Long Wave
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Long Wave

Tuning dial on 1946 Dynatron Merlin T.69 console radio receiver, showing LW wavelengths between 800 and 2000 metres (375-150 kHz)

In radio, longwave, long wave or long-wave,[1] and commonly abbreviated LW,[2] refers to parts of the radio spectrum with wavelengths longer than what was originally called the medium-wave broadcasting band. The term is historic, dating from the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was considered to consist of longwave (LW), medium-wave (MW), and short-wave (SW) radio bands. Most modern radio systems and devices use wavelengths which would then have been considered 'ultra-short'.

In contemporary usage, the term longwave is not defined precisely, and its intended meaning varies. It may be used for radio wavelengths longer than 1,000 m[2] i.e. frequencies[note 1] up to 300 kilohertz (kHz),[3][4] including the International Telecommunication Union's (ITU's) low frequency (LF, 30-300 kHz) and very low frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) bands. Sometimes the upper limit is taken to be higher than 300 kHz, but not above the start of the medium wave broadcast band at 520 kHz.[5]

In Europe, Africa, and large parts of Asia (International Telecommunication Union Region 1), where a range of frequencies between 148.5 and 283.5 kHz is used for AM broadcasting[6] in addition to the medium-wave band, the term longwave usually refers specifically to this broadcasting band, which falls wholly within the low frequency band of the radio spectrum (30-300 kHz). The "Longwave Club of America" (United States) is interested in "frequencies below the AM broadcast band"[5] (i.e., all frequencies below 520 kHz).

Propagation

Because of their long wavelength, radio waves in this frequency range can diffract over obstacles like mountain ranges and travel beyond the horizon, following the contour of the Earth. This mode of propagation, called ground wave, is the main mode in the longwave band.[7] The attenuation of signal strength with distance by absorption in the ground is lower than at higher frequencies, and falls with frequency. Low frequency ground waves can be received up to 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) from the transmitting antenna. Very low frequency waves below 30 kHz can be used to communicate at transcontinental distances, and can penetrate saltwater to depths of hundreds of feet, and is used by the military to communicate with submerged submarines.

Low frequency waves can also occasionally travel long distances by reflecting from the ionosphere (the actual mechanism is one of refraction), although this method, called skywave or "skip" propagation, is not as common as at higher frequencies. Reflection occurs at the ionospheric E layer or F layers. Skywave signals can be detected at distances exceeding 300 kilometres (190 mi) from the transmitting antenna.[8]

Non-broadcast use

Non-directional beacons

Non-directional beacons transmit continuously for the benefit of radio direction finders in marine and aeronautical navigation. They identify themselves by a callsign in Morse code. They can occupy any frequency in the range 190-1750 kHz. In North America, they occupy 190-535 kHz. In ITU Region 1 the lower limit is 280 kHz.

Time signals

There are institutional broadcast stations in the range that transmit coded time signals to radio clocks. For example:

Radio-controlled clocks receive their time calibration signals with built-in long-wave receivers. They use long-wave, rather than short-wave or medium-wave, because long-wave signals from the transmitter to the receiver always travel along the same direct path across the surface of the Earth, so the time delay correction for the signal travel time from the transmitting station to the receiver is always the same for any one receiving location.

Longwaves travel by groundwaves that hug the surface of the earth, unlike mediumwaves and shortwaves. Those higher-frequency signals do not follow the surface of the Earth beyond a few kilometers, but can travel as skywaves, 'bouncing' off different layers of the ionosphere at different times of day. These different propagation paths can make the time lag different for every signal received. The delay between when the long-wave signal was sent from the transmitter (when the coded time was correct) and when the signal is received by the clock (when the coded time is slightly late) depends on the overland distance between the clock and the transmitter and the speed of light through the air, which is also very nearly constant. Since the time lag is essentially the same, a single constant shift forward from the time coded in the signal can compensate for all long-wave signals received at any one location from the same time signal station.

Submarine communication

The militaries of the United Kingdom, Russian Federation, United States, Germany, India and Sweden use frequencies below 50 kHz to communicate with submerged submarines.

LowFER

Licensed operators in the U.S. may transmit on the newly-allocated 2200 m band from 136-139 kHz at maximum equivalent power radiated from the antenna of 1 watt (EIRP); most nations in Europe already have adopted the new band, along with many others worldwide.

In North America during the 1970s, the frequencies 167, 179, and 191 kHz were assigned to the short-lived Public Emergency Radio of the United States.

Nowadays, in the United States, Part 15 of FCC regulations allow unlicensed use of the 160-190 kHz band a transmitter / amplifier output power to the antenna of at most 1 watt, with an antenna at most 15 meters (49 feet) high; this is called Low Frequency Experimental Radio (LowFER). The 190-435 kHz band is used for navigational beacons.

Frequencies from 472-479 kHz are available to licensed amateurs as the new 630 m band, part of the now-defunct maritime band, but this is often considered a medium wave sub-band.

Historic

Swedish station SAQ, located at the Varberg Radio Station facility in Grimeton, is the last remaining operational Alexanderson alternator long-wave transmitter. Although the station ended regular service in 1996, it has been maintained as a World Heritage Site, and makes at least two demonstration transmissions yearly, on 17.2 kHz.[9]

Broadcasting

Longwave is used for broadcasting only within ITU Region 1. The long-wave broadcasters are located in western, northern, central, and southeastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, Mongolia, Algeria, and Morocco.

Typically, a larger geographic area can be covered by a long-wave broadcast transmitter compared to a medium-wave one. This is because ground-wave propagation suffers less attenuation due to ground conductivity at lower frequencies.[10]

Carrier frequencies

Long-wave carrier frequencies are exact multiples of 9 kHz; ranging from 153 to 279 kHz, except for a French-language station, Europe No. 1 in Germany. This station kept correctly spaced channels spacing for 4 months--only 7 years ago, and all Mongolian transmitters are 2 kHz above the internationally recognized channels.[clarification needed]

Until the 1970s, some long-wave stations in northern and eastern Europe and the Soviet Union operated on frequencies as high as 433 kHz.[11]

Some radio broadcasters, for instance Droitwich transmitting station in the UK, derive their carrier frequencies from an atomic clock, allowing their use as frequency standards. Droitwich also broadcasts a low bit-rate data channel, using narrow-shift phase-shift keying of the carrier, for Radio Teleswitch Services.

In 2014 and 2015 Russia closed all of its LW broadcast transmitters.[12]

Long-distance reception

Because long-wave signals can travel very long distances, some radio amateurs and shortwave listeners engage in an activity called DXing. DXers attempt to listen in to far away transmissions, and they will often send a reception report to the sending station to let them know where they were heard. After receiving a report, the sending station may mail the listener a QSL card to acknowledge this reception.

Reception of long-wave signals at distances in excess of 17,000 kilometres (11,000 mi) have been verified.[13]

List of long-wave broadcasting transmitters

Height diagram of the antenna towers and antenna masts of long-wave broadcasting stations

List of stations currently operating

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML
  Denotes non-standard frequency (not divisible by 9)

[14] [15] [16] [17]

Freq.
(kHz)
Station
name
Language Country Location Aerial
type
Power
(kW)
Coordinates Notes
153 Radio Algerie
Chaine 1
Arabic and French Algeria Kenadsa Three 357 metres (1,171 ft) tall guyed masts 500
Radio Antena Satelor Romanian  Romania Bra?ov T-aerial on 2 guyed steel lattice masts, height: 250 metres (820 ft) 200 45°45?22.27?N 25°36?26.77?E / 45.7561861°N 25.6074361°E / 45.7561861; 25.6074361 (Bod Transmitter, mast 1)
45°45?13.16?N 25°36?25.15?E / 45.7536556°N 25.6069861°E / 45.7536556; 25.6069861 (Bod Transmitter, mast 2)
Fifth state-owned radio station in Romania
164 MNB Radio 1 Mongolian  Mongolia Ulaanbaatar 259 metres (850 ft) tall cable-stayed steel truss mast[18] 500 47°47?54.67?N 107°11?14.7?E / 47.7985194°N 107.187417°E / 47.7985194; 107.187417 (Ulaanbaatar transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
171 Médi 1 Arabic and French  Morocco Nador Directional aerial consisting of three guyed steel lattice masts, 380 metres (1,250 ft) tall 1600 35°02?50.65?N 2°55?22.81?W / 35.0474028°N 2.9230028°W / 35.0474028; -2.9230028 (Nador transmitter, mast 1)
35°02?30.27?N 2°55?16.16?W / 35.0417417°N 2.9211556°W / 35.0417417; -2.9211556 (Nador transmitter, mast 2)
35°02?9.89?N 2°55?9.52?W / 35.0360806°N 2.9193111°W / 35.0360806; -2.9193111 (Nador transmitter, mast 2)
Private and commercial Moroccan radio network
189 RÚV Rás 1/RÚV Rás 2 Icelandic  Iceland Gufuskalar near Hellissandur Slight oval bi-directivity aerial, top loaded parallel connected triangular loops, mast as a common member, all guys insulated except two radiating diametrically opposed grounded top guys, loops closed by copper straps in the ground from two conducting guy grounding points to base of the guyed steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height: 412 metres (1,352 ft) 300 64°54?26?N 23°55?19.5?W / 64.90722°N 23.922083°W / 64.90722; -23.922083 (Hellissandur long-wave mast) Iceland's national public service broadcaster
198 Cnaine 1 Arabic and French  Algeria Berkaoui 2000
BBC Radio 4 English  United Kingdom Droitwich (SFN) T-aerial on two guyed steel lattice masts insulated against ground with a height of 213 metres (699 ft) 500 52°17?46.9?N 2°6?24.32?W / 52.296361°N 2.1067556°W / 52.296361; -2.1067556 (Droitwich mast 1)
52°17?40.4?N 2°6?20.62?W / 52.294556°N 2.1057278°W / 52.294556; -2.1057278 (Droitwich mast 2)
All four transmitters carry Radio teleswitch PSK data; Droitwich relays BBC World Service from 01:00 to 05:20 UTC
Burghead (SFN) Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 154 metres (505 ft) 50 57°41?57.9?N 3°28?4.78?W / 57.699417°N 3.4679944°W / 57.699417; -3.4679944 (Burghead Transmitter, main mast)
Westerglen (SFN) Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 152 metres (499 ft) 55°58?33?N 3°48?58.8?W / 55.97583°N 3.816333°W / 55.97583; -3.816333 (Westerglen mast)
Dartford Tunnel (SFN) 0.004
207 SNRT Al-Idaa Al-Watania Moroccan  Morocco Azilal Demnate 304.8 metres (1,000 ft) tall guyed mast 400
RÚV Rás 1/RÚV Rás 2 Icelandic  Iceland Eiðar near Egilsstaðir Omnidirectional aerial, steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 221 metres (725 ft) 100 65°22?22.93?N 14°20?27.29?W / 65.3730361°N 14.3409139°W / 65.3730361; -14.3409139 (Eiðar long-wave mast) Iceland's national public service broadcaster
209 MNB Radio 1 Mongolian  Mongolia Choibalsan Cable-stayed steel truss mast, height: 275.84 metres (905.0 ft) 75 48°00?17.27?N 114°27?17.6?E / 48.0047972°N 114.454889°E / 48.0047972; 114.454889 (Choibalsan transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
Dalanzadgad 43°31?54.43?N 104°24?41.4?E / 43.5317861°N 104.411500°E / 43.5317861; 104.411500 (Dalanzadgad transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
Olgii Omnidirectional antenna, 352.5 metres (1,156 ft) high guyed mast 30 48°57?24.52?N 89°58?13.15?E / 48.9568111°N 89.9703194°E / 48.9568111; 89.9703194 (Olgii transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
225 Polskie Radio Program I/Polskae Radyjo Polish  Poland Solec Kujawski Directional aerial, two guyed radio masts fed on the top, heights 330 metres (1,080 ft) and 289 metres (948 ft) 1000 53°1?21.01?N 18°15?32.63?E / 53.0225028°N 18.2590639°E / 53.0225028; 18.2590639 (Solec Kujawski transmitter, 330 metres tall mast)
53°1?12.83?N 18°15?44.06?E / 53.0202306°N 18.2622389°E / 53.0202306; 18.2622389 (Solec Kujawski transmitter, 289 metres tall mast)
Earlier Konstantynów was used (52°22?3.91?N 19°48?7.04?E / 52.3677528°N 19.8019556°E / 52.3677528; 19.8019556 (Konstantynów radio mast (the tallest structure in the world))). 3-minutes news bulletins by Belarusian service Polish radio aired every day in 6:40, 12:20 (12:30 in Saturday, 12:10 in Sunday) and 22:20 (22:05 in Saturday and Sunday) (Warsaw time).[19]
227 MNB Radio 1 Mongolian  Mongolia Altai Cable-stayed steel truss mast 75 46°19?25.52?N 96°15?31.2?E / 46.3237556°N 96.258667°E / 46.3237556; 96.258667 (Altai transmitter) Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC
234 RTL French  Luxembourg Beidweiler Directional aerial, three guyed grounded steel lattice masts, 290 metres (950 ft) high, with vertical cage aerials 1500
/
2000
49°43?42.57?N 6°19?4.29?E / 49.7284917°N 6.3178583°E / 49.7284917; 6.3178583 (Beidweiler radio mast)
49°43?49.2?N 6°19?15.02?E / 49.730333°N 6.3208389°E / 49.730333; 6.3208389 (Beidweiler radio mast)
49°43?55.81?N 6°19?25.67?E / 49.7321694°N 6.3237972°E / 49.7321694; 6.3237972 (Beidweiler radio mast)
Spare transmitter site Junglinster (49°43?0.35?N 6°15?28.9?E / 49.7167639°N 6.258028°E / 49.7167639; 6.258028 (Junglinster Radio Tower), 49°43?6.56?N 6°15?40.27?E / 49.7184889°N 6.2611861°E / 49.7184889; 6.2611861 (Junglinster Radio Tower), 49°43?12.75?N 6°15?51.44?E / 49.7202083°N 6.2642889°E / 49.7202083; 6.2642889 (Junglinster Radio Tower))
243 DR P1 Danish  Denmark Kalundborg Semi-directional Alexanderson antenna 153/333 degrees, two grounded 118 metres (387 ft) steel lattice radiating towers with interconnecting top wire capacitance 50 55°40?39.27?N 11°4?8.6?E / 55.6775750°N 11.069056°E / 55.6775750; 11.069056 (Kalundborg Transmitter long-wave tower 1)
55°40?32.91?N 11°4?14.33?E / 55.6758083°N 11.0706472°E / 55.6758083; 11.0706472 (Kalundborg Transmitter long-wave tower 2)
Transmitting in time slots only
252 Radio Algeria
Chaîne 3
Arabic  Algeria Tipaza Omnidirectional aerial, single guyed lattice steel mast, height 355 metres (1,165 ft) 750
/
1500
36°33?58.14?N 2°28?50.3?E / 36.5661500°N 2.480639°E / 36.5661500; 2.480639 (Tipaza long-wave transmitter) Half transmitter power during night
RTÉ Radio 1 English and Irish  Ireland Clarkstown Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, insulated against ground, height 248 metres (814 ft) 150
/
300
53°27?46?N 6°40?39?W / 53.46278°N 6.67750°W / 53.46278; -6.67750 (Clarkstown long-wave mast) The only AM transmitter for RTÉ Radio 1, power is decreased at night to 100 kW; it was scheduled to cease broadcasting in June 2019.[20] In April 2019 it announced an antenna upgrade and the closure was postponed.[21]
270 ?Ro Radio?urnál Czech  Czech Republic Topolná Directional aerial (maximum of radiation in east-west direction), two grounded 257 metres (843 ft) high guyed steel lattice mast with cage aerials 50 49°7?32.88?N 17°30?45.97?E / 49.1258000°N 17.5127694°E / 49.1258000; 17.5127694 (Topolná transmitter, mast 1)
49°7?18.85?N 17°30?41.78?E / 49.1219028°N 17.5116056°E / 49.1219028; 17.5116056 (Topolná transmitter, mast 2)
Broadcasting from Monday to Friday 05:00-24:00 CET and 06:00-24:00 CET at weekends. Will be ceased broadcast in 31 December 2021.
[2]
279 TR1 Watan Radio Turkmenian  Turkmenistan Ashgabat Cable-stayed steel truss mast 150 37|51|14.89|N|58|21|57.99|E|type:landmark name=Ashgabat transmitter

List of stations that have closed

Freq.
(kHz)
Station
name
Country Location Aerial
type
Power
(kW)
Coordinates
153 Deutschlandfunk  Germany Donebach Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 363 m high, fed at the top 500 49°33?40.25?N 9°10?22.76?E / 49.5611806°N 9.1729889°E / 49.5611806; 9.1729889 (Donebach transmitter, Mast 1)  ; 49°33?33.53?N 9°10?50.82?E / 49.5593139°N 9.1807833°E / 49.5593139; 9.1807833 (Donebach transmitter, Mast 2)
YuFM  Russia Taldom transmitter Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 257 m height 300 56°45?30.04?N 37°37?12.17?E / 56.7583444°N 37.6200472°E / 56.7583444; 37.6200472 (Taldom longwave transmitter, 153 kHz-mast)
NRK P1/P2  Norway Ingøy Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast 352 metres (1,155 ft) tall, fed at the top, ex-Omega equipment 100 71°4?17?N 24°5?14?E / 71.07139°N 24.08722°E / 71.07139; 24.08722 (Ingøy long-wave transmitter)
Radio Rossii Popova near Komsomolsk-na-Amure 1200 50°39?16.75?N 136°54?46.9?E / 50.6546528°N 136.913028°E / 50.6546528; 136.913028 (Popova longwave transmitter)
162 TRT Radyo 4  Turkey Agri Two guyed lattice steel masts, height 250 m 1000 39°46?23.11?N 43°02?14.55?E / 39.7730861°N 43.0373750°E / 39.7730861; 43.0373750 (Agri transmitter, Mast 1) ; 39°46?25.86?N 43°02?33.32?E / 39.7738500°N 43.0425889°E / 39.7738500; 43.0425889 (Agri transmitter, Mast 2)
Radio Rossii  Russia Norilsk Omnidirectional antenna, 205 m high antenna 150 69°22?46?N 87°6?26?E / 69.37944°N 87.10722°E / 69.37944; 87.10722 (Norilsk transmitter) ?
Radio Yuldash, Radio Rossii  Russia Ufa 150 54°46?19.73?N 56°0?17.02?E / 54.7721472°N 56.0047278°E / 54.7721472; 56.0047278 (Ufa Radio Majak transmitter)
171 Radio Rossii  Russia Bolshakovo near Kaliningrad Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 600 54°54?42.62?N 21°43?2.32?E / 54.9118389°N 21.7173111°E / 54.9118389; 21.7173111 (Bolshakovo longwave transmitter)
Radio Ukraine 1  Ukraine Krasne near Lviv Omnidirectional antenna, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150/75 49°54?12.85?N 24°41?15.22?E / 49.9035694°N 24.6875611°E / 49.9035694; 24.6875611 (Krasne longwave transmitter)
Radio Rossii  Russia Raduga Omnidirectional antenna, 255 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 250 55°29?16?N 83°41?28?E / 55.48778°N 83.69111°E / 55.48778; 83.69111 (Raduga longwave transmitter)
Radio 1  Russia Murmansk Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 69°00?59.07?N 32°55?57.17?E / 69.0164083°N 32.9325472°E / 69.0164083; 32.9325472 (Murmansk longwave transmitter)
Radio 1  Russia Noginsk Omnidirectional antenna, 242 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 55°50?0.89?N 38°20?35.18?E / 55.8335806°N 38.3431056°E / 55.8335806; 38.3431056 (Noginsk longwave transmitter)
Radio 1  Russia Ezhva near Syktyvkar Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 61°49?09.34?N 50°41?26.42?E / 61.8192611°N 50.6906722°E / 61.8192611; 50.6906722 (Zelenets longwave transmitter)
Radio Rossii  Russia Tulagino near Yakutsk Omnidirectional antenna, circle antenna with 1 central and 6 ring masts 150 62°14?15.01?N 129°48?10.4?E / 62.2375028°N 129.802889°E / 62.2375028; 129.802889 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, central mast) ; 62°14?22.82?N 129°48?0.85?E / 62.2396722°N 129.8002361°E / 62.2396722; 129.8002361 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14?15.06?N 129°47?51.2?E / 62.2375167°N 129.797556°E / 62.2375167; 129.797556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14?7.27?N 129°48?0.82?E / 62.2353528°N 129.8002278°E / 62.2353528; 129.8002278 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14?7.31?N 129°48?20?E / 62.2353639°N 129.80556°E / 62.2353639; 129.80556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14?15.06?N 129°48?29.7?E / 62.2375167°N 129.808250°E / 62.2375167; 129.808250 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast) ; 62°14?22.82?N 129°48?20?E / 62.2396722°N 129.80556°E / 62.2396722; 129.80556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast)
177 Deutschlandradio Kultur  Germany Zehlendorf near Oranienburg Omnidirectional aerial, cage aerial mounted on 359.7 m high guyed mast, triangle aerial on 3 150 m high guyed steel lattice masts 500 52°47?41.87?N 13°23?9.5?E / 52.7949639°N 13.385972°E / 52.7949639; 13.385972 (Zehlendorf Longwave Mast)
180 TRT Radyo 1  Turkey Polatli Omnidirectional antenna, 250 m high guyed latice steel mast 1200 39°45?22.46?N 32°25?6.24?E / 39.7562389°N 32.4184000°E / 39.7562389; 32.4184000 (Polatli Longwave Mast)
Radio Rossii  Russia Yelizovo near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy Omnidirectional antenna, 255 m high guyed lattice steel mast 150 53°11?4.92?N 158°24?2.24?E / 53.1847000°N 158.4006222°E / 53.1847000; 158.4006222 (Yelizovo Longwave Mast)
Radio Mayak  Russia Kruchina near Chita Omnidirectional antenna, 200 m high guyed lattice steel mast 150 51°50?22.5?N 113°44?8.9?E / 51.839583°N 113.735806°E / 51.839583; 113.735806 (Chita Longwave Mast)
183 Europe 1  Germany Felsberg-Berus Directional aerial, four ground insulated steel lattice masts 270 metres (890 ft), 276 metres (906 ft), 280 metres (920 ft) and 282 metres (925 ft) tall; spare aerial: two ground insulated steel lattice masts, height: 234 metres (768 ft) 750 Main antenna:
49°17?4.2?N 6°40?57.73?E / 49.284500°N 6.6827028°E / 49.284500; 6.6827028 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 1)
49°16?55.86?N 6°40?46.16?E / 49.2821833°N 6.6794889°E / 49.2821833; 6.6794889 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 2)
49°16?47.55?N 6°40?34.48?E / 49.2798750°N 6.6762444°E / 49.2798750; 6.6762444 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 3)
49°16?39.18?N 6°40?22.72?E / 49.2775500°N 6.6729778°E / 49.2775500; 6.6729778 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 4)
Spare antenna:
49°17?8.93?N 6°39?31.71?E / 49.2858139°N 6.6588083°E / 49.2858139; 6.6588083 (Europe 1 transmitter, backup antenna, mast 1)
49°17?1.54?N 6°39?23.6?E / 49.2837611°N 6.656556°E / 49.2837611; 6.656556 (Europe 1 transmitter, backup antenna, mast 2)
189 Rai Radio 1  Italy Caltanissetta Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 282 m 10 37°29?53.05?N 14°04?04.08?E / 37.4980694°N 14.0678000°E / 37.4980694; 14.0678000 (Caltanissetta transmitter)
Sveriges Radio P1  Sweden Orlunda, near Motala 300 58°25?37?N 14°58?38?E / 58.42694°N 14.97722°E / 58.42694; 14.97722 (Orlunda radio transmitter)
Radio Rossii  Russia Kostantinogradovka near Blagoveshchensk Omnidirectional aerial, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1200 50°30?23.58?N 128°18?32.9?E / 50.5065500°N 128.309139°E / 50.5065500; 128.309139 (Blagoveschensk transmitter)
Sakartvelos Radio  Georgia Dusheti 250 42°03?1.76?N 44°40?37.56?E / 42.0504889°N 44.6771000°E / 42.0504889; 44.6771000 (Dusheti transmitter)
198
Polskie Radio Parlament/Radio Polonia  Poland Raszyn Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast insulated against ground, 335 m high 200 52°4?21.72?N 20°53?2.15?E / 52.0727000°N 20.8839306°E / 52.0727000; 20.8839306 (Raszyn Radio Mast)
Radio Mayak  Russia Saint Petersburg - Olgino Omnidirectional aerial, 205 m high guyed steel lattice mast 150 59°59?30.01?N 30°07?38.81?E / 59.9916694°N 30.1274472°E / 59.9916694; 30.1274472 (Olgino Radio Mast)
Radio Mayak  Russia Angarsk Before 2001: T-antenna spun between 2 205 m tall guyed steel lattice mast 250 52°31?51.95?N 103°52?9.46?E / 52.5310972°N 103.8692944°E / 52.5310972; 103.8692944 (Angarsk Radio Mast), possibly 52°26?10.17?N 103°41?1.05?E / 52.4361583°N 103.6836250°E / 52.4361583; 103.6836250 (Irkutsk Radio Mast)
Radio Mayak  Russia Avsyunino Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 55°35?13.75?N 39°09?57.84?E / 55.5871528°N 39.1660667°E / 55.5871528; 39.1660667 (Avsyunino Radio Mast)
Radio Mayak  Russia Ufa 150 54°46?19.73?N 56°0?17.02?E / 54.7721472°N 56.0047278°E / 54.7721472; 56.0047278 (Ufa Radio Majak transmitter)
Radio 1  Kyrgyzstan Krasnaya Rechka near Bishkek 150 42°52?51.9?N 74°59?43.79?E / 42.881083°N 74.9954972°E / 42.881083; 74.9954972 (Krasnorechenka transmitter)
207 RNE Radio 5  Spain Logroño Directional antenna, 300 metres tall. >100
Radio Ukraine 1  Ukraine Brovary Omnidirectional antenna, 259.6 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 600 50°29?48.8?N 30°48?9.2?E / 50.496889°N 30.802556°E / 50.496889; 30.802556 (Brovary Longwave Mast)
Radio al-Urdunniya  Jordan Al Karanah ? 31°45?55.47?N 36°28?44.97?E / 31.7654083°N 36.4791583°E / 31.7654083; 36.4791583 (Al Karanah Longwave Mast) ; 31°45?29.66?N 36°28?59.11?E / 31.7582389°N 36.4830861°E / 31.7582389; 36.4830861 (Al Karanah Longwave Mast)
Radio Mayak  Russia Tynda Omnidirectional aerial, steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 244 m 150 55°05?19.31?N 124°43?9.7?E / 55.0886972°N 124.719361°E / 55.0886972; 124.719361 (Tynda Longwave Mast)
Deutschlandfunk  Germany Aholming Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 265 m high, fed at the top 500 48°43?50.55?N 12°55?47.04?E / 48.7307083°N 12.9297333°E / 48.7307083; 12.9297333 (Aholming transmitter, Mast 1)  ; 48°43?38.46?N 12°56?2.06?E / 48.7273500°N 12.9339056°E / 48.7273500; 12.9339056 (Aholming transmitter, Mast 2)
216 Radio Monte Carlo Info  France Roumoules Directional aerial, three 300 metres (980 ft) high guyed steel lattice masts, 330 metres (1,080 ft) high guyed steel lattice mast as backup aerial 700
/
1400
43°47?41.45?N 6°8?48.41?E / 43.7948472°N 6.1467806°E / 43.7948472; 6.1467806 (Roumoules long-wave transmitter, mast 1)
43°47?34.56?N 6°8?59.09?E / 43.7929333°N 6.1497472°E / 43.7929333; 6.1497472 (Roumoules long-wave transmitter, mast 2)
43°47?27.7?N 6°9?9.85?E / 43.791028°N 6.1527361°E / 43.791028; 6.1527361 (Roumoules long-wave transmitter, mast 3),
Backup antenna:
43°47?36.29?N 6°9?30.61?E / 43.7934139°N 6.1585028°E / 43.7934139; 6.1585028 (Roumoules transmitter, long-wave backup mast)
Radio Rossii  Russia Krasnoyarsk Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 210 m tall 150 56°02?02.97?N 92°45?32.31?E / 56.0341583°N 92.7589750°E / 56.0341583; 92.7589750 (Krasnoyarsk Longwave Transmitter)
Radio Rossii  Russia Atamanovka Directional antenna 150 51°50?02?N 113°43?10?E / 51.83389°N 113.71944°E / 51.83389; 113.71944 (Atamanovka Longwave Transmitter)
Radio Rossii  Russia Birobidzhan 2 guyed masts, 260 m high 30 48°44?19.37?N 132°48?3.95?E / 48.7387139°N 132.8010972°E / 48.7387139; 132.8010972 (Birobidzhan Longwave Transmitter) ; 48°44?14.71?N 132°48?32.6?E / 48.7374194°N 132.809056°E / 48.7374194; 132.809056 (Birobidzhan Longwave Transmitter)
225 TRT GAP  Turkey Van Omnidirectional antenna, 250 m high guyed lattice steel mast 600 38°35?11.47?N 43°15?59.17?E / 38.5865194°N 43.2664361°E / 38.5865194; 43.2664361 (Van transmitter)
Radio Rossii  Russia Surgut Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1000 61°23?35?N 72°53?20?E / 61.39306°N 72.88889°E / 61.39306; 72.88889 (Surgut transmitter)
234 Radio 1  Russia Krasny Bor transmitter near Sankt-Peterburg Omnidirectional aerial, 271.5 metres tall guyed mast with cage antenna 1200 59°39?12.32?N 30°41?50.12?E / 59.6534222°N 30.6972556°E / 59.6534222; 30.6972556 (Krasny Bor transmitter)
Radio Rossii  Russia Koskovo near Murmansk Omnidirectional aerial, 210 m tall guyed mast 250 64°21?35.83?N 41°23?4.01?E / 64.3599528°N 41.3844472°E / 64.3599528; 41.3844472 (Koskovo transmitter)
Radio 1  Russia Novosemeykino near Samara Four 205 metres tall towers insulated against ground arranged in a square 2000 53°22?59.44?N 50°20?13.84?E / 53.3831778°N 50.3371778°E / 53.3831778; 50.3371778 (Novosemeykino transmitter) ; 53°22?59.53?N 50°20?19.23?E / 53.3832028°N 50.3386750°E / 53.3832028; 50.3386750 (Novosemeykino transmitter) ; 53°22?56.2?N 50°20?13.94?E / 53.382278°N 50.3372056°E / 53.382278; 50.3372056 (Novosemeykino transmitter) ; 53°22?56.31?N 50°20?19.32?E / 53.3823083°N 50.3387000°E / 53.3823083; 50.3387000 (Novosemeykino transmitter)
Radio Rossii  Russia Raduzhnyy near Magadan Omnidirectional aerial, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1000 59°42?51.14?N 150°11?29.9?E / 59.7142056°N 150.191639°E / 59.7142056; 150.191639 (Raduzhnyy transmitter)
Radio Rossii  Russia Odinsk near Irkutsk Omnidirectional aerial, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 500 52°24?57.43?N 103°42?0.29?E / 52.4159528°N 103.7000806°E / 52.4159528; 103.7000806 (Odinsk transmitter)
Radio 1  Russia Koskovo near Arkhangelsk Omnidirectional aerial, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 500 64°21?50.92?N 41°24?41.8?E / 64.3641444°N 41.411611°E / 64.3641444; 41.411611 (Koskovo transmitter)
243 TRT Radyo 4  Turkey Erzurum Omnidirectional antenna, 185 m high guyed lattice steel mast 200 39°59?53.59?N 41°06?40.95?E / 39.9982194°N 41.1113750°E / 39.9982194; 41.1113750 (Erzurum Transmitter)
Radio Rossii  Russia Razdolnoye near Ussuriysk Omnidirectional antenna, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1000 43°32?18?N 131°55?46?E / 43.53833°N 131.92944°E / 43.53833; 131.92944 (Razdoly'ne Transmitter)
Kazakh Radio 2 Shalkar  Kazakhstan Karaganda Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 254 m height 1000 49°47?32.45?N 73°01?40.15?E / 49.7923472°N 73.0278194°E / 49.7923472; 73.0278194 (Karaganda Transmitter)
252 Yle Radio 1  Finland Lahti 200 60°58?48?N 25°38?39?E / 60.980137°N 25.644195°E / 60.980137; 25.644195 (Lahti longwave transmitter), 60°58?43?N 25°38?57?E / 60.978747°N 25.649155°E / 60.978747; 25.649155 (Lahti longwave transmitter)
Radio Rossii  Russia Kazan Omnidirectional aerial, 152 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 100 55°49?6.3?N 49°10?24.64?E / 55.818417°N 49.1735111°E / 55.818417; 49.1735111 (Kazan longwave mast)
261 Radioropa Info  Germany Burg Omnidirectional aerial, cage aerial on 324 m high guyed, grounded steel lattice mast, 210 m high steel tube mast, insulated against ground 200 52°17?12.93?N 11°53?50.52?E / 52.2869250°N 11.8973667°E / 52.2869250; 11.8973667 (Burg transmitter, main mast)
Radio Rossii  Russia Taldom Omnidirectional antenna, circle antenna with 1 central and 5 ring masts, height of central mast 275 m 2500 56°43?59.86?N 37°39?47.51?E / 56.7332944°N 37.6631972°E / 56.7332944; 37.6631972 (Taldom transmitter, Central Mast) ; 56°44?10.32?N 37°39?46.53?E / 56.7362000°N 37.6629250°E / 56.7362000; 37.6629250 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°44?2.54?N 37°39?29.17?E / 56.7340389°N 37.6581028°E / 56.7340389; 37.6581028 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°43?51.09?N 37°39?37.2?E / 56.7308583°N 37.660333°E / 56.7308583; 37.660333 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°43?51.76?N 37°39?59.6?E / 56.7310444°N 37.666556°E / 56.7310444; 37.666556 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast) ; 56°44?3.64?N 37°40?5.34?E / 56.7343444°N 37.6681500°E / 56.7343444; 37.6681500 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast)
Radio Rossii  Russia Kruchina near Chita Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 260 m high 150 51°50?22.5?N 113°44?8.9?E / 51.839583°N 113.735806°E / 51.839583; 113.735806 (Chita Longwave Mast)
Radio Rossii  Russia Tyumen Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 220 m high 150
Radio Rossii  Russia Vorkuta Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 220 m high 50
Radio Horizont  Bulgaria Vakarel One of the few Blaw-Knox Towers in Europe, 215 m high 75 42°34?35.18?N 23°41?55.52?E / 42.5764389°N 23.6987556°E / 42.5764389; 23.6987556 (Vakarel Transmitter)
270 Radio Rossii  Russia Orenburg Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 137 m height 25 51°46?44.37?N 55°06?23.01?E / 51.7789917°N 55.1063917°E / 51.7789917; 55.1063917 (Orenburg transmitter)
Radio 1  Russia Khabarovsk 2 guyed steel lattice masts, height: 164 m 150 48°30?43.48?N 135°07?02.24?E / 48.5120778°N 135.1172889°E / 48.5120778; 135.1172889 (Chabarovsk transmitter) ; 48°30?48.75?N 135°07?18.15?E / 48.5135417°N 135.1217083°E / 48.5135417; 135.1217083 (Chabarovsk transmitter)
279 Radio Rossii  Russia Gorno-Altaisk Omnidirectional antenna, 143m high guyed lattice steel mast 50 51°58?1.12?N 85°54?54.68?E / 51.9669778°N 85.9151889°E / 51.9669778; 85.9151889 (Gorno-Altaisk transmitter)
Radio Rossii  Russia Selenginsk Omnidirectional aerial, 260 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna (ARRT-antenna) 150 52°02?17.52?N 106°56?25.6?E / 52.0382000°N 106.940444°E / 52.0382000; 106.940444 (Selenginsk transmitter)
Radio Rossii  Russia Vestochka near Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 258 m high 1000 46°50?35?N 142°53?44?E / 46.84306°N 142.89556°E / 46.84306; 142.89556 (Vestochka transmitter)
Radio Rossii  Russia Yekaterinburg Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 256 m height, fed at the top 150 56°53?22.46?N 60°41?30.22?E / 56.8895722°N 60.6917278°E / 56.8895722; 60.6917278 (Yekaterinburg longwave transmitter)
BR Pershy Kanal/BR Radyjo Stalitsa  Belarus Sasnovy 353.5 metres tall guyed mast 500 53°24?31?N 28°31?57?E / 53.40861°N 28.53250°E / 53.40861; 28.53250 (Sasnovy transmitter)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Wave length and frequency are inversely related, with lower frequencies corresponding to longer wavelengths; 300 kHz corresponds to 1,000 m.

References

  1. ^ Graf, Rudolf F. (1999). Modern Dictionary of Electronics, 7th Ed. US: Newnes. p. 23. ISBN 0750698667.
  2. ^ a b "long wave". Macmillan Online Dictionary. Macmillan Publishers Limited. Archived from the original on 11 August 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  3. ^ "long wave". Cambridge Online Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 20 August 2016. Retrieved 2016 – via Cambridge.org.
  4. ^ Graf, Rudolf F. (1999). Modern Dictionary of Electronics (7th ed.). Newnes. p. 437. ISBN 0750698667.
  5. ^ a b "About LWCA". Longwave Club of America. Archived from the original on 27 June 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  6. ^ Barun Roy (September 2009). Enter The World of Mass Media. Pustak Mahal. p. 21. ISBN 978-81-223-1080-1.
  7. ^ Seybold, John S. (2005). Introduction to RF Propagation. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 55-58. ISBN 0471743682.
  8. ^ Alan Melia, G3NYK. "Understanding LF Propagation". Radcom. Bedford, UK: Radio Society of Great Britain. 85 (9): 32.
  9. ^ SAQ Transmission. Archived 7 April 2015 at Wikiwix Radiostation Grimeton SAQ. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  10. ^ Ground-wave propagation curves for frequencies between 10 kHz and 30 MHz. Archived 24 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine ITU-R Recommendation P.368-9
  11. ^ Guide to Broadcasting Stations (17th ed.). Butterworth. 1973. p. 18. ISBN 0-592-00081-8.
  12. ^ "Russia says 'So long, long-wave'". 7 May 2018. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 2018 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  13. ^ http://www.classaxe.com/dx/ndb/rww/stats#top Archived 16 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ de:Langwellenrundfunk[better source needed]
  15. ^ World Radio TV Handbook
  16. ^ "MWLIST quick and easy: Europe, Africa and Middle East". www.mwlist.org. Archived from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  17. ^ "MWLIST quick and easy: Asia and Pacific". www.mwlist.org. Archived from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  18. ^ "Ulan Bator Longwave Transmission Mast (Ulan Bator) - Structurae". Structurae. Retrieved 2018.
  19. ^ [1]
  20. ^ Lonergan, Aidan. "RTÉ Longwave 252 to stay until closure by June 2019 - with digital replacement planned - The Irish Post". irishpost.co.uk. Archived from the original on 10 December 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  21. ^ Longwave Radio to continue for the benefit of Diaspora - Minister Naughton Fine Gael, 25 April 2019.

External links


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