Metathesis (linguistics)
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Metathesis Linguistics

Metathesis (; from Greek , from ? "I put in a different order"; Latin: transpositio) is the transposition of sounds or syllables in a word or of words in a sentence. Most commonly, it refers to the interchange of two or more contiguous segments or syllables, known as adjacent metathesis[1] or local metathesis:[2]

  • foliage > **foilage (adjacent segments)
  • anemone > **anenome (adjacent syllables)
  • cavalry > **calvary (codas of adjacent syllables)

Metathesis may also involve interchanging non-contiguous sounds, known as nonadjacent metathesis, long-distance metathesis,[1] or hyperthesis,[3] as shown in these examples of metathesis sound change from Latin to Spanish:

Many languages have words that show this phenomenon, and some even use it as a regular part of their grammar, such as Hebrew and Fur. The process of metathesis has altered the shape of many familiar words in English as well.

The original form before metathesis may be deduced from older forms of words in the language's lexicon or, if no forms are preserved, from phonological reconstruction. In some cases it is not possible to settle with certainty on the original version.

Rhetorical metathesis

Dionysius of Halicarnassus was a historian and scholar in rhetoric living in 1st century BC Greece. He analysed classical texts and applied several revisions to make them sound more eloquent. One of the methods he used was re-writing documents on a mainly grammatical level: changing word and sentence orders would make texts more fluent and 'natural', he suggested. He called this way of re-writing metathesis.



Metathesis is responsible for some common speech errors, such as children acquiring spaghetti as pasketti. The pronunciation /'æsk/ (American English) for ask is now considered standard, and the spelling "ask" was used by Shakespeare and in the King James Bible.[4] Chaucer, Caxton, and the Coverdale Bible, however, use "ax". The word "ask" derives from Proto-Germanic *aiskona.

Some other frequent English pronunciations that display metathesis are:

  • nuclear > nucular /'nju:kj?l?r/ (re-analysed as nuke + -cular suffix in molecular, binocular)
  • prescription > perscription /p?r'skr?pn/
  • introduce > interduce /?nt?r'd(j)u:s/
  • asterisk > asterix /'æst?r?ks/
  • cavalry > calvary /'kælv?ri/
  • foliage > foilage /'fl?d?/[5]
  • pretty > purty /'p?:rti/[6]

The process has shaped many English words historically. Bird and horse came from Old English bridd and hros;[] wasp and hasp were also written wæps and hæps.

The Old English beorht "bright" underwent metathesis to bryht, which became Modern English bright.

The Old English þr?o "three" formed þridda "thrid" and þr?otene "thriteen". These underwent metathesis to forms which became Modern English third and thirteen.

The Old English verb wyr?an "to work" had the passive participle ?eworht "worked". This underwent metathesis to wroht, which became Modern English wrought.

The Old English þyrl "hole" underwent metathesis to þryl. This gave rise to a verb þrylian "pierce", which became Modern English thrill, and formed the compound nosþryl "nose-hole" which became Modern English nostril (May have occurred in the early Middle English Period: 'nosþyrlu' (circa 1050); 'nos-thirlys' (c. 1500). In 1565 'nosthrille' appears. 'thirl/thurl' survived even longer until 1878).

Metathesis is also a common feature of the West Country dialects.[][7]


Etymological metathesis occurs in the following French words:

  • brebis from popular Latin berbex meaning "sheep" (early 12th century).[8]
  • fromage from popular Latin formaticus, meaning "formed in a mold" (1135).[9]
  • moustique (1654) from French mousquitte (1603) by metathesis. From Spanish mosquito ("little fly").[10]

Deliberate metathesis also occurs extensively in the informal French pattern of speech called verlan (itself an example: verlan < l'envers, meaning 'the reverse'). In verlan new words are created from existing words by reversing the order of syllables. Verlanization is applied mostly to two-syllable words and the new words that are created are typically considerably less formal than the originals, and/or take on a slightly different meaning. The process often involves considerably more changes than simple metathesis of two phonemes but this forms the basis for verlan as a linguistic phenomenon. Some of these words have become part of standard French.

A few well known examples are:

  • laisse tomber > laisse ton
  • lourd > relou
  • louche > chelou
  • français > fran

Some Verlan words are metathesized more than once:

  • arabe > beur > rebeu


Old Spanish showed occasional metathesis when phonemes not conforming to the usual euphonic constraints were joined. This happened, for example, when a clitic pronoun was attached to a verb ending: it is attested that forms like dejadle "leave [plural] him" were often metathesized to dejalde (the phoneme cluster /dl/ does not occur elsewhere in Spanish). The Spanish name for Algeria (Argelia) is likely a metathesis of the Arabic name for the territory (al-Jaz?'ir).

Lunfardo, an argot of Spanish from Buenos Aires, is fond of vesre, metathesis of syllables. The word vesre itself is an example:

  • revés > vesre "back, backwards"

Gacería, an argot of Castile, incorporates metathesized words:

  • criba > brica

Some frequently heard pronunciations in Spanish display metathesis:


In Greek, the present stem often consists of the root with a suffix of y (?? in Greek). If the root ends in the vowel a or o, and the consonant n or r, the y exchanges position with the consonant and is written i:

  • *cháry? > chaír? "I am glad" -- echár? "he was glad"
  • *phány? > phaín? "I reveal" -- ephán? "he appeared"

For metathesis of vowel length, which occurs frequently in Attic and Ionic Greek, see quantitative metathesis.


Some common nonstandard pronunciations of Danish words employ metathesis:

But metathesis has also historically changed some words:

  • kros > kors " (Christian) cross"

Slavic languages

Metathesis of liquid consonants is an important historical change during the development of the Slavic languages: a syllable-final liquid metathesized to become syllable-initial, therefore e.g. Polish mleko or Czech mléko vs. English milk.

A number of Proto-Indo-European roots indicate metathesis in Slavic forms when compared with other Indo-European languages:

Other roots have diverged within the Slavic family:


In western dialects of Finnish, historical stem-final /h/ has been subject to metathesis (it is lost in standard Finnish). That leads to variant word forms:

Some words have been standardized in the metathetized form:

Sporadic examples include the word vihr "green", which derives from older viherä, and the vernacular change of the word juoheva "jovial" to jouheva (also a separate word meaning "bristly").


In case of a narrow range of Hungarian nouns, metathesis of a h sound and a liquid consonant occurs in nominative case, but the original form is preserved in accusative and other suffixed forms:[]

  • kehely chalice, but kelyhet (accusative), kelyhem (possessive), kelyhek (plural)
  • teher burden, but terhet (acc.), terhed (poss.), terhek (pl.)
  • pehely flake, but pelyhet (acc.), pelyhe (poss.), pelyhek (pl.)

The other instances are boholy [intestinal] villus/fluff/fuzz/nap vs. bolyhok, moholy vs. molyhos down/pubescence [on plants], and the obsolete vehem animal's fetus (cf. vemhes 'pregnant [animal]'). The first of them is often used in the regular form (bolyh).


Similar to the French verlan is the Totoiana, a speech form spoken in the village of Totoi in Romania. It consists in the inversion of syllables of Romanian words in a way that results unintelligible for other Romanian speakers. Its origins or original purpose are unknown, but it is nowadays spoken for fun.[15][16][17]

Egyptian Arabic

A common example of metathesis in Egyptian Arabic is when the order of the word's root consonants has changed.

  • Classical Arabic zawj > Egyptian Arabic g?z "husband"
  • Classical Arabic mil'aqah > ma'la'a "spoon"
  • Persian zanjabil > Egyptian Arabic ganzab?l ~ zanzab?l "ginger"[18]

The following examples of metathesis have been identified in Egyptian Arabic texts, but are not necessarily more common than their etymological spellings:[19]

  • All?h yil'an > All?h yin'al "God curse!"
  • fir'a mas?a?iyyah > fir'a ma?sa?iyya "theatre troupe"
  • falsafah > falfasa "philosophy"

The following loanwords are also sometimes found with metathesis:

  • manalog > malan?g "monologue"
  • isbitalya > istibalya "hospital"
  • banalti > balanti "penalty" (in football)

The likely cause for metathesis in the word "hospital" is that the result resembles a common word pattern familiar to Arabic speakers (namely a Form X verbal noun).

Perhaps the clearest example of metathesis in Egyptian Arabic is the modern name of the city of Alexandria: (Al-)Iskandariya (?‎). In addition to the metathesis of x /ks/ to /sk/, the initial Al of Alexandria has been reanalyzed as the Arabic definite article.


In Hebrew the verb conjugation (binyan) hitpa?l (‎) undergoes metathesis if the first consonant of the root is an alveolar or postalveolar fricative. Namely, the pattern hi?1a22?3 (where the numbers signify the root consonants) becomes hi1ta22?3. Examples:

  • No metathesis: root lb? ‎ = hitlabb ?‎ ("he got dressed").
  • Voiceless alveolar fricative: root skl ‎ = histakk?l ‎ ("he looked [at something]").
  • Voiceless postalveolar fricative: root ?dl ?‎ = hi?tadd?l ‎ ("he made an effort").
  • Voiced alveolar fricative: root zqn ‎ = hizdaqq?n ‎ ("he grew old"); with assimilation of the T of the conjugation.
  • Voiceless alveolar affricate: root t?slm ‎ = hit?stall?m ?‎ ("he had a photograph of him taken"); with assimilation (no longer audible) of the T of the conjugation.

Hebrew also features isolated historical examples of metathesis. For example, the words keves[20] and kesev[21] (meaning "lamb") both appear in the Torah.


Metathesis among neighbouring consonants happens very commonly in Azerbaijani.


Amharic has a few minor patterns of metathesis, as shown by Wolf Leslau.[22] For example, "matches" [k?brit] is sometimes pronounced as [k?rbit], [mogzit] "nanny" is sometimes pronounced as [mozgit]. The word 'Monday" is [sä?o], which is the base for "Tuesday" [maksä?o], which is often metathesized as [maskä?o]. All of these examples show a pair of consonants reversed so that the stop begins the next syllable.


  • /fui?ki/ for /fu?iki/ (), meaning "atmosphere" or "mood"[23]

Small children commonly refer to kusuri "medicine" as sukuri[check spelling].

arata- "new" contrasts with atarashii "new".[24]

The following are examples of argot used in the entertainment industry.

  • /neta/ for /tane/ (?), the former meaning "content (of news article)", "food ingredient", "material (for joke or artwork)", the latter "seed", "species","source"[25]
  • /sisu/ for /susi/
  • The word for sorry, gomen, is sometimes inverted to mengo (backslang).


In Navajo, verbs have (often multiple) morphemes prefixed onto the verb stem. These prefixes are added to the verb stem in a set order in a prefix positional template. Although prefixes are generally found in a specific position, some prefixes change order by the process of metathesis.

For example, prefix a- (3i object pronoun) usually occurs before di-, as in

adisbs 'I'm starting to drive some kind of wheeled vehicle along' [ < 'a- + di- + sh- + ? + -bs].

However, when a- occurs with the prefixes di- and ni-, the a- metathesizes with di-, leading to an order of di- + a- + ni-, as in

di'nisbs 'I'm in the act of driving some vehicle (into something) & getting stuck' [ < di-'a-ni-sh-?-bs < 'a- + di- + ni- + sh- + ? + -bs]

instead of the expected *adinisbs (a-di-ni-sh-?-bs) (a- is reduced to -).


  • The words p?a?késka and k?a?péska are dialectal variants of the same word, meaning "abalone" or "porcelain".[26]
  • The word ?huthúhu, meaning "rib," has its origins in ?huté "side of the body" and huhú "bone", but is more commonly metathesized as thu?húhu.[26]


The Rotuman language of Rotuman Island (a part of Fiji) uses metathesis as a part of normal grammatical structure by inverting the ultimate vowel with the immediately preceding consonant.


In Saanich, metathesis is used as a grammatical device to indicate "actual" aspect. The actual aspect is most often translated into English as a be ... -ing progressive. The actual aspect is derived from the "nonactual" verb form by a CV -> VC metathetic process (i.e. consonant metathesizes with vowel).

     T?X?ÉT "shove" (nonactual) -> T?ÉX?T "shoving" (actual)
     ?PÉX? "scatter" (nonactual) -> ?ÉPX? "scattering" (actual)
     T?L?ÉQ "pinch" (nonactual) -> T?ÉL?Q "pinching" (actual)

See Montler (1986), Thompson & Thompson (1969) for more information.


In Swahili, some foreign words can undergo metathesis during their importation. For instance, "american" becomes "mmarekani".


From a comparative study of Dravidian vocabularies, one can observe that the retroflex consonants (?, ?, ?, ?, ?) and the liquids of the alveolar series (r, ?, l) do not occur initially in common Dravidian etyma, but Telugu has words with these consonants at the initial position. It was shown that the etyma underwent a metathesis in Telugu, when the root word originally consisted of an initial vowel followed by one of the above consonants. When this pattern is followed by a consonantal derivative, metathesis has occurred in the phonemes of the root-syllable with the doubling of the suffix consonant (if it had been single); when a vowel derivative follows, metathesis has occurred in the phonemes of the root syllable attended by a contraction of the vowels of root and (derivative) suffix syllables.[27] These statements and the resulting sequences of vowel contraction may be summed up as follows:

Type 1: V1C1-C² > C1V1-C²C²

Type 2: V1C1-V²- > C1V1-


  • l? = l?ta "young, tender" < *e?a
  • r? = r?yi "night" < *ira
  • r?lu "mortar" < oral < *ural


Two types of metathesis are observed in Turkish. The examples given are from Anatolian Turkish, though the closely related Azerbaijani language is better known for its metathesis:

Urdu and Hindi

Like many other natural languages Urdu and Hindi also have metathesis like in this diachronic example:

Sanskrit ? (?‎) janma /dnm?/ > Urdu ‎ and Hindi janam /dn?m/ "Birth"[28]

American Sign Language

In ASL, several signs which have a pre-specified initial and final location (such as the signs RESTAURANT, PARENT, TWINS) can have the order of these two locations reversed in contexts which seem to be purely phonological. While not possible with all signs, this does happen with quite a few. For example, the sign DEAF, prototypically made with the '1' handshape making contact first with the cheek and then moving to contact the jaw (as in the sentence FATHER DEAF), can have these locations reversed if the preceding sign, when part of the same constituent, has a final location more proximal to the jaw (as in the sentence MOTHER DEAF). Both forms of the sign DEAF are acceptable to native signers.[29] A proposed prerequisite for metathesis to apply in ASL is that both signs must be within the same region on the body. Constraints on the applications of metathesis in ASL has led to discussions that the phonology breaks down the body into regions distinct from settings.[30]

In popular culture

See also


  1. ^ a b Strazny, Philipp (2005). Encyclopedia of Linguistics. 2, M-Z. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 679.
  2. ^ van Oostendorp, Marc; et al. (eds.). The Blackwell Companion to Phonology. Volume III, Phonological Processes. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 1381. |volume= has extra text (help)
  3. ^ Trask, Robert Lawrence (2000). The Dictionary of Historical and Comparative Linguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 211.
  4. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd. ed., under "ask".
  5. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Online, Meriam Webster's Dictionary Online
  6. ^ Meriam Webster's Dictionary Online
  7. ^ Halpert, Herbert (1996). Folktales of Newfoundland: The Resilience of the Oral Tradition. New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 9781317551492.
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^ Yard (land)
  12. ^ p. 1453,
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^ "În localitatea Totoi, jude?ul Alba, se vorbe?te o limb? specific? locului". Realitatea TV (in Romanian). 19 January 2009.
  16. ^ Arsenie, Dan (9 December 2011). "Totoiana - messengerul de pe uli. Povestea unei limbi inventate de români". (in Romanian).
  17. ^ ""Limba intoars?" vorbit? în Totoi". (in Romanian). 2 November 2009.
  18. ^ Hinds, Martin; Badawi, El-Said, eds. (1986). A Dictionary of Egyptian Arabic. Lebanon: Librairie du Liban. p. 175. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  19. ^ El-Farnawany, Refaat (1980). Ägyptisch-Arabisch als geschriebene Sprache: Probleme der Verschriftung einer Umgangssprache [Egyptian Arabic as a written language: the problems of spelling a colloquial language] (Thesis) (in German). Erlangen-Nürnberg: Friedrich-Alexander-Universität. p. 158.
  20. ^ Cf. Leviticus 4:32
  21. ^ Cf. Leviticus 3:7
  22. ^ p. 27, 28. Wolf Leslau. 1995. Reference Grammar of Amharic. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden.
  23. ^ "[?]? [?]?|NHK?". NHK? (in Japanese). Retrieved .
  24. ^ "() - ". Retrieved .
  25. ^ [1] at Kotobank (in Japanese) Archived 2016-04-06 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ a b New Lakota Dictionary, Lakota Language Consortium, 2008
  27. ^ Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju Telugu Verbal Bases Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 81-208-2324-9 p. 51-52.
  28. ^ Platts, John T. (1884). A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English. London: W. H. Allen & Co. p. 392.
  29. ^ "ASL Linguistics: metathesis". Retrieved .
  30. ^ Sandler, Wendy (2006). Sign Language and Linguistic Universals. Cambridge University Press. pp. 124, 179. ISBN 978-0521483957.


  • Hume, E., & Seyfarth, S. (2019). Metathesis. In M. Aronoff (Ed.), Oxford Bibliographies in Linguistics. New York: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199772810-0242
  • Key, T. Hewitt (1854). "On Metathesis". Transactions of the Philological Society. 1 (11): 206-216. doi:10.1111/j.1467-968X.1854.tb00767.x.
  • Montler, Timothy. (1986). An outline of the morphology and phonology of Saanich, North Straits Salish. Occasional Papers in Linguistics (No. 4). Missoula, MT: University of Montana Linguistics Laboratory. (Revised version of the author's PhD dissertation, University of Hawaii).
  • Thompson, Laurence C.; Thompson, M. Terry (1969). "Metathesis as a grammatical device". International Journal of American Linguistics. 35 (3): 213-219. doi:10.1086/465056. S2CID 143798020.
  • Young, Robert W., & Morgan, William Sr. (1987). The Navajo language: A grammar and colloquial dictionary, (rev. ed.). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-1014-1

External links

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