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The Lockheed L-100 Hercules is the civilian variant of the prolific C-130 Hercules military transport aircraft made by the Lockheed Corporation. Its first flight occurred in 1964. Longer L-100-20 and L-100-30 versions were developed. L-100 production ended in 1992 with 114 aircraft delivered. An updated variant of the model, LM-100J, has completed its first flight in Marietta, Georgia on May 25, 2017, and was set to start production in 2018-19.
In 1959, Pan American World Airways ordered 12 of Lockheed's GL-207 Super Hercules to be delivered by 1962, to be powered by four 6,000 eshp Allison T56 turboprops.Slick Airways was to receive 6 such aircraft later in 1962. The Super Hercules was to be 23 ft 4 in (7.11 m) longer than the C-130B; a variant powered by 6,445 eshp Rolls-Royce Tynes and a jet-powered variant with four Pratt & Whitney JT3D-11 turbofans were also under development. Both Pan American and Slick Airways (which had ordered six) cancelled their orders and the other variants did not evolve past design studies.
Lockheed decided to produce a commercial variant based on a de-militarised version of the C-130E Hercules. The prototype L-100 (registered N1130E) first flew on April 20, 1964 when it carried out a 1-hour, 25-minute flight. The type certificate was awarded on February 16, 1965. Twenty-one production aircraft were then built with the first delivery to Continental Air Services on September 30, 1965.
Lockheed L-100-20 of Delta Air Lines operating a freight flight from Atlanta Airport, Georgia, in 1972
French L-100 in 1981
Saudi L-100 in 2011
Slow sales led to the development of two new, longer versions, the L-100-20 and L-100-30, both of which were larger and more economical than the original model. Deliveries totaled 114 aircraft, with production ending in 1992. Several L-100-20 aircraft were operated on scheduled freight flights by Delta Air Lines between 1968 and 1973.
An updated civilian version of the Lockheed Martin C-130J-30 Super Hercules was under development, but the program was placed on hold indefinitely in 2000 to focus on military development and production. On February 3, 2014, Lockheed Martin formally relaunched the LM-100J program, saying it expects to sell 75 aircraft. Lockheed sees the new LM-100J as an ideal replacement for the existing civil L-100 fleets.
The launch operator for the LM-100J will be Pallas Aviation, from 2019 they will operate two aircraft from Fort Worth Alliance Airport in the United States.
Civilian variants are equivalent to the C-130E model without pylon tanks or military equipment.
L-100 (Model 382)
One prototype powered by four Allison 501-D22s and first flown in 1964
L-100 (Model 382B)
L-100-20 (Model 382E and Model 382F)
Stretched variant certified in 1968 with a new 5 ft (1.5 m) section forward of the wing and 3 ft 4 in (1.02 m) section aft of the wing.
L-100-30 (Model 382G)
A further stretched variant with an additional 6 ft 8 in (2.03 m) fuselage section.
LM-100J (Model 382J)
An updated civilian version of the military C-130J model.
L-400 Twin Hercules
A twin-engine variant of the C-130. It was advertised in at least one publication that it would have "more than 90% parts commonality" with the standard C-130. The aircraft was shelved in the mid-1980s without any being built.
Maximum speed: 308 kn (354 mph, 570 km/h) at 20,000 ft (6,100 m)
Cruise speed: 292 kn (336 mph, 541 km/h)
Range: 1,334 nmi (1,535 mi, 2,470 km)
Ferry range: 4,826 nmi (5,554 mi, 8,938 km)
Service ceiling: 23,000 ft (7,000 m)
Rate of climb: 1,830 ft/min (9.3 m/s)
Accidents and incidents
On April 11, 1968: a Zambian Air Cargo L-100-10 (registration 9J-RCY) was destroyed in a ground collision with another L-100 (9J-RBX) at Ndola, when returning from Dar es Salaam due to a brake failure.
On April 30, 1968: a Pakistan Air Force L-100-20 (serial number 24142) (6th Squadron) crashed into a mountain in Pakistan. All ten aboard perished.
On May 18, 1968: an Aérea-Aerovías Ecuatorianas L-100-20 (U.S. registration N9267R) burned after a propeller struck the ground while taxiing in Macuma, Ecuador. There were no fatalities.
On July 16, 1969: a Pacific Western Airlines L-100-20 (registration CF-PWO) crashed in Cayaya, Peru, after a wing hit the ground during go-around in fog.
On November 21, 1976: a Pacific Western Airlines L-100-20 (registration CF-PWX) crashed in Eastville, Kisangani, Zaire (today Democratic Republic of the Congo), low fuel, emergency landing in fog at airfield for night and lights off on arrival, not enough fuel to return, let down in jungle, one survivor.
On February 19, 1978: a Peruvian Air Force L-100-20 (registration 394) crashed when engine shut down during take-off in Tarapoto, Peru.
On May 15, 1979: a TAAG Angola Airlines L-100-20 (registration D2-FAF) damaged when it overshot landing in São Tomé and was written off.
On September 5, 1980: a Kuwait Air Force L-100-20 (serial number KAF-317) crashed near Montelimar in southeastern France due to a lightning strike.
On April 24, 1981: a Peruvian Air Force L-100-20 (registration FAP-396) had an emergency landing at night, no fuel, near San Juan, Peru.
On May 16, 1981: an Angola Air Charter L-100-20 (registration D2-EAS) was shot down by an infrared missile near Menongue, the provincial center of the Cuando Cubango province, Angola. The cause of the crash was similar to that of the Aeroflot Antonov An-12 four years later.
On June 9, 1983: a Peruvian Air Force L-100-20 (registration FAP-383) crashed in Puerto Maldonado near southern Peru.
On June 8, 1986: an Angola Air Charter L-100-20 (registration D2-THA) wheels up landing in Dondo, Angola and was written off.
On October 14, 1987: a Zimex Aviation L-100-30 (registration HB-ILF) was shot down after take-off in Cuito, Angola.
On April 9, 1989: a Transafrik L-100-20 (registration S9-NAI) had a crash landing at Luena, Moxico Province, Angola due to a fire in two engines.
On August 1, 1989: an Air Algérie Lockheed L-100-30 (registration 7T-VHK) was damaged when it skidded off the runway while making an emergency landing in Tamanrasset, Algeria and was written off.
On January 5, 1990: an Angola Air Charter L-100-20 (registration D2-FAG) was hit by an anti-aircraft missile, stalled and crash-landed in Menonque, Angola and was written off.
On February 27, 1991: a Kuwait Air Force L-100-30 (serial number 322) was hit by a bomb, the center fuselage was badly damaged. Transported by road to Kuwait and scrapped in March 1995.
On March 16, 1991: an L-100-30 leased to Transafrik (registration CP-1564) was shot down by the UNITA FIM-92 Stinger missile in Malanje, Angola.
On September 17, 1991: an Ethiopian Airlines L-100-30 (registration ET-AJL) crashed into a mountain near Arey in the south of Djibouti.
On April 7, 1994: a TAAG Angola Airlines L-100-20 (registration D2-THC) was damaged beyond repair by fire after landing at Malenge, Angola and overheated its brakes.
On September 23, 1994: a Heavylift Cargo Service [a] L-100-30 (registration PK-PLV) leased from Pelita Air Service, crashed off Kai Tak International Airport in Hong Kong after the number four propeller oversped, killing six of the 12 on board.
On December 26, 1998: a Transafrik L-100-30 (registration S9-CAO)) was shot down by UNITA after take-off from Huambo, Angola on an UN mission.
On January 2, 1999: a Transafrik L-100-30 (registration D2-EHD) and operating for the United Nations was shot down by UNITA after take-off from Huambo, Angola.
On December 27, 1999: a Transafrik L-100-30 (registration S9-NOP) ran off a wet runway on landing in Luzamba, Angola, it went into a 40-foot ravine and was written off.
On December 20, 2001: an Indonesian Air Force L-100-30 (serial number A-1329) was written off during landing in Malikul Saleh when it ran off the runway.
On August 13, 2006: Air Algérie Flight 2208, a Lockheed L-100-30 Hercules (registration 7T-VHG) cargo flight crashed in Northern Italy as a result of an autopilot malfunction. The aircraft struck the ground in a sparsely populated area after a very steep and rapid descent, narrowly avoiding crashing into a highly populated zone. All three crew members were killed
On August 25, 2008: a Philippine Air Force L-100-20 (serial number 4593) of 220th Airlift Wing based in Mactan, Cebu, crashed into the sea shortly after take-off in Davao City. The aircraft lost contact after taking off from Francisco Bangoy International Airport shortly before midnight. Two pilots and seven crewmen; an Instructor Flight Engineer, student flight engineer, Crew Chief, two Load Masters, a student Load Master, a flight mechanic and two Scout Rangers were on board when the aircraft crashed.
On May 20, 2009: an Indonesian Air Force L-100-30 (serial number A-1325) of 31st Squadron crashed into homes and erupted in flames, killing at least 98 people. The wreckage of the Hercules was scattered in a rice paddy near Magetan, East Java, about 160 kilometres east of Yogyakarta. The plane was carrying more than 100 passengers and crew on route from Jakarta to the eastern province of Papua via Magetan.