) alone: thus, 1st sg. ind. h?m (HWEym) or ham (HWEm), subj. h?n, etc. However, the 3rd person singular of the present indicative is ast (sp. AYT),[180] and this latter form is used mostly in the meaning 'to exist'; it is usually (but not always) omitted when the meaning is of pure predication, as in he is a man - ?y mard (OLE GBRA), in contrast to there is a man - mard ast (AYT GBRA). The 3rd plural h?nd is often omitted as well, and even a subjunctive h?d may be absent. Moreover, the existential 3rd person singular also has a special contracted negated form: instead of the regular *n? ast (LA AYT), it is n?st (LOYT')[181][182]

The optative proper is regular: h? (HWEyd). The imperative function, however, appears to be performed by an optative form of the verb b?dan (YHWWNtn'), 'to be, become': b contracted from baw, and in the plural imperative, the same verb is used: baw?d.[180]

Finally, the copula could also occur in enclitic form without the initial h-, although this isn't found very often in written texts: k?dak-am (sp. kwtkm) 'I am small'.[183]

Imperfect

In addition to these endings, P. O. Skjærvø (2009: 219) identifies relicts of the Old Persian imperfect in Inscriptional Pahlavi: the markers, which are added to the present stem, are -?n for the 1st singular, -? or -?d for the 3rd and -om for the 1st plural. However, in the synthetic passive formed with the suffixes -?h- or -?y-, no ending is added at all in the imperfect: gug?n?h-? 'was destroyed'. There is much uncertainty and debate about the exact interpretations of these and similar forms.[184][185]

Number agreement

When a plural subject is inanimate, the verb may remain in the singular instead of agreeing with it, unless individuality is specially emphasised.[186]

Periphrastic forms

Past tenses

All the past tenses use periphrastic constructions with the main verb in the past participle form; e.g. raft from the verb raftan (SGYTWN 'go'). The finite auxiliary verb is conjugated for the appropriate person and mood; the rules for person agreement in particular are described in the section on Ergativity in the past tenses. The constructions are as follows:[163][187]

The preterite

The preterite is formed by combining the past participle of the verb and the copula h- (HWE-) used as an auxiliary verb conjugated for the appropriate person and mood. The copula is, as usual, dropped in the third singular:

(az) raft h?m ((ANE) SGYTWNt' HWEym) 'I went', but:
(?y) raft ((OLE) SGYTWNt') 'he went'.

Since the verb h- has no corresponding past participle of the same root, it uses suppletively the past participle of b?dan:

(az) b?d h?m ((ANE) YHWWNt' / bwt' HWEym) 'I was', but:
(?y) b?d ((OLE) YHWWNt / bwt') 'he was'. This tense expresses an action in the past.

In addition, a synthetically (and suppletively) formed past tense of the copula appears to be found in Manichaean Middle Persian: 3rd person singular an?d 'was' and 3rd person plural an?nd 'were'. There is no obvious difference in function between this and the ordinary preterite.[188] This has been said to be a relict of the Old Persian imperfect tense, and it has been conjectured that a mysterious Armaeogram HWYTN- occurring in Inscriptional Pahlavi also designates the stem found in this form of the copula.[189]

The past preterite

The past preterite also uses the past participle, but it differs from the simple preterite in that the copula itself is in the preterite rather than the present here:

(az) raft b?d h?m ((ANE) SGYTWNt' YHWWNt' / bwt' HWEym) 'I had gone';

(?y) raft b?d ((OLE) SGYTWNt' YHWWNt' / bwt') '(he) had gone'.

Since Manichaean Middle Persian (and possibly Inscriptional Pahlavi) retains synthetic past (imperfect) forms of the copula, it is also able to use them as auxiliaries in the past preterite construction (which has then been called 'past imperfect', although it doesn't seem to have a different function from the other construction):[190]

(?y) raft an?d = '(he) had gone'.
(awn) raft an?nd = '(they) had gone'.

The past preterite expresses an action preceding another action in the past.

The perfect

The perfect also uses the past participle, but it differs from the preterite in that the auxiliary verb uses is not the copula, but ?st?dan (YKOYMWNtn') 'to stand' in the present tense. Thus:

(az) raft ?st?m ((ANE) SGYTWNt' YKOYMWNym) 'I have/am gone'
(?y) raft ?st?d ((OLE) SGYTWNt' YKOYMWNyt') '(he) has/is gone'.

This tense expresses a past action whose results are still observable in the present.[191]

The past perfect

The past perfect or pluperfect differs from the simple perfect in that the verb ?st?dan itself is in the preterite rather than the present here:

(az) raft ?st?d h?m ((ANE) SGYTWNt' YKOYMWN?t' HWEym) 'I had/was gone';
(?y) raft ?st?d ((OLE) SGYTWNt' YKOYMWNa?t') '(he) had/was gone'.

This tense expresses a past action whose results were still observable at some point in the past.

Past pluperfect

Some authors[192] identify yet another form, a past pluperfect:

(az) raft ?st?d b?d h?m ((ANE) SGYTWNt' YKOYMWN?t' YHWWNt' / bwt' HWEym) 'I had/was gone';
(?y) raft ?st?d b?d ((OLE) SGYTWNt' YKOYMWN?t' YHWWNt' / bwt') '(he) had/was gone'.
Omission of the auxiliary verb

The auxiliary b?dan is sometimes omitted not only in the 3rd person singular, but even in the plural: u-m?n ? pad?rag ?mad awn widerdag?n ruw?n (APm?n' OL ptyrk' YATWNt' OLEn' wtltk?n' lwb?n') 'and the souls of the departed came to meet us.'[193]

Ergativity in the past tenses

Like the English and Latin past participles, the Middle Persian past participle describes the logical subject of a verb when the verb is intransitive, but the logical object of the verb when the verb is transitive: e.g. raft (SGYTWNt) '(somebody who is) gone', but d?d (HZYTWNt') '(something that is) seen (by somebody)'. As a result, the construction with the copula (and with the auxiliary ?st?dan) has 'active' meaning when the verb is intransitive - t? raft h?, sp. (LK) SGYTWNt' HWEyd, lit. 'you are gone' - but 'passive' meaning when the verb is transitive - (t?) mard d?d, sp. (LK) GBRA HZYTWNt', lit. 'the man is seen (by you)'. In other words, the participant that normally would have been the object is treated as the subject here, and the participant that normally would have been the subject is treated as an oblique modifier. Since in these transitive verb constructions, the participant that is treated like the single argument of an intransitive verb is not the more subject-like one, but the more object-like one, the morphosyntactic alignment of these constructions is ergative. Since this alignment is confined to the past tenses, it is further described as split-ergative.[194][195]

The most obvious consequence of this that while the verb in a past tense agrees with the (logical) subject if it is intransitive (just as it would in the present tense), it agrees with the (logical) object if it is transitive:

t? mard?n d?d h?nd (LK GBRA?n HZYTWNt' HWEnd) = 'you saw the men', lit. 'by you the men were seen';

Cf. present tense: t? mard?n w?n? (LK GBRA?n HZYTWNyd) = 'you see the men';

Cf. also the past tense of an intransitive verb: t? raft h? (LK SGYTWNt' HWEyd) 'you went'

mard?n t? d?d h? (GBRA?n LK HZYTWNt' HWEyd) = 'The men saw you', lit. 'by the men you were seen';

Cf. present tense: mard?n t? w?n?nd (GBRA?n LK HZYTWNt' HWEnd) = 'the men see you';

Cf. also the past tense of an intransitive verb: mard?n raft h?nd (GBRA?n SGYTWNt' HWEnd) 'the men went'

Another consequence is seen in the case inflection of nominals, inasmuch as it is preserved. In contrast to the use of the cases in the present tense, the ergative construction means that it is the logical object that is in the direct case and the logical subject that is in the oblique case. Thus, originally we would have, e.g. az mard?n w?n?m 'I see the men' in the present, but man mard d?d h?nd in the past; mard man w?n?nd 'the men see me' in the present, but mard?n az d?d h?m 'the men saw me' in the past. Even after the last vestiges of case inflection in nouns and the stressed forms of the pronouns had been lost and so their forms in ergative and nominative constructions had become identical, the fact that the very frequent pronominal enclitics were restricted to the oblique case meant that their use still reflected the alignment difference between the tenses:

u-t mard d?d (APt GBRA HZYTWNt') = 'and you saw the man'

Cf. present tense: u-t mard w?n?d APt GBRA HZYTWNyt') = 'and the man sees you'

In contrast, *u-t raft h? 'and you went' is impossible, as is *u-t mard d?d h? 'and the man saw you'. That is because only the stressed form of the pronoun can function in the direct case.

Finally, it may be pointed out that the possibility of expressing the logical subject at all appears to have developed later in the perfect tenses with ?st?dan than in the preterites with b?dan. It is not yet found in Inscriptional and Psalter Pahlavi, nor in Manichaean Middle Persian, where these constructions are impersonal and passive. However, in Book Pahlavi, it is already found regularly, so that clauses like u-t mard d?d ?st? are fully possible.[196]

Present passive

The present tense proper of the verb b?dan, baw?m, is also combined with the past participle to express a kind of present passive: d?d baw?d (YHBWNt' YHWWNyt') 'it is, will have been given'. As in the ergative construction, the agent can occasionally be expressed with an oblique enclitic, e.g. ?-? kard baw?d 'then it is done by him' ( OBYDWNyt' YHWWNyt').[197][198][199]

Future periphrasis

Albeit rarely, the verb kamistan 'to want' combined with an infinitive may express future tense: du?p?dixy?h ? awn sar k?m?d b?dan (dw?SLYTAyh Y OLEn' LOY?E YCBENyt' YHWWNtn') 'their evil rule will end', lit. 'wants to end'.[200]

Aspectual verbal particles

There are two particles occurring before the verb which may modify its aspectual meaning (apparently in opposite ways), even though their use is not obligatory.

One of them appears in Pahlavi as be (BRA) and in Manichaean as ba (b?). Its earliest meaning seems to have been directional and specifically andative, i.e. 'away, out', and this is still said to be the case in Inscriptional and Psalter Pahlavi as well as in Manichaean,[201] but in Book Pahlavi it also seems to have other meanings, which are less clear and more controversial. It has been argued to express perfective aspect in the past or in the future.[202][203] For example, mard ? ?ahr ka-? kas pad pus?h be pad?r?d (GBRA y ?tr' AMT? AY? PWN BREyh BRA MKBLWNyt') 'if somebody adopts a man of the kingdom as his son'; buhr be xand?d (pwhl GHBHWNyt') 'buhr laughed'. It also occurs relatively frequently with imperatives in Book Pahlavi, but not in Manichaean Middle Persian.[203]

The other particle is ham? (hm?y), originally identical to the adverb meaning 'always'. It expresses imperfective and more specifically durative or iterative aspect: kan?zag pad sar ? h b?d ud ... ?ah?rp?y?n r?y ?b ham? d?d (knyck' PWN LOY?E y c?h YHWWNt' ... ch?lp?d?n r?d MYA hm?y YHBWNt') 'the girl was by the side of the well and was giving water to the animals'.[156] Some have viewed its aspectual use as a late phenomenon indicative of the transition to New Persian.[201]

Non-finite verb forms

Infinitive

The infinitive has two versions:[204][205]

1. a 'long' one that is derived from the past stem by adding -an: e.g. kardan (kartn' / OBYDWNtn')

2. a 'short' one that is identical to the past stem, and thus to the past participle: kard (kart' / OBYDWNt')

It can function syntactically as a (verbal) noun:[206] pad griftan ? Ardaxr (PWN OHDWNtn' Y ?rth?yr) 'in order to seize Ardaxr' (lit. 'for the seizing of Ardaxr'), hang?m ? xwari?n xwardan (hng?m y O?TEN?n' O?TENtn') 'the time to eat food' (lit. the time of food eating').[205]

Participles

The past participle, which coincides with the past stem. It has passive meaning when the verb is transitive, but active meaning when the verb is intransitive: kard (krt' or OBYDWNt') 'made' but ?xist (KDMWNt') 'risen'. It is most commonly used predicatively, but it can also be nominalised: duz?d (dwcyd) 'the stolen (goods)'.[207] If it is an attribute modifier instead, it is usually introduced by the relative particle: ?i? ? widard MNDOM Y wtlt' 'a thing that has passed away, vanished'.[208]

An extended form of the past participle is produced by the addition of the suffix -ag (-k) to the past stem. This form is used attributively more often than the previous one: duxt ? pad?riftag (BRTE Y MKBLWNtk') 'an adopted daughter' and is also frequently nominalised: nibi?tag (YKTYBWNtk') 'something written, a document' (cf. Latin scriptum, English writ).[201][207]

There is also a present active participle derived from the present stem with the ending in -?n (?n): e.g. griy?n (BKYWN?n), gld?n), 'crying'. It may occur as a gerund - zardux?t griy?n passox guft (zrtwx?t gld?n pshw' gwpt), 'Zarasthustra answered, weeping.' and is the usual verb form governed by the verb niwistan (nwystn) 'to begin', which, however, is mostly typical of Manichaean (albeit attested in Psalter Pahlavi).[209] These constructions are rare in Book Pahlavi.[207] Historically, the derivational deverbal suffix -endag / -andag (-ndk') as in s?zendag (swcndk' 'burning') contains the Proto-Indo-European present active participle suffix and it does retain such a meaning, so the adjective derived with has also been called a 'participle'.[210] So have deverbal adjectives formed with the productive suffix -?g (-?k') as in saz?g (sc?k) 'fitting', which also have very similar semantics (see the section on Word formation).[211] Both of these latter are mostly used attributively.[210]

The suffix -i?n (-?n) generally forms deverbal nouns of action from the present stem of the verb as in kuni?n (kwn?n') 'doing, deed, action' from kardan (OBYDWNyn' / krtn') 'to do'. However, such formations also function in predicative position as gerundives and have since been referred to as 'participles of necessity': u-? kuni?n 'And what is he to do?', lit. 'What is an (appropriate) action for him?'; mard?m?n ... mizd ? m?n?y b? n? hili?n (AN?WTA?n mzd Y mynwd BRE LA ?BKWN?n') 'people must not relinquish their reward in the spiritual world'.[210] Indeed, they have come to resemble adjectives in that they can be inflected for degree: zani?ntar (MHYTWN?ntl) 'more worthy of being hit/killed'.[212]

Voice

The periphrastic present passive construction with a past participle and b?dan in the present tense (d?d baw?d, 'is given') has already been mentioned in the section Present passive. The corresponding ergative preterite constructions and ergative perfect tense constructions with ?st?dan 'stand' are not really passive, since they do not contrast with an active form in the same tense and are the standard and only way of expressing these tenses.[213] Nevertheless, they can still be used without an overt agent, resulting in a passive meaning: pus ... ?zad (BRE YKTLWNt') 'the son ... was killed', mard?m ... xw?nd h?nd (AN?WTA ... KRYTWNt' HWEnd) 'the people ... were called'.[214]

Another periphrastic way of expressing the passive is by using a third person plural 'they' as an impersonal subject: kas pad w?m?r?h n? m?r?d b? pad zarm?n?h ay?b ?zan?nd (AY? PWN wym?ryh LA BRE YMYTWNyt' PWN zlm?nyh ?dwp YKTLWNynd) 'nobody will die of illness, but (only) from of old age or they will be killed (lit. or they kill them)'.[199]

However, there is also a synthetic passive form derived from the present stem with the suffix -?h- (-yh-), in older texts such as the Pahlavi Psalter also -?y- (sp. -yd-). The vowel might have been shortened in later Middle Persian pronunciation. The corresponding past stem may end in -ist or in -?d. Some examples are d?r?h?d (YHSNNyhyt') 'is held' (of dtan, present stem d?r-, 'to hold'), yaz?h?d (YDBHWNyhyt') 'was recited' (of ya?tan, present stem yaz-, 'to recite, celebrate').[215][216] If the base verb has the factitive/causative suffix -?n- (-yn-), it is removed before the addition of -?h-: raw?g?n?dan (lwb?kynytn') 'propagate' > raw?g?histan 'be propagated' (lwb?kyhystn')[217]

Possession

Middle Persian does not have a verb 'to have'. Instead, possession is expressed by stating the existence of the possessed object using the verb 'to be' and by treating the possessor as an oblique argument (inflecting it in the oblique case, if possible): man payg?l ast (L pyg?l AYT') 'To me, a cup exists' = 'I have a cup'; xw?stag ?-? ast (NKSYA Y? AYT') 'the property which he has', lit. 'which exists to him'.[109]

Preverbs

Certain adverbial particles are combined with verbs to express direction, while remaining separate words. The most important ones are the following:[218]

Preverb Meaning
abar (QDM) 'up', 'over', 'onto'
ul (LALA) 'up'
fr?d (plwt') 'down'
andar (BYN) 'in'
be (BRA) 'away', 'out'
fr?z (pr?c) 'forth'
ab?z (LAWHL) 'back', 'again'

Some of these (abar and andar) function as prepositions as well.

Prepositions

The most common simple prepositions are:[219]

Preposition Meaning
abar (QDM) 'on'
az?r (?cdl) 'under'
az (MN', hc) 'from'
? (OL) 'to'
andar (BYN) 'in'
pad (PWN) 'at, to, for'
tar (LCDr') 'over', 'through'
ab?g (LWTE) 'with'
?om? (ywm?y) 'with'
be (BRE), Manichaean ba (b?) 'without', 'besides'
t? (OD), Manichaean d? (d?) 'until'

The special postposed forms of pad, ? and az with a resumptive pronoun -(i)? - padi? (pt?), awi? (?wb?), azi? (hc?) - have already been mentioned in the section on pronouns.

Certain adverbs and nouns can be used as prepositions, in which case they usually (but not always) use the relative particle or the preposition az to introduce the noun: thus the adverb p (LOYN') can be extended as p ? 'in front of', p az 'before'. In turn, the adverb may be preceded by a preposition: ? p ?. A noun does not necessarily require a preceding preposition: may?n ? (mdy?n Y) '(in) the middle of'. In this way, many prepositional meanings are expressed: 'before' (p ?, sp. LOYN' Y), 'after' (pas ? AHL), 'around' (p?r?m?n ?, sp. pyl?mwn' Y), 'beside' (kan?rag ?, sp. kn?lk' Y), 'near, close to' (nazd?k ?, sp. nzdyk' Y), 'beside, around' (pad sar ?, sp. PWN LOY?E Y), 'except, apart from' ?ud az (sp. ywdt' MN'), etc.[219][146] Instead of being introduced by ?, the compement nominal phrase may also be placed before the noun, so it becomes possible to speak of an 'ambiposition': az / ? ... r?n (MN / OL ... lwn') 'from / in the direction of' (from r?n 'direction'); a similar structure is seen in b? ... eny? (BRA ... ?yny?) 'except', where eny? 'otherwise' may also be omitted.[220]

While prepositions can remain stranded after their complements because of some syntactic processes mentioned above, there is also a regular postposition: r?y (l?d), meaning 'for (the sake of)', 'because of', 'about', 'to'. The postpositional phrase can also be preceded by a preposition: az ... r?y 'because of', pad ... r?y 'concerning, in order to'.[219][221] In some other combinations that have been identified as 'ambipositions', the first element can also be dropped, causing the second one to occur as a postposition: such is the case in (az) ... hammis(t) ('together with') and (b?) ... t? 'except'.[220]

Conjunctions

The most common coordinating conjunctions are:[222][100]

Conjunction Meaning
ud (W);

u- (AP-) in front of pronominal enclitics

'and'
ay?b (Pahlavi ?dwp, Manichaean ?y?b) 'or'
Pahlavi be (BRE), Manichaean ba (b?) 'but'
Manichaean only: an?y[100] or an?[223] (?n?y) 'but'

The word ?- (?) 'then' may be described as a demonstrative adverb, but it, too, operates as a sentence connector or introducing particle much like u-, albeit less frequently: an important function of both seems to be to 'support' a pronominal enclitic, and ?- generally occurs with one, e.g. ?-? d?d ( HZYTWNt') 'then he saw'.[224]

The common subordinating conjunctions are:[225]

Conjunction Meaning
agar (HT) 'if'
(ME) 'because'
?iy?n (cygwn') 1. 'as, like'

2. 'because'

3. 'as soon as'

ka (AMT) 'when', 'if', 'although'
k? (AYK) 1. 'that'

2. 'so that'

3. 'than'

t? (OD) 1. 'until'

2. 'so that'

The conjunction ud may be reinforced with the particle ham (hm): ham abar ahlaw?n ud ham abar druwand?n (hm QDM ?hlwb?n W hm QDM dlwnd?n) 'both for the righteous and for the unrighteous'.

Particles

The particles are:[226]

1. n? (LA) 'not', a negative particle; e.g. mard?m ham n? d?w (AN?WTA HWEm LA ?DYA) 'I am human, not a demon.' As already mentioned, it merges with the verb form ast (AYT) 'exists, there is' in the contraction n?st' (LOYT') 'doesn't exist, there isn't'.

2. ma or m? (AL) 'do not', a prohibitative particle preceding verbs in the imperative and the conjunctive: ?n xw?stag ma stan! (ZK NKSYA AL YNSBWN) 'Do not take this thing!'

3. -(i)z (-(y)c) 'also, too, even'. The vowel-initial version is used after consonants. This particle is enclitic and appended to whatever is being emphasised: ?n-iz payd?g (ZNEc pyt?k') 'This, too, is clear.'

Word formation

Suffixes that form nouns

The most productive suffixes that form nouns are

Action noun suffixes

1. -i?n (-?n') is by far the most productive suffix that forms action nouns and nouns with related meanings from the present stems of verbs: men?dan (mynytn') 'to think' > meni?n (myn?n') 'thinking, thought', xwardan (O?TENtn') 'to eat' > xwari?n (O?TEN?n') 'food'. The verbal noun in -isn (-?n) also functions in predicative position as a gerundive, expressing that the action 'ought to be' performed: andar hamahl?n ... hu?a?m bawi?n (BYN hm?l?n ... hwc?m bw?n) 'among comrades ... one ought to be benevolent'.[227][228]

2. -ag (-k) forms nouns (action nouns, but often with various concrete meanings) from verbs (both stems) and numerals: widardan (wtltn') 'pass, cross' > widarag (wtlg) 'path, passage', tan (ctn') 'teach' > tag (ctk) 'teaching', haft (hp?t') 'seven' > haftag (hp?tk) 'week' This suffix is also thought to have had diminutive meaning and appears to have been added to already existing nouns with no change in meaning (m > mag 'glass') or with an unpredictable change (?a?m, sp. AYNE, 'an eye' > ?a?mag, sp. c?mk' 'a spring, well'). As such, it was a very productive and expanding suffix.[229] It is identical to an adjective-forming suffix, and that it was its original function; on that, see the next section.

Abstract noun suffixes

1. -?h (-yh) is by far the most productive suffix that forms abstract nouns from adjectives, nouns and rarely from verbs: t?r?g or t?r?k (t?ryk) 'dark' > t?r?g?h (t?rykyh) 'darkness'; d?st (dwst') 'friend' > d?st?h (dwstyh) 'friendship'; ast (AYT') 'exists' > ast?h (AYTyh) 'existence' It can be combined with the action noun suffix -i?n as -i?n?h (-?nyh): dr?-g?wi?n?h (KDBA YMRRWN?nyh / dlwb' YMRRWN?nyh) 'speaking lies':[227][228]

2. An unproductive suffix forming abstract nouns from adjectives is -?y (-?d), most commonly expressing size or degree along a certain dimension: pahn (p?hn) 'wide' > pahn?y (phn?d) 'width'.[145][230]

Agent noun suffixes

1. -?r (-?l) is a productive suffix that forms agent nouns from the past stems of verbs: d?dan (YHBWNtn') 'give, create' > d?d?r (d?t?l) 'creator'. There are some surprusing exceptions where the meaning is passive: griftan (OHDWNtn') 'seize' > grift?r (glpt?l) 'prisoner'.[231][232]

The likewise productive suffix -?g (-?k) has also been said to derive agent nouns from verbs, but they might be seen as adjectives as well and are treated in the section on adjectives.

2. -gar (-kl) and -g?r (-k?l), both occasionally appearing with an initial ?, productively derive nouns from nouns, expressing the meaning 'doer of something', as well as adjectives from nouns meaning 'doing something': warz (wlc) 'work, farming' > warz?gar (wlcykl) 'worker, farmer'; win?h (wn?s) 'sin' > win?hg?r 'sinner' (wn?skl), ziy?n (zyd?n') 'harm' > ziy?ng?r (zyd?nk?l) 'harmful'. When the base noun ends in the suffix -ag, both the final consonant of the stem and the initial consonant of the suffix appear as /k/: kirbag (krpk') 'good deed' > kirbakkar (krpkkl) 'doer of good deeds, beneficient'.[231][233]

3. -b?n (p?n') productively forms nouns meaning somebody in charge of what the base noun designates, a caretaker: st?r (stwl) 'horse' > st?rb?n (stwlp?n') 'groom'.[231][234]

4. -bed (pt') forms titles with a similar meaning to the above suffix, but with a nuance of power and possession rather than caretaking: sp?h (sp?h) 'army' > sp?hbed (sp?hpt') 'army commander'.[231][234]

5. -y?r (-d?l) is a rare suffix with a somewhat similar meaning to the previous one, as seen in ?ahr (?tr') > ?ahry?r (?tr'd?l).[235]

6. -(a)g?n (-k?n') is a rare suffix that derives nouns from other nouns; the meaning is of a person or thing connected to what the base noun designates: w?z?r (w?c?l) 'market' > w?z?rag?n ( w?c?lk?n') 'merchant'[236]

Place nouns

1. -(e/i)st?n (st?n') is a productive suffix that forms place nouns: asp (SWSYA) 'horse' > aspest?n (?s?pst?n') 'horse stable',[237] hind?g (hndwk') 'Indian' > hind?st?n (hndwst?n') 'India'.[238] It is also included in the names of seasons.[234]

2. -d?n (-d?n') is a rare suffix forming place nouns: ast(ag) (?stk') 'bone' > ast?d?n (?stw(k)d?n') 'ossuary'

3. -?g?n (-yk?n') apparently forms collective and place nouns: m?h (BYRH) 'moon, month' > m?h?g?n 'month' (BYRHyk?n), h (MLKA) 'king' > h?g?n (?hyk?n') 'palace'.[239]

Diminutive suffix

The diminutive suffix is -?zag (-yck'). E.g. murw (mwlw) 'bird' > murw?zag (mwlwyck') 'birdie'.[240]

It has been conjectured that also the abovementioned suffix -ag (-k) had the same meaning, but it is difficult to find unambiguous attestations of this usage.[239] Adjectives have their own diminutive suffix, on which see below.

Feminine suffix

Feminine gender could be expressed in proper names by -ag: J?am > J?amag. It could also be expressed by the Avestan suffixes -?n?y / -?n?y: ahlaw 'righteous' > ahlaw?n?y 'righteous woman'.[44]

Suffixes that form adjectives

Adjectives derived from nominals

1. -?g (-yk'), sometimes possibly -?k: derives adjectives from nouns, often with a meaning 'belonging to' and 'originating from', but also 'having': ?b (MYA) 'water' > ?b?g (?p?yk') 'aquatic'; P?rs (p?ls) 'Fars' > p?rs?g (p?lsyk') 'Persian'; z?r (z?wl) 'power' > z?r?g (z?wlyk') 'powerful'; nazd (nzd) 'vicinity' > nazd?k (nzdyk') 'close, near';[241]

2. When the adjective is derived from a geographical name, the suffix -?g is often preceded by -?y- (-?d-): hr?m (hlwm) 'Rome' > hr?m?y?g (hlwm?dyk') 'Roman'; As?rest?n 'Assyria' > as?r?y?g 'Assyrian'. That suffix -?y also occurs alone in the noun hr?m?y, 'a Roman'.

3. -?mand, -mand (-?wmnd, -mnd): derives adjectives meaning 'having something', 'full of something': ?z (?wc) 'strength' > ?z?mand (?wc ?wmnd) 'strong'; xwarrah (GDE) 'fortune, glory' > xwarrah?mand (GDE ?wmnd) 'fortunate, glorious', y (?wd) 'husband > ymand (?wdmnd) 'having a husband';[242]

4. -(?)wand or -(?)wend, spelt -(?wnd) (in Manichaean also -?wynd) is a rare, originally older version of the previous suffix[243] and derives adjectives from nouns, often with the same meaning as -?mand, but sometimes expressing a more general connection as in xw (NP?E) 'own' > xw?wand (hwywnd) 'relative'.[229]

5. -gen or -g?n, spelt -k(y)n', is a rare suffix similar in function to -?mand.[244][245]

6. -war (-wl) and -w?r (-w?l) derive adjectives from nouns, expressing some kind of connection to what the noun designates, and these adjectives may in turn be converted into nouns. E.g. k?n (kyn) 'revenge' > k?nwar (kynwl) 'vengeful', asp (?W?YA) 'horse' > asw?r (PL?YA, ?spw?l, aswb?l) 'equestrian > horseman'.[240][237]

According to some descriptions, -w?r (-w?l) also derives adverbs from adjectives and nouns: sazagw?r (sckw?l) 'fittingly', xwad?yw?r (hwt?dw?l) 'in a lordly manner'.[246]

7. -?n (-yn') is a productive suffix that derives adjectives expressing the material something is made of: zarr (ZHBA) 'gold' > zarr?n (ZHBA-yn') 'golden'

8. -ag (-k'): besides forming nouns, this suffix also derives adjectives from nouns and the past stem of verbs: ti?n (ty?n') 'thirst' > ti?nag (ty?nk') 'thirsty'. Sometimes it is also productively added to an existing adjective with no apparent change of meaning: wad, sp. SLYA > wadag, sp. wtk' 'bad, evil'[229]

9. -?g (-wk') is a rare suffix which, like the previous one, is added to existing adjectives without a noticeable change in meaning, although they may also be converted into nouns.[236]

10. -?n (-?n') forms possessive adjectives of names and, in particular, patronymics: ay?dg?r ? Zar?r?n (?byd?t Y zryr?n) 'memoir of Zar?r'; Ardaxr (?rth?yr) > Ardaxr?n (?rth?yr?n) 'son of Ardaxr';[243] not to be confused with the present participle suffix;

11. The suffix -ag?n (-k?n') form patronymics as well: P?bag (p?pk') > P?bag?n (p?pk?n') 'son of P?bag/P?pak';[243]

13. As already mentioned, -g?nag derives adjectives from numerals with the meaning '-fold'.

14. The suffix -ak (-k') formed diminutive adjectives: and (?nd) 'so much' > andak (?ndk') 'a little'.[247]

Suffixes that derive adjectives from verbs

1. -?g (-?k') is a productive suffix that derives adjectives from the present stems of verbs to describe the performer of the action of the verb; these adjectives are often used as nouns and have been described as agent nouns as well. For example, d?nistan (YDOYTWNstn') 'to know' > d?n?g (d?n?k') 'a knowing one, a wise man'.[211][248]

2. -(a/e)ndag (-ndk', -yndk') is an unproductive suffix that has the same meaning as the above: z?(wi)stan zywstn' 'to live' > z?ndag zywndk' 'alive, living'.[211]

3. As already mentioned, there is also a present active participle ending in -?n (-?n'), with the same meaning as the above two. The boundary between participles and derived adjectives isn't clear.

Suffixes that form verbs

1. The suffix -?n- (-yn-) and less commonly -?n-, whose past stem always ends in -?d yt), has the following functions:[249][250][251]

- It transforms nominal parts of speech into verbs with factitive meaning: p?r?z (pylwc) 'victorous' > p?r?z?n?dan (pylwcynytn') 'to make victorious';

- It makes verbs, to whose present stem it is added, into transitive verbs with causative meaning: tars?dan (tlsytn') 'to be afraid' > tars?n?dan (tlsynytn') 'to scare'

Apart from that, factitive verbs could be formed simply by creating a new past stem in -?dan: n?m (?M) 'name' > n?m?dan 'to name'. More commonly, phrasal verbs were used instead as in n?m kardan.[252] On the other hand, there still survived some intransitive-transitive verb pairs with quality and quantity differences in the root, where the transitive one usually has the vowel ?: intr. nibastan (?KBHWNstn'), nibay- 'to lie down' - tr. nib?stan (np?stn'), nib?y- 'to lay down'; intr. ni?astan, nin- 'to sit (down) - tr. nistan, nin- 'to seat' (both spelt with the Armaeogram YTYBWNstn', but distinguished in the phonetic spellings n?stn' - nstn').[253]

2. There is also a suffix that forms intransitive verbs from transitive ones. Specifically, it derives present verb stems from transitive past stems in -ft and -xt, but apparently leaves the two verbs identical in the past stem. In Manichaean, the suffix is -s and removes the preceding dental of the past stem: buxtan (present stem b?z-) 'save' > present stem buxs- 'be saved'. In Pahlavi, the suffix is -t-; in other words, the new present stem coincides with the past one: b?xtan, sp. bwhtn', (present stem b?z-) 'save' > present stem b?xt- 'be saved'[254]

Prefixes

Nominal prefixes

1. a(n)-, sp. ?(n)-, expresses negation or absence of something. Simple negation is found in examples like purn?y (pwln?d) 'adult' > aburn?y (?pwln?d) 'non-adult', d?st?h (dwstyh) 'friendship, amity' > ad?st?h (?dwstyh) 'enmity', ?r (?yl) 'Iranian, Zoroastrian' > an?r (?nyl), 'non-Iranian', 'non-Zoroastrian'.[255][256]

However, when added to most nouns, the prefix a(n)- converts them into adjectives or nouns meaning 'lacking something': kan?rag (kn?lk') 'border' > akan?rag (?kn?lk') 'borderless'[257][258] It can also produce adjectives when added to present verb stems, indicating non-performance of the action: d?nistan (YDOYTWNstn') 'to know' > ad?n (?d?n') 'ignorant'.

2. ab?-, sp. ?p?y is added to nouns to form adjectives expressing the lack of something, which also one of the functions of the previous suffix. Hence, they can even occur with the same stems and more or less the same meanings: b?m 'fear' > ab?b?m (?p?ypym) as well as simply ab?m (?p?ym) 'fearless'.[257][256]

3. ham- (hm-) expresses togetherness and sameness. It, too converts nouns into adjectives or nouns meaning 'having / belonging to the same X': e.g. k?r (k?l) 'deed, labour' > hamk?r (hmk?l) 'collaborator'.

4. ?ud- (ywdt-) has partly the opposite meaning to ham-, transforming nouns into adjectives or nouns meaning 'having / belonging to a different/opposite X', e.g. k?mag (k?mk') 'desire' > ?udk?mag (ywdt' k?mk') 'disagreeing', lit. 'having a different desire'. However, it can also have the meaning 'keeping X away', as in d?w (?DYA 'demon') > ?ud-d?w (ywdt?DYA) 'keeping the demons away', 'anti-demonic'.[259] Finally, it has a meaning akin to ab?- in cases like ?ud-?b (ywdt'MYA) 'waterless'.[260] It is also an independent word meaning 'separate', 'different',[261] so it can be viewed as the first member of a compound as well.

5. hu- (hw-) can derive nouns from other nouns to expess the meaning 'good X', e.g. p?dixy (?LYTA) 'king' > hup?dixy (hwp?thd) 'good king'. Far more commonly, however, it forms adjectives and nouns meaning 'having good X': e.g. b?y (bwd) 'smell' > hub?y (hwbwd) 'fragrant'; sraw (slwb') 'word' > husraw (hwslwb') 'having good fame'.[257][258][255]

6. du?- / dus / du?- (sp. dw?-, dw(s)-), with the second allomorph occurring before /s/ and the third one before voiced stops, has the opposite meaning to the previous prefix: it forms adjectives and nouns meaning 'having bad X', or rarely, simply 'bad X'. For example, du?p?dixy (dw?p?thd) 'bad king', dusraw (dwslwb') 'infamous', d?n (dyn') > du?d?n (Pahlavi dw?dyn', Manichaean dwjdyn) 'infidel'[257]

7. Finally, a few adjectives begin in pad- (PWN-) and meaning 'having' or 'associated with': e.g. parrag (plk') 'wing' > pad-parrag (PWN plk') 'having wings'; dr? (KDBA, dlwb') 'a lie' > pad-dr? (PWN dlwb) 'lying'.[262]

Verbal prefixes

Some adverbial particles can co-occur with verbs, but remain separate words; on these, see the section Preverbs. Earlier Indo-European verbal prefixes have coalesced with the following roots and their original meaning is hardly ever discernible, even though they are very frequent. Thus, we have the following elements:[263][264]

1. ?- expressing approaching something: burdan (YBLWMtn') 'carry' > ?wurdan (YHYTYWNtn') 'bring', ?madan (YATWNtn') and madan (mtn'), both meaning 'to come'.

2. ab(e)/ap- expressing movement away from something: : burdan (YBLWMtn') 'carry' > appurdan (YHNCLWNtn') 'steal'

2. fra- expressing movement forward: franaftan (plnptn') 'go (forth), proceed, depart'.

3. gu- expressing togetherness: gum?xtan (gwmyhtn') '(co-)mix'.

4. ham- and han- (the latter variant before non-labial consonants), also expressing togetherness or connection, 'with'. This prefix still occurs with the same form in nouns, but in verbs its meaning is seldom obvious: bastan (ASLWNtn') 'bind, tie' > hambastan (hnbstn') 'bind together, encircle, compose', but also hambastan (hnbstn') 'collapse', hanftan (hnc?ptn') 'complete, conclude'.

5. ni- expressing movement downwards: ni?astan (YTYBWNstn') 'sit (down)', nibastan (?KBHWNstn'), 'lie (down)', nibi?tan (YKTYBWNstn') 'write (down)'

6. ?- expressing bringing an action to completion: zadan (MHYTWNtn') 'hit' > ?zadan (YKTLWNtn') 'kill'

7. par- expressing movement 'around': bastan (ASLWNtn') 'bind, tie' > parwastan (plwatn') 'surround, enclose'; pargandan (plkndn') 'scatter, disperse'.

8. pay- expressing direction towards something: bastan (ASLWNtn') 'bind, tie' > paywastan (ptwstn') 'join, connect'

9. us-, uz- expressing direction upwards or outwards: uz?dan (?wcytn') 'go out, end, expend', uzm?dan (?zmwtn') 'try out, experiment'

10. wi- expressing movement away or apart from something: r?xtan (lyhtn') 'flow' > wir?xtan (OLYKWNtn') 'escape, run away'.

Compounds

Compounding is very productive. The following types are common:[265][246][266]

1. bahuvrihi or possessive compound, a compound adjective or noun of the structure Modifier + Noun, designating the possessor of what the second member designates:

  • wad-baxt (wt' b?xt'), lit. 'bad' (SLYA) + 'fortune' = 'who has ill fortune', i.e. 'unfortunate';
p?d-uzw?n (p?t?wzw?n'), lit. 'protected' (NTLWNt') + 'tongue' (?NA) = 'who has protected tongue', i.e. 'reticent';
?ah?r-p?y (ch?lp?d), lit. 'four' (ALBA) + 'leg' (LGLE), 'which has four legs', i.e. 'quadruped, animal'.

The modifier is usually an adjective or another part of speech that typically modifies nouns.

2. A determinative compound noun of the structure Modifier + Noun, designating a subset of the class that the second member designates:

k?r-n?mag (k?l n?mk'), lit. 'deed' + 'book', a 'book of deeds', i.e. a biography. The modifier is usually a noun, less commonly an adjective as in weh-d?n (?PYLdyn'), lit. 'good' + 'religion' = 'Zoroastrianism'.

3. A determinative compound adjective or noun of the structure Modifier + Deverbal Noun or Participle:

an?g-kerd?r (?n?k' klt?l), lit. 'evil' + 'doer' = 'evildoer';
?hrmazd-d?d (?whrmzd d?t), lit. 'Ahuramazda' + 'given' (YHBWNt') = 'given, created by Ahuramazda'.

4. A determinative compound adjective or noun of the structure Modifier + Present Verb Stem. The meaning is of an agent noun:

axtar (?htl) 'star', ?m?rdan (?m?ldn') 'calculate' > axtar-(?)m?r, lit. 'star' + 'calculate' = 'astrologer'

An uncommon type is the copulative (dvandva) type that combines two stems on equal terms - some possible examples are:

r?z-?ab?n (lwc ?p?n), lit. 'day' (YWM) + 'night' (LYLYA) + -?n = 'a 24-hour period'; and
u?tar-g?w-palang (w?tlg?wp?plng), lit. 'camel' (GMRA) + 'ox' (TWRA) + 'leopard' (p?ng).

Numerals

The numeral system is decimal. The numerals usually don't inflect, but may take the plural ending when preceding the noun they modify, e.g. Manichaean s?n?n anag?n 'the three immortals'.[267] The numerals are usually spelt in Pahlavi as digits, but there are also Aramaeograms for the cardinals from 1 to 10.[75][268]

Cardinal numerals

The cardinal ones from one to ten are:[269][268]

number pronunciation Aramaeogram
1 ?k, early ?wak?

?(w)

yak (Manichaean yk)

none for ?k; 'phonetic' ?dwk'

HD for ?(w)

2 d? TLYN
3 s? TLTA
4 ?ah?r ALBA
5 pan? (Manichaean panz) HWM?A, HWM?YA
6 ?a? ?TA
7 haft ?BA
8 ha?t TWMNYA
9 n? T?A, T?YA
10 dah ASLA, ASLYA

The teens are mostly formed by combining the relevant number of units and the word dah 'ten', but there are some voicings, epentheses of /z/, elisions and unpredictable alternations at the morpheme boundaries.

number pronunciation
11 y?zdah
12 dw?zdah
13 s?zdah
14 ?ah?rdah
15 panzdah, p?nzdah
16 ?azdah
17 hafdah
18 ha?dah
19 n?zdah

The tens often bear some resemblance to the correspondent units and sometimes end in -?d or -ad, but often aren't synchronically analysable:

number pronunciation
10 dah
20 w?st
30 s?h
40 ?ihl or ?ihil
50 pan?ah
60 ?ast
70 haft?d
80 a?t?d
90 nawad
100 sad

The hundreds combine the relevant unit and the word sad 'hundred' (e.g. ha?t sad for 800), except for 200, which is duw?st. One thousand is haz?r, and multiples of it are formed again on the pattern ha?t haz?r and so on, but there is also a special numeral for 10 000, b?war (spelt bywl). Compound numerals may be formed with or without the conjunction ud 'and': ?ihl ud ?ah?r or ?ihl ?ah?r.[270]

Fractions simply conjoin the cardinal numerals of the denominator and the numerator: s?-?k (? ...) 'one third (of ...)', and may also take the 'indefinite article' -?w. Another notable derivation is the one in -g?nag meaning '-fold', e.g. s?g?nag (3-k?nk) 'triple'.[259]

Cardinal numerals may precede or follow the noun; the noun is usually in the singular, but may be in the plural, too.[267]

Ordinal numerals

Ordinal numerals are formed regularly by adding the ending -om (sp. -wm) to the corresponding cardinal numeral: e.g. haft-om (7-wm) 'seven-th'. After vowels, a semivowel is inserted before -om: -y- after the front vowels e and i, and -w- after the back vowel o: thus, 3rd can be s?-y-om, 30th is s?-y-om, 2nd is d?-w-om.

While this regular pattern can be applied even to the first three numerals, they also have more common irregular variants: fradom (pltwm) 'first', dud?gar or did?gar (dtykl) 'second', sid?gar (stykl) 'third'. The final ar may be absent in Manichaean texts: dud?g (dwdyg) and sid?g (sdyg). Furthermore, 'first' may also occur as naxust (nhwst') and nazdist (nzdst') and 'second' may also occur as did (TWB, dt'), which also means 'another',[267] and didom.[271] 'Fourth' can also be tasom (tswm).

Like the cardinal numbers, the ordinal ones can occur before or after the noun, and in the latter case, they may be linked to it by the relative particle ?.[267]

Syntax

The usual word order is subject - object - verb, although there are deviations from it.[272] As already mentioned, genitive and adjective modifiers usually precede their heads if unmarked as such, but adjectives can also be placed after their heads, and a modifier introduced by the relative particle ? is placed after its head, unless appended to a demonstrative pronoun modifying the phrase head (pronoun + ? + modifier + head). The language uses prepositions, but they may end up as postpositions if their logical complements are enclitic pronouns or relative pronouns. The enclitic pronouns are normally appended to the first word of the clause. Yes/no questions are only distinguished from statements by means of intonation.[149] Wh-questions do not need to be introduced by the interrogative word either: war ... k? kard ?st?d? (wl ... AYK krt' YKOYMWNyt') 'Where has the shelter been made?'[273]

Certain verbs are used impersonally: the logical subject is absent or oblique, and the action is expressed by an infinitive or a dependent clause with a verb in the subjunctive. Thus the present tense of ab?yistan 'be necessary, fitting' is used as follows: ab?y?d raftan (?pdt' SGYTWNtn' ), 'it is necessary to go'. Other verbs used like this, obligatorily or optionally, are sahistan (MDMENstn') 'seem', saz- (sc) 'be proper' (present tense only), yistan (dstn') 'be possible', k?mistan (YCBENstn') 'want' (constructed like 'be desirable to s.o.') and wurr?yistan (HYMNN-stn') 'believe' (constructed like 'seem credible to s.o.'). So are some nouns such as tuw?n 'might, power': tuw?n raftan (twb?n' SGYTWNtn') 'one can go'.[274]

There are many phrasal verbs consisting of a nominal part of speech and a relatively abstract verb, most commonly kardan (OBYDWNtn' / krtn') 'do', sometimes also d?dan (YHBWNtn') 'to give', burdan (YBLWNtn') 'to bear', zadan (MHYTWNtn') 'to hit', etc. Some examples are duz kardan (dwc krtn') 'to steal', lit. 'to do a theft', fram?n d?dan (plm?n' YHBWNtn'), 'to command', lit. 'to give a command', ?g?h kardan (?k?s krtn') 'inform', lit. 'make informed'.[275]

The plural number was used in reference to kings, both in the first person (by the kings themselves), in the second person (when addressing a king) and in the third person (when referring to kings, e.g. awn bay?n, sp. OLEn' ORHYA?n, 'Their Majesty', originally only the oblique case form). An action performed by a superior was introduced by the dummy verb fram?dan 'order' governing an infinitive of the main verb: fram?y? xwardan! (prm?dyd O?TEN?n) 'deign eat!'.[276]

Lexis

In contrast to the numerous Arameograms in Pahlavi spelling, there aren't many actual borrowings from Aramaic in Middle Persian; indeed, the number of borrowings in the language in general is remarkably small.[277] An exception is the Middle Persian Psalter, which is a relatively literal translation of the Peshitta and does contain a sizable number of theology-related loans from Syriac: e.g. purk?n? 'redemption'.[278]

Pahlavi often has more forms borrowed from Parthian than Manichaean does: e.g. Pahlavi zamest?n (zmst?n') vs Manichaean damest?n (dmst?n) 'winter'. Naturally, theological terms borrowed from Avestan occur in Zoroastrian Pahlavi, sometimes even in the original script, but often in 'Pahlavised' form or as loan translations:[246][279]

Avestan Pahlavi approximate translation
aawwan (cf. Old Persian art?van) ahlaw, sp. ?hlwb'

(but ard?, sp. ?lt?y as an epithet)

'righteous'
da?n? d?n, sp. dyn' 'religion'
frauuai- frawahr, sp. plw?hl

fraward, sp. plwlt'

'fravashi; immortal soul/guardian angel'
gaiia- g?t?y / g?t?g, sp. gytyd, late gytyk, Manichaean gytyg;

but note: g?h?n, sp. gyh?n' 'world (of mortals)'

'material'
g g?h (g?s) 'Gatha, hymn'
mainiiu- m?n?y / m?n?g, sp. mynwd, late mynwk,

Manichaean mynwg

'spirit', 'spiritual'


Samples

A sample of Inscriptional Middle Persian: Kartir's inscription (Kartir KZ 1) on the Ka'ba-ye Zartosht

Transliteration Transcription Translation[280]
W ANE kltyl ZY mgwpt yzd'n shpwhry MLKA'n MLKA hwpls?y W hwk'mky HWYTNn. ud az Kird?r ? mowbed, yazd?n ud buhr h?n h huparist?y ud huk?mag an?n. And I, Kartir, the Magus priest, have been of good service and benevolent to the Gods and to Shapur, the King of Kings.
APm PWN ZK sp'sy ZYm PWN yz?n W Shpwhry MLKA'n MLKA krty HWYTNt u-m pad ?n sp?s ?-m pad yazd?n ud buhr h?n h kard an?d And for that service that I had done to the Gods and to Shapur, the King of Kings
ZKm OBYDWN ?hpwhry MLKA'n MLKA PWN kltk'n ZY yz?n ?n-im kun?d buhr h?n h pad kardag?n ? yazd?n, Shapur makes me, when it comes to the divine matters,
PWN BBA W ?try OL ?try gyw'k OL gyw'k h'm?try PWN mgwstn k'mk'ly W p'th?'y pad dar ud ?ahr ? ?ahr, gy?g ? gy?g h?m-?ahr pad m?west?n k?mg?r ud p?dixy. at court and in kingdom after kingdom, place after place, in the whole empire, powerful and authoritative over the Magian estate.
W PWN plm'n ZY ?hpwhry MLKA'n MLKA W pw?ty ZY yz?n W MLKA'n MLKA ud pad fram?n ? buhr h?n h ud pu?t ? yazd?n ud h?n h And by order of Shapur, King of Kings, and with the support of the Gods and the King of Kings
?try OL ?try gyw'k OL gyw'k KBYR krtk'n yz?n 'pz'dyhy W KBYR 'twry ZY wlh?n YTYBWNd ?ahr ? ?ahr, gy?g ? gy?g was kardag?n ? yazd?n abz?y?h ud was ?dur ? warhar?n nin?h/ni?in?nd in kingdom after kingdom, place after place, many services to the Gods were increased and many Wahr?m fires were instituted
W KBYR mgw GBRA 'wlw'hmy W ptyhwy YHWWNt ud was mo?-mard urw?hm ud pad?x b?d and many magi became joyful and prosperous
W KBD 'twr'n W mgwny p'th?tly HTYMWNd ud was ?dur?n ud mag?n p?dixr ?wend/?wh/?wi?t and many contracts for fires and magi were sealed.
W 'whrmzdy W yz?n LBA swty YHMTWN ud ?hrmazd ud yazd?n wuzurg s?d ras?d, And great benefit came to Ahura Mazda and the Gods,
'hlmny W ?DYA'n LBA mhyk'ly YHWWNt. ud ahr?man ud d?w?n wuzurg mihk?r b?d. and there was great damage to Ahriman and the demons.

A sample of Manichaean Middle Persian: excerpt from the Sh?buhrag?n

Transliteration Transcription Translation[281]
?wrwr, ?sprhm, ?wd mrw, wd cyhr, ?wd gwng-gwng ?rwy ky?t ?wd rwst. urwar, isprahm, ud marw, ud *?zihr, ud g?nag-g?nag ar?y ki?t ud rust. plants, flowers and herbs and seedless plants (?) and various growing things were sown and grew.
?wn xwd z xwy? gryw ?ndr ?myxt. u-n xwad ?z xw gr?w andar ?mixt. And (the demon) Âz herself mixed her own self into them.
?wd h?n yk bhr ?y ?w dry?b ?wbyst, h?ny? mzn ?yw dw?cyhr ?pr ?wd shmyyn ?cy? bwd. ud ?n yak bahr ? ? dary?b ?bist, h?n-i? mazan ?w duihr appar ud sahm?n azi? b?d. And that one part that fell into the sea--an ugly, predatory, and horrifying monster arose from it...
ps myhryzd, ?c h?n pnz yzd ?y xwd ?pwr pas mihryazd, az h?n panz yazd ? xwad ?fur Then the god Mihr, from among those five gods of his own creation,
h?n yzd ?yw ?skyrb pryst?d h?n yazd ?w taskirb fr?st?d sent that four-shaped one,
ky ?wy mzn ?ndr ?brg p?dgws, ?c xwr?s?n d? ?w xwrnw?r, pd hm?g ?brg pr?r?st k? aw? (= ?y) mazan andar abarag p?dg?s, az xwar?s?n d? ? xwarniw?r, pad ham?g abarag fr?r?st who stretched out that monster in the northern region, from east to west, in the entire north,
p?y ?spwxt ?wd ?bgnd, ?w? ?br ?yst?d, kw ?ndr ?hr wyn ny qwn?d. p?y isp?xt ud abgand, ?-? abar ?st?d, ku andar ?ahr win?h n? kun?d. stamped his foot (on it), and hurled (it down), and stood on it, so that it could do no harm in the Realm (=world).
?wd ?wy yzd ?br hm?g zmyg ?wd ?sm?n h?mqy?wr, ?br ?brg ?wd xwr?s?n, ?yrg ?wd xwrpr?n ... ud aw? (= ?y) yazd abar ham?g zam?g ud ?sm?n h?mki?war, abar abarag ud xwar?s?n, ?rag ud xwarpar?n ... Over the entire earth, the sky, the universe, [over] north and east, south and west, that god ...
wysbyd qyrd kw ?hr p?y?d. wisbed kird ku ?ahr p?y?d. was made village-master so that that he should protect the Realm (world).

A sample of Psalter Pahlavi Middle Persian: Psalm 129

Transliteration Transcription Translation[282]
MNm (z)[pl](?)dy KLYTNt HWEW MRWHY yzdty ZY L?Y az-im zofr?y xwand, ay xwad?y yazd ? man. Out of the depths have I cried, o Lord, my God.
APmyt O?MENt w?ngy, l7 ?ywt nydwh?y?t gw?y w?ngy ZYm l8 swtyklyhy. u-m-it a?n?d w?ng, ?w-t niy?xd g w?ng ?-m s?dgar?h. And my voice (be) heard by you, may your ear hear the voice of my prayer.
HT syd? NTLWNydy MRWHY? MNW twb?n YKOYMWNt agar sy?(?) p?y?, xwad?y, k? tuw?n est?d? If you watch for sinners, Lord, who can stand?
M)E MN LK ?wlwny A(Y)TY hyl?n[y] pts tlsy az t? ?r?n ast hili?n padis?-? tars But from you there is pardon, for the sake of fear of Him.
pndy NTLWNt HYA ZY LY OL MRWHY; W pndy NTLWNt HYA ZY LY OL? MRYA pand p?d gy?n ? man ? xwad?y; ud pand p?d gy?n ? man ?-? saxwan. My soul attends to the advice of the Lord, and my soul attends to the advice of His word.
pndm NTLWNt ?L MRWHY MN p?sy ZY ?pk[y WOD O]L p?sy ZY ?pky. pand-am p?d ? xwad?y az p?s ? ?abag t? ? p?s ? ?abag. It attends to the advice of the Lord from one morning watch to another morning watch.
pndy N[TLW]Nt ?dyly ?L MRWHY ME? ?c?y ?wlwny HWEnd LHMYdy. AP?

KBYR ?YTY LWTE pwlkn?.

pand p?d ?l ? xwad?y -? azi? ?r?n h?nd abaxy?h. U-? was ast ab?g purk?n?, Israel shall attend to the advice of the Lord: for from him there is mercy for us. And with him there is great redemption.
W BNP?E bwc?t OL ?dyly MN? h?md(wy)n dlwby ud xwad b?z?d ? ?l azi? h?m?w?n dr?. And he himself shall save Israel from all of its Lies.

A sample of Book Pahlavi Middle Persian (historical narrative): Beginning of The Book of Ard? Wir?z

Transliteration Transcription Translation[283]
PWN ?M Y yzd'n pad n?m ? yazd?n In the name of the Gods:[284]
'ytwn' YMRRWNd AYK 'yw b'l 'hlwb' zltwh?t ... ?d?n g?w?nd k? ?w-b?r ahlaw zardu?t ... Thus they have said that once the righteous Zoroaster ...
dyn' Y MKBLWNt BYN gyh'n lwb'k BRA krt d?n ? pad?rift andar g?h?n raw?g be kard. propagated in the world the religion that he had received.
W OD bwndkyh 300 ?NT dyn' BYN 'p?yckyh W AN?WTA BYN 'pygwm'nyh YHWWNt HWHd ud t? bawandag?h [?] s? sad s?l d?n andar ab?zag?h ud mard?m andar ab?-gum?n?h b?d h?nd And within a period of 300 years (the) religion remained in purity and the people were without any doubt.
W AHL gcstk' gn'k mynwg dlwnd ... ud pas gizistag gann?g m?n?g [?] druwand ... And then, the accursed, foul and deceitful spirit ...
gwm'n' krtn' Y AN?WTA'n' PWN ZNE dyn' l'd gum?n kardan ? mard?m?n pad ?n d?n r?y, in order to cause people to doubt this religion,
ZK gcstk 'lkskdl Y hlwm'dyk Y mwcl'dyk m'n?n' wyd'p'nynyt ?n gizistag *alek/sandar ? *hr?m?y?g ? muzr?y?g-m?ni?n wiy?b?n?n?d led astray that Alexander the Roman, resident of Egypt,
Y PWN gl'n szd W nplt' W dhyyk OL 'yl'n?tr' YATWNt ... ? pad gar?n sezd ud *nibard ud *wig ? ?r?n-?ahr ?mad ... who came to Iran with grave tyranny and violence and distress ...
AP? OLE '?l'n dhywpt YKTLWNt W BBA W hw?yh w?wpt W 'pyl'n krt u-? ?y ?r?n dahibed ?zad ud dar ud xwad?y?h wi?uft ud aw?r?n kard. and murdered the ruler of Iran and ruined the court and the lordship and made them desolate.
W ZNE dyn' cygwn hm'k 'pst'k W znd QDM TWRA pwstyh' Y wyl'stk' PWN MYA Y ZHBA np?tk ud ?n d?n ?iy?n ham?g abest?g ud zand [?] abar g?w p?st?h? ? wir?stag pad ?b ? zarr nibi?tag and the (scriptures of the) religion, as all the Avesta and Zand, which were written on ox-hides decorated with water-of-gold (gold leaves)
BYN s?hl p'pk'n' PWN KLYTA np?t HNHTWNt YKOYMWN't' andar staxr [?] p?bag?n pad diz [?] *nibi?t nih?d ?st?d - and had been placed in Stakhr of Papak in the 'citadel of the writings' -
OLE pty?lk Y SLYA bht Y 'hlmwk Y dlwnd Y 'n'k kr?l 'lkskdl hlwm'dyk ?y pety?rag ? wad-baxt ? ahlom ? druwand ? an?g-kard?r *aleksandar [?] hr?m?y?g that evil, ill-fated, heretical, false, maleficent Alexander, the Roman,
mwcl'dyk m'n?n' QDM YHYTYWNt W BRA swht [?] muzr?y?g-m?ni?n abar ?wurd ud be s?xt. who was dwelling in Egypt, stole them and burned them up.

A sample of Book Pahlavi Middle Persian (legendary narrative): an excerpt from the Lesser Bundahi?n

Transliteration Transcription Translation[285]
s'm l'd YMRRWNyt AYK 'hw? YHWWNyt'. s?m r?y g?w?d k? ah b?d. Concerning Sam, it (the religious tradition) says that he was immortal.
PWN ZK AMT? tlmynyt' dyn' Y m'zdsn'n' pad ?n ka-? tar-men?d d?n ? m?zd?sn?n, At the time when he scorned the Mazdayasnian religion,
twlk-1 Y nwhyn' KLYTWNynd' AMT' HLMWNt' YKOYMWN't', PWN tgl BRA wn'syt TME PWN d?t' Y py?'nsyd turk-? ? n?h?n xw?n?nd, ka xuft ?st?d, pad tigr be win?h?d, ?n?h pad da?t ? pns?; a Turk whom they call Noh?n wounded him with an arrow, when he was asleep there, in the plain of Pns?;
AP? ZK y 'p'lwn' bw?'sp QDM Y<u>B</su>LWNt' YKOYMWN't. u-? ?n ? ab?r?n Bsp abar burd ?st?d. and it had brought upon him sinful Lethargy (Bsp).
mdy'n' Y dlmk' ?KBHWNt may?n ? darmag {*dramanag} nibast In the midst of the wormwood bush he lay
AP? wpl 'cpl n?st YKOYMWNyt' u-? wafr azabar ni?ast ?st?d, and snow has settled on him,
PWN ZK k'l AYK AMT' '<u>c</u>ydh'k hl<u>c</u>k' bwyt pad ?n k?r k? ka azdah?g harzag baw?d, so that when Azdah?g is freed,
OLE 'h(y)cyt' AP? YKTLWNyt' ?y ?x?z?d u-? ?zan?d he may arise and slay him;
AP? bywl plw'hl 'hlwb'n' p'nk' HWEynd. u-? b?war frawahr ? ahlaw?n p?nag h?nd. and a myriad guardian spirits of the righteous protect him.
dh'k MNW bywlspc KRYTWNd l'd YMRRWNyt' dah?g k? b?warasp-iz xw?n?nd r?y, g?w?d Of Dah?g, whom they also call B?war?sp, it says this:
AYK plytwn' AMT? OHDWNt' PWN kw?tn' LA ?'yst', k? fr?d?n ka-? dah?g be grift pad ku?tan n? yist, that when Fr?d?n captured him, it was not possible to kill him,
AP? AHL PWN kwp y dwmbwnd BRA bst' u-? pas pad k?f ? dumb?wand be bast. and he afterwards bound him to Mount Dumb?wand.
AMT' hlck' YHWWNyt' s'm 'hycyt' AP? gd znyt' W YKTLWYNyt' ka harzag baw?d s?m ax?z?d u-? gad zan?d ud ?zan?d. When he is freed, S?m will rise up and strike him with his mace and kill him.

Sample of Book Pahlavi Middle Persian (theological discourse): excerpt from the Lesser Bundahi?n 2

Transliteration Transcription Translation[286]
KRA 2 mynwd kn?lk?wmnd W ?kn?lk?wmnd. har d? m?n?g kan?rag?mand ud a-kan?rag?mand. Both spirits (Ohrmazd and Ahriman) are limited and unlimited.
byst ZK Y ?sl lw?nyh YMRRWNd W zwp?y ZK ?sl t?lyk b?list ?n ? a-sar-rn?h g?w?nd ud zof?y ?n a-sar-t?r?g. (For) the supreme is that which they call endless light, and the abyss that which is endlessly dark,
AYKn mdy?n twhyk W ?ydwk LWTE TWB LA ptwst YKWYMWNyt. k?-n may?n tuh?g ud ?k ab?g did n? paywast ?st?d. so that between them is a void, and one has not been connected with the other;
W TWB KRA 2 mynwd PWN NP?E tn' kn?lk?wmnd HWEd. ud did har d? m?n?g pad xw-tan kan?rag?mand h?nd. and, again, both spirits are limited as to their own bodies.
W TWB hlwsp ?k?syh (Y) whrmzd l?d ud did harwisp-?g?h?h (?) ohrmazd r?y, And, further, on account of the omniscience of Ohrmazd,
KRA 2 MNDOM BYN d?n?n Y whrmzd,

kn?lk?wmnd W ?kn?lk?wmnd

har d? ?i? andar d?ni?n ? ohrmazd, kan?rag?mand ud akan?rag?mand; both things are within the knowledge of Ohrmazd, finite and infinite;
MNW ZNE ZK Y BYN KRA 2?n mynwd ptm?n YDOYTWNnd ?n ? andar har d?w?n m?n?g paym?n d?n?nd. for that which is in the covenant of both spirits, they (both) know.
W TWB bwndk p?thdyh d?m Y ?whrmzd PWN tn' (Y) psyn YHWWNyt' ud did bowandag p?dixy?h ? d?m ? ohrmazd pad tan <?> pas?n baw?d, And, further, the perfect dominion of the creation of Ohrmazd shall be in the Ultimate Incarnation,
ZKyc AYT [Y] OD hm?k hm?k lwb?nyh ?kn?lk?wmnd ?n-iz ast t? ham?-ham?-rawi?n?h a-kan?rag?mand. and that also is unlimited for ever and everlasting.
W d?m Y ?hlmn PWN ZK zm?n BRA ?p?sy[n](h)yt, MNW tn' (Y) psyn YHWWNyt. ZKyc AYT ?kn?lkyh ud d?m ? ahreman pad ?n zam?n be abes?h?d, ka tan (?) pas?n baw?d. ?n-iz ast akan?rag?h. And the creation of Ahriman will be destroyed at the time when the Ultimate Incarnation occurs, and that also is eternity.

Poetry

A sample Middle Persian poem from manuscript of Jamasp Asana:

Original in Middle Persian:
D?rom andarz-? az d?n?g?n
 
Az guft-? pn?g?n
 
? ?m?h b? wiz?rom
 
Pad r?st?h andar g?h?n
 
Agar ?n az man pad?r?d
 
Bav?d s?d-? d? g?h?n
 
Near literal translation into Modern Persian:
D?ram andarz-i az d?n?y?n
? ?
Az gofte-ye pi?iniy?n
Be ?om? be-goz?ram
Be r?st? andar jah?n
? ?
agar ?n az man paz?rid
Bovad s?d-e d? jah?n
? ?
Translation into English:
I have a counsel from the wise,
 
from the advises of the ancients,
 
I will pass it upon you
 
By truth in the world
 
If you accept this counsel
 
It will be your benefits for this life and the next
 

Vocabulary

Affixes

There are a number of affixes in Middle Persian that did not survive into Modern Persian:[287][288][289]

Middle Persian English Other Indo-European Example(s)
A- Privative prefix, un-, non-, not- Greek a- (e.g. atom) a-sp?s 'ungrateful', a-bim 'fearless', a-r 'inevitable', a-d?d 'unjust'
An- Prevocalic privative prefix, un-, non- English -un, German ant- an-?r?n 'non-Iranian', an-ast 'non-existent'
-ik (-ig in Late Middle Persian) Having to do with, having the nature of, made of, caused by, similar to English -ic, Latin -icus, Greek -ikos, Slavic -?k?/-?c? P?rs?k 'Persian', ?s?rik 'Assyrian', Pahlavik 'Parthian', Hr?m?y?k/Hr?m?k 'Byzantine, Roman', T?z?k 'Arab'

Location suffixes

Middle Persian Other Indo-European Example(s)
-gerd Slavic grad Mithradatgerd "Mithridates City", Susangerd (City of Susan), Darabgerd "Darius City", Bahramjerd "Bahram City", Dastgerd, Virugerd, Borujerd
-v?l Ardabil "Holy City", Kabul and Zabol
-?p?t (later -?b?d) Ashk?b?d > Ashgabat "Land of Arsaces"
-st?n English stead 'town', Russian stan 'settlement', common root with Germanic stand Tapurstan, Sakastan

Comparison of Middle Persian and Modern Persian vocabulary

There are a number of phonological differences between Middle Persian and New Persian. The long vowels of Middle Persian did not survive in many present-day dialects. Also, initial consonant clusters were very common in Middle Persian (e.g. ? sp?s "thanks"). However, New Persian does not allow initial consonant clusters, whereas final consonant clusters are common (e.g. asb "horse").

Early Middle Persian English Early New Persian Notes Indo-European

derived/ borrowed words from Middle Persian

Ambar ('mbl, 'nbl) Amber, Ambergris - Arabic: ?anbar ?
Arjat Silver s?m () Latin: argentum (French: argent), Armenian: arsat, Old Irish: airget, PIE: h?er?n?t-, an n-stem
Ar? Silver coinage Arj () 'value/worth' Erzan () in Kurdish Same as Arg (?) 'price' in Ossetian
As?m ? Iron ?han () ?sin (?) in Kurdish German Eisen
Az From Az (), Ji (?) in Kurdish
Br?d,Br?dar Brother Bar?dar () Old Ch. Slavonic brat(r)u, Lithuanian brolis, Latin: fr?ter, Old Irish brathair, O. H. German bruoder, Kurdish bira
Duxtar Daughter Duxtar (?) Kurdish dot(mam), dotmam () paternal female cousin in Kurdish Gothic dauhtar, O. H. German tochter, Old Prussian duckti, Armenian dowstr, Lithuanian dukte
Dr?d ? Hello (lit. 'health') Dur?d (?)
?v?rak Evening Extinct in Modern Persian Survived as ?v?r () in Kurdish and Lurish
Frad?k Tomorrow Fard? (?) Fra- 'towards' Greek pro-, Lithuanian pra, etc.
Fradom First Extinct Preserved as pronin in Sangsari language First, primary, Latin: primus, Greek ?, Sanskrit prathama
H?m?n Summer Extinct H?m?n has survived in Balochi, and Central Kurdish.

Survived as H?v?n in Northern Kurdish.

M?tar ? Mother M?dar (?) Latin: m?ter, Old Church Slavonic mater, Lithuanian motina, Kurdish mak,ma
Murd ? Died Murd () Latin: morta, English murd-er, Old Russian mirtvu, Lithuanian mirtis, Kurdish mirin,mirdin
N? No Na ()
?h?y ? Yes ?r? ()
Pad To, at, in, on Ba ()
Pad-dr?t ? Goodbye Ba dur?d ( ?), later bedr?d ()
Pidar Father Pidar () Latin: pater (Italian padre), Old High German fater
R?z Day R?z () From rn 'light'. Kurdish r (), also preserved as r (?) in Balochi Armenian lois 'light', Latin: lux 'light', Spanish luz 'light'
?agr, r1 Lion r () From Old Persian *?agra-. Preserved as Tajiki ?er and Kurdish () r
S?l Year S?l () Armenian s?rd 'sun', German Sonne, Russian , Kurdish sal
r 1 Milk r () From Old Persian **xra-. Tajiki ?ir and Kurdish (r, ) from PIE: *sw?yd-
Sp?s ? Thanks Sip?s (?) Sp?s in kurdish PIE: *spe?-
St?rag , Star Star Sit?ra () St?r, St?rk in Northern Kurdish Latin: stella, Old English: steorra, Gothic: stairno, Old Norse: stjarna
T?best?n ? (adjective for) summer ? T?bist?n Kurdish: ?
Xw?h(ar) ? Sister Xw?har () Armenian: khoyr, Kurdish:xwah,xweng,xwi?k

1 Since many long vowels of Middle Persian did not survive, a number of homophones were created in New Persian. For example, ?ir and ?er, meaning "milk" and "lion", respectively, are now both pronounced ?ir. In this case, the correct pronunciation has been preserved in Kurdish and Tajiki.[290]

Middle Persian cognates in other languages

There is a number of Persian loanwords in English, many of which can be traced to Middle Persian. The lexicon of Classical Arabic also contains many borrowings from Middle Persian. In such borrowings Iranian consonants that sound foreign to Arabic, g, ?, p, and ?, have been replaced by q/k, j, ?, f/b, and s/z. The exact Arabic renderings of the suffixes -ik/-ig and -ak/-ag is often used to deduce the different periods of borrowing.[1] The following is a parallel word list of cognates:[291][292][293]

Middle Persian English Other Languages Possible Arabic Borrowing English
Srat[291] Street Latin strata 'street', Welsh srat 'plain'; from PIE root stere- 'to spread, extend, stretch out' (Avestan star-, Latin sternere, Old Church Slavonic stira) Sir?t (?) Path
Burg[291] Tower Germanic burg 'castle' or 'fort' Burj () Tower
T?k[294] Arch, vault, window Borrowed into Anatolian Turkish and Standard Azerbaijani in taq?a 'a little window, a niche' T?q () Arch
Nav-xud?[1] Master of a ship, captain From PIE root *nau-; cognates with Latin navigia N?xu () Captain
Nargis[1] Narcissus Narjis (?) Narcissus
G[1] Hearer, listener, ear Of the same root is Aramaic gak 'prognosticator, informer' (From Middle Persian gak with -ak as a suffix of nomen agentis) J?s?s ()[] Spy
A-sar;[293] A- (negation prefix) + sar (end, beginning) Infinite, endless A- prefix in Greek; Sanskrit siras, Hittite harsar 'head' Azal () Infinite
A-pad;[293] a- (prefix of negation) + pad (end) Infinity Abad () Infinity, forever
D?n[291] Religion From Avestan daena D?n () Religion
B?st?n[292] (b? 'aroma, scent' + -stan place-name element) Garden Bust?n () Garden
?ir?g[291][1][292] Lamp Sir?j (?) Lamp
T?g[292] Crown, tiara T?j () Crown
Parg?r[292] Compass Firj?r () Compass (drawing tool)
Rav?g[293] Current Raw?j (?)[] Popularity
Rav?k[293] (older form of rav?g; from the root rav (v. raftan) 'to go') Current Riw?q (?) Place of passage, corridor
Gund[292] Army, troop Jund () Army
?alw?r[292] Trousers Sirw?l () Trousers
R?st?k Village, district, province Ruzd?q () Village
Zar-par?n Saffron Za?far?n () Saffron
S?dag[1] Simple Sa?ij (?) Simple
Banaf?ag[1] Violet Banafsaj () Violet
Pahrist[1] List, register, index Fihris (?) List, index
Ta?t[294] Basin, washtub Ta?t () Basin, washtub
D?yak[294] Nurse, midwife Daya (?) Midwife
Xandak[1] Ditch, trench Xandaq (?) Ditch, trench

Comparison of Middle Persian and Modern Persian names

Middle Persian New Persian Old Persian English
An?hid N?hid An?hit? Anahita
Artaxr Arda?ir Artax?aça Artaxerxes
Mihr Mehr Miça Mithra
Rokhs?na Roks?ne Roxana
P?pak B?bak Pabag
?leksandar, Sukandar Eskandar Alexander
P?r?z, P?r P?ruz Feroze
Mihrd?t Mehrd?d Mi?rad?ta Mithridates
Bor?n Bor?n Bor?n
Husraw, Xusraw Khosrow Chosroes
Zaratu(x)?t Zartt Zoroaster
?hrmazd Hormizd A(h)uramazd? Ahura Mazda, astr. Jupiter

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Asatrian, Mushegh (2006). "Iranian Elements in Arabic: The State of Research". Iran & the Caucasus. 10 (1): 87-106. doi:10.1163/157338406777979386.
  2. ^ MacKenzie, D. N. (1986). A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary. OUP. p. 65.
  3. ^ Versteegh, K. (2001). "Linguistic Contacts between Arabic and Other Languages". Arabica. 48 (4): 470-508. doi:10.1163/157005801323163825.
  4. ^ Henning, Walter Bruno (1958), Mitteliranisch, Handbuch der Orientalistik I, IV, I, Leiden: Brill.
  5. ^ Gershevitch, Ilya (1983), "Bactrian Literature", in Yarshatar, Ehsan (ed.), The Seleucid, Parthian and Sassanian Periods, Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 3(2), Cambridge University Press, pp. 1250-1260, ISBN 0-521-24693-8.
  6. ^ a b Boyce, Mary (1983), "Parthian Writings and Literature", in Yarshatar, Ehsan (ed.), The Seleucid, Parthian and Sassanian Periods, Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 3(2), Cambridge University Press, pp. 1151-1165, ISBN 0-521-24693-8.
  7. ^ a b c Boyce, Mary (1968), Middle Persian Literature, Handbuch der Orientalistik 1, IV, 2, Leiden: Brill, pp. 31-66.
  8. ^ Cereti, Carlo (2009), "Pahlavi Literature", Encyclopedia Iranica, (online edition).
  9. ^ a b Dabir-Moghaddam, Mohammad (2018). "Typological Approaches and Dialects". In Sedighi, Anousha; Shabani-Jadidi, Pouneh (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Persian Linguistics. OUP. p. 80.
  10. ^ Karimi, Yadgar (2012). "The Evolution of Ergativity in the Iranian Languages". Acta Linguistica Asiatica. 2 (1): 23-44. doi:10.4312/ala.2.1.23-44. ISSN 2232-3317.
  11. ^ Noda, Keigou (1983). "Ergativity in Middle Persian". Gengo Kenkyu. 84: 105-125. doi:10.11435/gengo1939.1983.84_105.
  12. ^ Kümmel, Martin Joachim (2018). Areal developments in the history of Iranic: West vs. East (PDF). University of Jena. Talk given at Workshop 7, Discovering (micro-)areal patterns in Eurasia. p. 27.
  13. ^ a b "Linguist List - Description of Pehlevi". Detroit: Eastern Michigan University. 2007.
  14. ^ See also Omniglot.com's page on Middle Persian scripts
  15. ^ Sundermann, Werner. 1989. Mittelpersisch. P. 141. In Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum (ed. Rüdiger Schmitt).
  16. ^ Sundermann, Werner. 1989. Mittelpersisch. P. 138. In Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum (ed. Rüdiger Schmitt).
  17. ^ Sundermann, Werner. 1989. Mittelpersisch. P. 143. In Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum (ed. Rüdiger Schmitt).
  18. ^ Based on Maggi & Orsatti 2014: 20, Sundermann 1989: 144, & 1981: 19-20, 1966: 27, McKenzie 1986: xi-xvm Skjærvø 2009: 200, Skjærvø 2007: 7
  19. ^ & 1981: 19-20, McKenzie 1986: xi-xv, Skjærvø 2007: 7, Skjærvø 2009: 200
  20. ^ a b c d Sundermann 1989: 144
  21. ^ a b c d Skjærvø 2009: 200
  22. ^ & 1981: 29-29
  23. ^ Maggi & Orsatti 2014: 20
  24. ^ Based on Maggi & Orsatti 2014: 20, Sundermann 1989: 144, & 1981: 21, 1966: 27, McKenzie 1986: xv, Skjærvø 2009: 200, Skjærvø 2007: 7
  25. ^ & 1981: 21, 29-35, 1966: 28; also Sundermann (1989 :143) referring to its non-reflection in the script.
  26. ^ a b c Maggi & Orsatti 2018: 19
  27. ^ & 1981: 21, 29-35
  28. ^ a b & 1981: 45
  29. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 173
  30. ^ a b c d e MacKenzie 1986: xv
  31. ^ Sundermann 1989: 144-145
  32. ^ But note the absence of such a claim in Skjærvø (2009: 200-201).
  33. ^ Cf. & 1981: 21, 33-34, Sundermann 1989: 144, as against 1966: 28, Maggi & Orsatti 2018: 19, McKenzie 1986: xv
  34. ^ & 1981: 34, 40
  35. ^ 1966: 24
  36. ^ & 1981: 31
  37. ^ & 1981: 32
  38. ^ & 1981: 33
  39. ^ a b c d Skjærvø 2009: 201
  40. ^ & 1981: 34, 45
  41. ^ a b c d Sundermann 1989: 145
  42. ^ & 1981: 35
  43. ^ 1966: 26-28
  44. ^ a b c Skjærvø 2009: 204
  45. ^ & 1981: 49-50
  46. ^ & 1981: 33-34
  47. ^ a b Skjærvø 2007: 7
  48. ^ & 1981: 46
  49. ^ & 1981: 43-44
  50. ^ & 1981: 42
  51. ^ a b c Maggi & Orsatti 2018: 20
  52. ^ & 1981: 21
  53. ^ & 1981: 21, 35-36
  54. ^ 1966: 27
  55. ^ 1966: 29
  56. ^ a b Skjærvø 2009: 202
  57. ^ Cited in Skjærvø 2009:202; relevant entries in MacKenzie 1986
  58. ^ a b c d e f Sundermann 1989: 140-143
  59. ^ a b McKenzie 1986: xi
  60. ^ a b c d e f g Sundermann 1989: 155
  61. ^ Sundermann 1989: 141
  62. ^ a b & 1981: 18
  63. ^ a b Skjærvø 2009: 199
  64. ^ a b McKenzie 1986: x-xiv
  65. ^ a b c Sundermann 1989: 146-147
  66. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 10
  67. ^ a b Skjærvø 2007: 15
  68. ^ McKenzie 1986: x-xiv, also used in Skjærvø 2007
  69. ^ E.g. Durkin-Meisterernst, D. 2012. The Pahlavi Psalter arranged according to units of the text; glossary and index;; , ?.?. 2001. ?
  70. ^ a b Encyclopaedia Iranica: Manichaean script
  71. ^ Also found in 1966
  72. ^ Sundermann 1989: 147
  73. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 203-204
  74. ^ McKenzie 1986: 43
  75. ^ a b Skjærvø 2007: 97
  76. ^ a b Skjærvø 2007: 57
  77. ^ See relevant entries in McKenzie 1986.
  78. ^ McKenzie 1986: xi and relevant entries
  79. ^ Sundemann 1989: 149
  80. ^ McKenzie 1986: xiii
  81. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 44-45
  82. ^ Cf. the relevant entries in McKenzie 1986
  83. ^ a b c d Skjærvø 2009: 203
  84. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 55
  85. ^ & 1981: 33, 43
  86. ^ & 1981: 43
  87. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 54
  88. ^ a b & 1981: 16
  89. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 8
  90. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 8; examples from McKenzie 1981
  91. ^ a b c & 1981: 58-59
  92. ^ Prods Oktor Skjærvø, "IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS (3) Writing Systems," Encyclopaedia Iranica, XIII/4, pp. 366-370, available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/iran-vi3-writing-systems (accessed on 30 December 2012)
  93. ^ Sundermann 1989: 143
  94. ^ Maggi & Orsatti 2014: 20-21
  95. ^ Maggi & Orsatti 2014: 21-22
  96. ^ Sundermann 1989: 154-155
  97. ^ a b Skjærvø 2007: 139-140
  98. ^ See section on Pronouns
  99. ^ & 1981: 61
  100. ^ a b c d e Skjærvø 2009: 208
  101. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 140
  102. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 139
  103. ^ a b Maggi & Orsatti 2014: 22
  104. ^ & 1981: 61-62
  105. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 84
  106. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 205
  107. ^ & 1981: 61-62, 1966: 50-51
  108. ^ & 1981: 59
  109. ^ a b Skjærvø 2007: 18
  110. ^ a b c Skjærvø 2007: 33
  111. ^ a b Skjærvø 2007: 17
  112. ^ & 1981: 62
  113. ^ & 1981: 63-64
  114. ^ a b c d Sundermann 1989: 156
  115. ^ a b 1966: 52
  116. ^ a b c Skjærvø 2007: 85
  117. ^ & 1981: 64
  118. ^ a b & 1981: 64-65
  119. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 85, 86
  120. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 86
  121. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 86-87, & 1981: 64. Examples original.
  122. ^ a b c Skjærvø 2007: 26
  123. ^ & 1981: 65
  124. ^ a b & 1981: 81-82
  125. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 11, 33-34
  126. ^ Sundermann 1989: 157
  127. ^ Cf. 1966: 60
  128. ^ 1966: 57
  129. ^ a b 1966: 59
  130. ^ a b & 1981: 82
  131. ^ 1966: 60
  132. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 11, 34
  133. ^ 1966: 57-58
  134. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 34
  135. ^ a b Sundermann 1989: 131
  136. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 34
  137. ^ 1966: 58-59
  138. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 224-225
  139. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 143-144
  140. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 144-146
  141. ^ a b & 1981: 81-83
  142. ^ Sundermann 1989: 158
  143. ^ Sundermann 1989: 157-158
  144. ^ a b & 1981: 84-89
  145. ^ a b Skjærvø 2007: 119
  146. ^ a b Skjærvø 2007: 58
  147. ^ a b & 1981: 96-97
  148. ^ & 1981: 89-91
  149. ^ a b Skjærvø 2007: 141
  150. ^ Relevant entries in McKenzie 1981
  151. ^ & 1981: 95-97
  152. ^ a b & 1981: 95
  153. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 157
  154. ^ & 1981: 92-93, 96
  155. ^ & 1981: 92-93
  156. ^ a b & 1981: 120
  157. ^ Maggi & Orsatti 2014: 23
  158. ^ & 1981: 59-60
  159. ^ & 1981: 87-88
  160. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 27
  161. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 102
  162. ^ MacKenzie 1986: 65
  163. ^ a b Maggi & Orsatti 2014: 25
  164. ^ & 1981: 97-98
  165. ^ 1966: 78
  166. ^ & 1981: 107
  167. ^ 1966: 79
  168. ^ & 1981: 109
  169. ^ 1966: 80
  170. ^ Maggi & Orsatti 2014: 24
  171. ^ a b c Sundermann 1989: 149-150
  172. ^ & 1981: 109-112, 123-124
  173. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 216-219
  174. ^ a b Skjærvø 2007: 68-69
  175. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 218
  176. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 103, 2009: 217
  177. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 217
  178. ^ & 1981: 121-122
  179. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 68, 70, 2009: 229, 234
  180. ^ a b & 1981: 110
  181. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 226
  182. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 11, 26
  183. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 216-217
  184. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 229
  185. ^ Ferrer Losilla, Juan José. 2013. Las desinencias verbales en Iranio Medio Occidental, p. 66, 67, 318, 328, 370
  186. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 227
  187. ^ & 1981: 113-117
  188. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 229, 170
  189. ^ Skjærvø 1997: 164-165, 170
  190. ^ Skjærvø 1997: 165-167
  191. '^ There are, however, some cases of a formally identical construction with modal meaning: y n? guft ?st?d... (?wd LA YMRRWNt' YKOYMWNyt) 'the husband ought not to say', see & 1981: 116; unless the form in -t here is actually a short infinitive (see the section on the infinitive below).
  192. ^ & 1981: 117
  193. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 71, Skjærvø 2009: 227
  194. ^ Maggi & Orsatti 2014: 26
  195. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 158-162. Cf. Sundermann 1989: 152-153, & 1981: 111-113
  196. ^ Skjærvø 1997: 169
  197. ^ Sundermann 1989: 152
  198. ^ & 1981: 125-128
  199. ^ a b Skjærvø 1997: 104
  200. ^ Skjærvø 1997: 121
  201. ^ a b c Sundermann 1989: 154
  202. ^ Skjærvø 1997: 25
  203. ^ a b & 1981: 118-119
  204. ^ & 1981: 130-131
  205. ^ a b Skjærvø 1997: 120-122
  206. ^ 1966: 117
  207. ^ a b c & 1981: 129
  208. ^ 1966: 115
  209. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 245
  210. ^ a b c Skjærvø 2009: 215
  211. ^ a b c & 1981: 73
  212. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 206
  213. ^ Skjærvø 1997: 160
  214. ^ Skjærvø 1997: 104, 147
  215. ^ Sundemann 1989: 151
  216. ^ & 1981: 124
  217. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 221
  218. ^ & 1981: 132-134
  219. ^ a b c & 1981: 136-141
  220. ^ a b Skjærvø 2009: 210
  221. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 122
  222. ^ & 1981: 141-143
  223. ^ Durkin-Meisterernst, D. 2004. Dictionary of Manichaean Middle Persian and Parthian, p.208
  224. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 250
  225. ^ & 1981: 143-145
  226. ^ & 1981: 145-146
  227. ^ a b Skjærvø 2007: 65-66
  228. ^ a b & 1981: 66
  229. ^ a b c & 1981: 68-69
  230. ^ & 1981: 67-68
  231. ^ a b c d & 1981: 66, 72-73
  232. ^ See also Skjærvø 2007: 117-118
  233. ^ See also Skjærvø 2007: 118
  234. ^ a b c 1966: 34
  235. ^ & 1981: 72
  236. ^ a b & 1981: 70
  237. ^ a b Skjærvø 2007: 118
  238. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 261
  239. ^ a b & 1981: 69
  240. ^ a b & 1981: 74
  241. ^ See also Skjærvø 2007: 83
  242. ^ See also Skjærvø 2007: 100
  243. ^ a b c Skjærvø 2007: 100
  244. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 101
  245. ^ & 1981: 71
  246. ^ a b c Skjærvø 2009: 263
  247. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 262
  248. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 215, 244-245
  249. ^ Maggi & Orsatti 2014: 24-25
  250. ^ Sundermann 1989: 151
  251. ^ & 1981: 134
  252. ^ Sundermann 1989: 151-152
  253. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 220
  254. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 220-221
  255. ^ a b & 1981: 75
  256. ^ a b 1966: 35
  257. ^ a b c d Skjærvø 2007: 82
  258. ^ a b Skjærvø 2009: 260
  259. ^ a b Skjærvø 2007: 99
  260. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 94
  261. ^ MacKenzie 1986: 47
  262. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 94
  263. ^ 1966: 83-84. Some examples replaced.
  264. ^ & 1981: 102-106
  265. ^ & 1981: 76-77
  266. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 83-84
  267. ^ a b c d & 1981: 79
  268. ^ a b & 1981: 77-78
  269. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 97, 2009: 211
  270. ^ Skjærvø 2007: 98
  271. ^ MacKenzie 1986: 26
  272. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 246
  273. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 249
  274. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 241-242
  275. ^ & 1981: 135-136
  276. ^ Skjærvø 2009: 265
  277. ^ Sundermann 1989: 161
  278. ^ Sims-Williams, N. 2009. Christian Literature in the Middle Iranian Languages. In: Emmerick, Ronald E. and Maria Macuch (eds). The Literature of Pre-Islamic Iran: Companion Volume I.
  279. ^ MacKenzie 1986, relevant entries
  280. ^ Transliteration and transcription from A Geographical Handbook of Pahlavi Inscriptions of Fars Province by Farhad Solat, translation based on Sprengling, Martin, 1953, Third Century Iran, Sapor and Kartir, with modifications in both based on Jügel, Thomas Konkordanz der Kird?r-Inschriften Kapitel 1 (Stand April 2010)
  281. ^ Transliteration and transcription from Manichaean Reader (arr. by texts), M_7981_I = b_I Recto. Translation from Skjærvø, Introduction to Manicheism, Texts, p.31, with small modifications.]
  282. ^ Source: based on [ http://turfan.bbaw.de/bilder/texte/psaltermpsyrgrengversesglossarysept2012.pdf The Pahlavi Psalter arranged according to units of the text; glossary and index by D. Durkin-Meisterernst, 2012]
  283. ^ Transliteration from , ?.?. 2001. ?, p. 28. Transcription from TITUS, Ard? Vir?z N?mag. Translation based on 2001. Cf. also Cantera, Alberto. 2007. Studien zur Pahlavi-Übersetzung des Avesta, p. 116. See also a facsimile of a manuscript of the text at R. Mehri's Parsik/Pahlavi Web page (archived copy) at the Internet Archive
  284. ^ See Skjærvø (2007: 18, 19), (2001: 96) for the plural form
  285. ^ Transcription from TITUS edition. Translation based partly on Agostini, Domenico and Samuel Thrope, The Bundahi?n. The Zoroastrian Book of Creation, and partly on E. W. West, from Sacred Books of the East, volume 5, Oxford University Press, 1897. Transliteration based on The Bundahishn, 1908. ed. by Ervad Tahmuras Dinshaji Anklesaria, with modifications
  286. ^ There are a lot of differences between the manuscripts of this work and wide variation between the scholarly interpretations of the Pahlavi text. The transliteration is based on the so-called Indian recension of the Bundahi?n in the version published by F. Justi, 1868 Der Bundehesh. The transcription is based on the TITUS edition. The translation is based on E. W. West, from Sacred Books of the East, volume 5, Oxford University Press, 1897, with some modifications from newer translations.
  287. ^ Joneidi, F. (1966). Pahlavi Script and Language (Arsacid and Sassanid) ? ? ? ? (p. 54). Balkh ( ).
  288. ^ David Neil MacKenzie (1971). A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary. London: Oxford University Press.
  289. ^ Joneidi, F. (1972). The Story of Iran. First Book: Beginning of Time to Dormancy of Mount Damavand ( ? ? ? ).
  290. ^ Strazny, P. (2005). Encyclopedia of linguistics (p. 325). New York: Fitzroy Dearborn.
  291. ^ a b c d e Mackenzie, D. N. (2014). A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-61396-8.
  292. ^ a b c d e f g "ARABIC LANGUAGE ii. Iranian loanwords in Arabic". Encyclopædia Iranica. 15 December 1986. Retrieved 2015.
  293. ^ a b c d e Joneidi, F. (1965). Dictionary of Pahlavi Ideograms ( ) (p. 8). Balkh ( ).
  294. ^ a b c Tietze, A.; Lazard, G. (1967). "Persian Loanwords in Anatolian Turkish". Oriens. 20: 125-168. doi:10.1163/18778372-02001007.

Bibliography

  • MacKenzie, D. N. 1986. A concise Pahlavi dictionary. London: OUP
  • Maggi, Mauro and Paola Orsatti. 2018. From Old to New Persian. In: The Oxford Handbook of Persian Linguistics. P. 7-52
  • Nyberg, H. S. (1964): A Manual of Pahlavi I - Texts, Alphabets, Index, Paradigms, Notes and an Introduction, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
  • Skjærvø, Prods Oktor. 1997. On the Middle Persian Imperfect. In Syntaxe des Langues Indoiraniennes anciennes, ed. E. Pirart, AuOrSup 6 (Barcelona), 161-88.
  • Skjærvø, Prods Oktor. 2007. Introduction to Pahlavi. Cambridge, Mass.
  • Skjærvø, Prods Oktor. 2009. Middle West Iranian. In Gernot Windfuhr (ed.), The Iranian Languages, 196-278. London & New York: Routledge.
  • Sundermann, Werner. 1989. Mittelpersisch. In: Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. Herausgegeben von Rudiger Schmidt. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag. P. 138-165.
  • , ?. ?. 1966. ? ?. : ""
  • , ?. ?., ?. ?. . 1981. ? ?. In: , ?. 2. : "". P. 6-146

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