mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people. A mausoleum without the person's remains is called a cenotaph. A mausoleum may be considered a type of tomb, or the tomb may be considered to be within the mausoleum.
mausoleum derives from the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (near modern-day Bodrum in Turkey), the grave of King Mausolus, the Persian satrap of Caria, whose large tomb was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
Historically, mausolea were, and still may be, large and impressive constructions for a deceased leader or other person of importance. However, smaller mausolea soon became popular with the
gentry and nobility in many countries. In the Roman Empire, these were often in necropoles or along roadsides: the via Appia Antica retains the ruins of many private mausolea for kilometres outside Rome. When Christianity became dominant, mausolea were out of use.
Later, mausolea became particularly popular in
Europe and its colonies during the early modern and modern periods. A single mausoleum may be permanently sealed. A mausoleum encloses a burial chamber either wholly above ground or within a burial vault below the superstructure. This contains the body or bodies, probably within sarcophagi or interment niches. Modern mausolea may also act as columbaria (a type of mausoleum for cremated remains) with additional cinerary urn niches. Mausolea may be located in a cemetery, a churchyard or on private land.
United States, the term may be used for a burial vault below a larger facility, such as a church. The Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles, California, for example, has 6,000 sepulchral and cinerary urn spaces for interments in the lower level of the building. It is known as the "crypt mausoleum". In Europe, these underground vaults are sometimes called crypts or catacombs.
Mausoleum of Mohammed V
El Alia Cemetery, Mausoleum of the Late President, Algeria. The Dr.
John Garang De Mabior mausoleum in Juba, South Sudan.
Mastabas dating from ancient Egypt.
Agostinho Neto's Mausoleum in Luanda, Angola. Mausolée (Pyramide) du Président
Mathieu Kerekou, Natitingou, Benin.
Omar Bongo's Mausoleum (A replica of the Mausoleum of Mohammed V) in Franceville, Gabon.
Léon M'ba's Memorial Mausoleum in Libreville, Gabon.
Kwame Nkrumah Mausoleum
Atta Mills's Mausoleum at Asomdwee Park in Accra, Ghana. Mausoleum of Late President
Levy Mwanawasa, Frederick Chiluba and Michael Sata at Embassy Park Presidential Burial in Lusaka, Zambia.
Domoni Mosque Mausoleum Indoor inside first president of Comoros, Ahmed Abdallah's Mausoleum.
Marien Ngouabi's mausoleum and Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza's mausoleum in Brazzaville, The Republic of Congo. Mausoleum of the late president
Felix Houphouet-Boigny in Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire.
Laurent Kabila's mausoleum in Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo. The
pyramids of ancient Egypt and Nubian pyramids are also types of mausolea.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Mosque, is the Mausoleum of Gamal Abdel Nasser, in Cairo, Egypt.
Unknown Soldier Memorial (Egypt)
Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania
Al Hussein Mosque, Cairo - Holy Shrine and mausoleum, and purported grave of the Islamic prophet Muhammad's grandson.
Qalawun Mausoleum is the Mausoleum of Qalawun, Located in Cairo, Egypt, it was regarded by scholars as the second most beautiful medieval mausoleum ever to be built.
Jedars - thirteen ancient monumental Berber mausoleums located south of Tiaret.
Palm Grove Cemetery, Monrovia, Liberia.
National Hall, Mausoleum of the Late President William Tubman in Monrovia, Montserrado, Liberia. Late
President Eyadema's Family Mausoleum in Kara, Togo.
Kamuzu Banda Mausoleum, in Lilongwe, Malawi.
Dr. Bingu wa Mutharika, President of Malawi built a mausoleum in which his late first wife and Bingu himself are buried.
Meles Zenawi's grave in Holy Trinity Cathedral, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
King Sobhuza II Memorial Park, Lobamba, Swaziland.
Julius Nyerere's mausoleum in Mwalimu Nyerere Museum Centre, Butiama, Tanzania.
The Heroes Square, Maputo, Mozambique.
Amilcar Cabral's mausoleum in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. Mausoleum of the Late
President of Kenya Mzee Jomo Kenyatta in Nairobi, Kenya.
Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Mausoleum, Bondo, Kenya. Camayanne Mausoleum and contains the tombs of
Guinea national hero Samori Ture, Sekou Toure and Alfa Yaya.
Nnamdi Azikiwe's burial site, Onitsha, Nigeria.
Abubakar Tafawa Balewa's tomb, Bauchi, Nigeria.
Mausoleum of Obafemi Awolowo, Ogun State, Nigeria. Mausoleum of
Sani Abacha, Kano, Nigeria. National Heroes Acre in Harare, Zimbabwe.
Asia, Eastern, Southern, and Southeast
The exterior view of the Mausoleum of Emperor Jahangir, located in Punjab, Pakistan
Mausoleums of Emperors of Japan
Mozu Tombs in Sakai, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. Fukakusa no kita no Misasagi (?),
Senny?-ji, Kyoto, Japan
Fushimi Momoyama no Misasagi () in Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Musashi Imperial Graveyard, is a mausoleum complex at Hachi?ji, Tokyo, Japan.
Nikk? T?sh?-g? at Nikk?, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. It is part of the " Shrines and Temples of Nikk?", Mausoleum of Tokugawa Ieyasu, Tokugawa sh?guns.
Rinn?-ji at Nikk?, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. The temple also administers the Taiy?-in Reiby? (), which is the mausoleum of Tokugawa Iemitsu, the third Tokugawa sh?gun. Together with Nikk? T?sh?-g? and Futarasan Shrine.
Zuih?den at Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan is the mausoleum complex of Date Masamune and his heirs, daimy? of the Sendai Domain. Tamaudun, at Shuri, Okinawa, Japan.
Rizal Monument at Rizal Park in Manila, Philippines, houses the remains of Dr. Jose Rizal, national hero of the Philippines.
Mausoleum of the Veterans of the Revolution, enshrining participants in the 1896 revolution against the Spanish Empire.
Quezon Memorial, in Quezon City, Philippines, houses the remains of President Manuel Quezon and his consort, Doña Aurora. Marcos Museum and Mausoleum in Batac, Ilocos Norte, Philippines, housing the remains of President Ferdinand E. Marcos.
National Dr. Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan.
National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan.
Mausoleum of Late President Lord Chiang Kai-shek, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
Mausoleum of Late President Chiang Ching-kuo, Taoyuan, Taiwan. Chen Tsyr-shiou Memorial Park, Former Mausoleum and Memorial of Late Vice President Chen Cheng, Taishan District, New Taipei, Taiwan.
Kandawmin Garden Mausolea, Myanmar.
Martyrs' Mausoleum, Myanmar.
Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty, Korea
Kim Koo Museum and Hyochang Park, Seoul, Republic of Korea (South Korea) Mausoleum of Father of the Nation Bangabandhu
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in Gopalganj, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Bandaranaike family Estate in Horagolla Bandaranaike Samadhi, Sri Lanka
Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum, Hanoi, Vietnam Kumsusan Palace of the Sun or Kim Il-sung Mausoleum, Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea)
Al-Khazneh at Petra, Jordan
Mausoleum of Maussollos at Halicarnassus
Mausoleum of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae, Iran.
Naqsh-e Rustam at Persepolis Iran, Tombs of Persian Achaemenid kings (522-486 BCE).
Tomb of Ferdowsi in Mashhad, Iran.
Tomb of Hafez (H?fezieh) in Shiraz, Iran The
Shrine of the Báb and the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh in Haifa and Acre, Israel, respectively.
Imam Husayn Mosque, Karbala - according to Sh?'ah belief, the head and body of  Husayn ibn Ali, along with all others who fell at the Battle of Karbala are buried here.
Imam Reza shrine in Mashhad, Iran The
Mausoleum of Khomeini in Tehran, Iran
An?tkabir mausoleum of Atatürk the founder of the Republic of Turkey at Ankara, Turkey Mausoleum of Yasser Arafat in Ramallah, West Bank
Bismarck Mausoleum outside Friedrichsruh in northern Germany
Hamilton Mausoleum at Hamilton in Scotland
House of Karageorgevich Mausoleum, St. George's Church, Oplenac in Topola, Serbia
Royal Mausoleum and the Duchess of Kent's Mausoleum at Frogmore, England
Peter and Paul Cathedral in St. Petersburg, Russia
Cathedral of the Archangel in Moscow, Russia
Lenin's Mausoleum in Moscow, Russia
Cathedral of Saint Domnius in Split, Croatia
Lajos Batthyány's Mausoleum in Budapest, Hungary
Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome, Italy.
Pantheon, Rome in Italy
Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome, Italy
Mausoleum of Theodoric in Ravenna, Italy
Mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna, Italy
Mausoleum of Marasesti in Marasesti, Romania
Pyramid of Tirana in Tirana, Albania
Batenberg Mausoleum in Sofia, Bulgaria
Trentham Mausoleum near Stoke-on-Trent, England
Panthéon, Paris in France
Les Invalides in France
Valle de los Caídos, in San Lorenzo del Escorial, Spain
Imperial Crypt in Austria
Church of Our Lady of Laeken in Belgium
Oplenac Mausoleum in Topola, Serbia, the Mausoleum of the Serbian and Yugoslav Royal House of Kara?or?evi?
National Pantheon / Church of Santa Engrácia in Lisbon, Portugal
Mausoleum of Njego? in Lov?en, Montenegro
Wilhelm II Mausoleum in Doorn, Netherlands Juselius Mausoleum in Finland
El Ángel Victory column and mausoleum to the heroes of the Mexican Independence in Mexico City, Mexico.
Monumento a la Revolución monument commemorating and mausoleum to the heroes of the Mexican Revolution in Mexico City, Mexico.
Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral Panteon San Fernando,
Mexico City, Mexico.
Jardines Del Humaya, a cemetery with opulent multi-story and air-conditioned mausoleums of Mexican drug cartel members.
Obelisk of São Paulo mausoleum to the heroes of Constitutionalist Revolution in São Paulo City, São Paulo, Brazil.
Chico Xavier mausoleum in Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Cemitério de São João Batista, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Panteón de los Próceres, Peru.
Presbitero Maestro mausoleum and museum in Lima, Peru.
Cathedral Basilica of St. John the Apostle and Evangelist, Lima
Mausoleo a los Heroes de El Polvorín, at Cementerio Civil de Ponce in Ponce, Puerto Rico
Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral, mausoleum of General San Martín.
La Recoleta Cemetery, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
La Chacarita cemetery, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Mausoleum of Néstor Kirchner, Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Argentina.
Santa Ifigenia Cemetery, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba.
Los Ilustres Cemetery, Salvador. Cementerio General,
Guatemala City General Cemetery Cementerio General Occidental,
Cathedral Basilica of Our Lady of Peace, La Paz, mausoleum of Andrés de Santa Cruz, Bolivia General Cemetery of
Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Cementerio General de
Cochabamba, mausoleum of "general del pueblo" René Barrientos Ortuño, Bolivia.
Central Cemetery of Bogotá, Colombia.
San Diego Cemetery, Quito, Ecuador.
Haiti's National Cemetery in Port-au-Prince, where François Duvalier, who ruled from 1957 to 1971, is buried.
Omar Torrijos Mausoleum, Amador, Panama City, Panama.
Cathedral of La Plata, mausoleum of Dardo Rocha.
Artigas Mausoleum, mausoleum of José Gervasio Artigas.
Altar de la Patria of Chile.
Cementerio General de Santiago, Chile.
National Pantheon of Venezuela, mausoleum of Simón Bolívar.
National Pantheon of the Heroes
Altar de la Patria, mausoleum to the Founding Fathers of the Dominican Republic.
National Pantheon of the Dominican Republic
Monument to the Independence of Brazil
San Salvador Cathedral
Cathedral of Quito Mausoleo en el Centro Cívico Ciudad Alfaro, Montecristi, Ecuador.
Henry Flagler's mausoleum in St. Augustine, Florida
Presidential memorials in the United States and Presidents' graves of the United States
Miles Mausoleum in Arlington National Cemetery
Ferncliff Cemetery and Mausoleum in Hartsdale, New York Queen of Heaven Mausoleum in
Queen of Heaven Cemetery, Hillside, Illinois
Rose Hills Memorial Park, Whittier, California Rose Chapel Mausoleum in Roseland Park Cemetery,
Berkley, Michigan Shrine of the Good Shepherd Chapel Mausoleum in
Green Bay, Wisconsin
Tacoma Mausoleum in Tacoma, Washington Tombs of the
Uga mascots inside Sanford Stadium in Athens, Georgia Brigadier General
Egbert Ludovicus Viele's Egyptian-style pyramid mausoleum in West Point, New York Rapper XXXTentacion's mausoleum at The Gardens of Boca Raton in Boca Raton, Florida
The plurals ^ mausoleums and mausolea are both used in English, although mausoleums is more common.
Toms, J. Mason (Winter 2019). "Arkansas Listings in the National Register of Historic Places: The Community Mausoleums of Cecil E. Bryan". Arkansas Historical Quarterly. 78 (4): 423-431. ISSN 0004-1823.
^ Paul Veyne, in
A History of Private Life: I. From Pagan Rome to Byzantium, Veyne, ed. (Harvard University Press) 1987:416.
al-Qummi, Ja'far ibn Q?lawayh (2008). K?mil al-Ziy?r?t. trans. Sayyid Mohsen al-Husaini al-M?l?ni. Shiabooks.ca Press. p. 63.