List of Operating Systems
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List of Operating Systems
This is a
list of operating systems. Computer operating systems can be categorized by technology, ownership, licensing, working state, usage, and by many other characteristics. In practice, many of these groupings may overlap. Criteria for inclusion is notability, as shown either through an existing popflock.com resource article or citation to a reliable source.
Unix ("Ken's new system," for its creator ( Ken Thompson), officially Unics and then Unix, the prototypic operating system created in Bell Labs in 1969 that formed the basis for the Unix family of operating systems)
Non-Unix Operating Systems:
Burroughs Corporation, Unisys
AROS Research Operating System
Control Data Corporation
Chippewa Operating System (COS)
MACE (Mansfield and Cahlander Executive)
Kronos (Kronographic OS)
NOS (Network Operating System)
NOS/BE NOS Batch Environment
NOS/VE NOS Virtual Environment
SCOPE (Supervisory Control Of Program Execution) SIPROS (for Simultaneous Processing Operating System) EP/IX (Enhanced Performance Unix)
CTOS Cassette Tape Operating System for the
Datapoint 2200  DOS Disk Operating System for the Datapoint 2200, 5500, and 1100 
Deos - Time & Space Partitioned RTOS, Certified to DO-178B, Level A since 1998 HeartOS - POSIX-based Hard Real-Time Operating System
Digital Research, Inc.
Concurrent DOS, the successor of Concurrent CP/M-86 with PC-MODE
Concurrent DOS 68K, a port of Concurrent DOS to Motorola 68000 CPUs with DOS source code portability capabilities
FlexOS 1.0 - 2.34, a derivative of Concurrent DOS 286
Multiuser DOS, the successor of Concurrent DOS 386
DOS Plus 1.1 - 2.1, a single-user, multi-tasking system derived from Concurrent DOS 4.1 - 5.0 DR-DOS 3.31 - 6.0, a single-user, single-tasking native DOS derived from Concurrent DOS 6.0
Digital Equipment Corporation, Tandem Computers, Compaq, Hewlett-Packard
OSE - Flexible, small footprint, high-performance RTOS for control processors
General Electric, Honeywell, Bull
Chromium OS is an open source operating system development version of Chrome OS. Both operating systems are based on the Linux kernel.
Chrome OS is designed to work exclusively with web applications. Announced on July 7, 2009, Chrome OS is currently publicly available and was released summer 2011. The Chrome OS source code was released on November 19, 2009, under the BSD license as Chromium OS. Container-Optimized OS (COS) is an operating system that is optimized for running Docker containers, based on Chromium OS. 
Android is an operating system for mobile devices. It consists of Android Runtime (userland) with Linux (kernel), with its Linux kernel modified to add drivers for mobile device hardware and to remove unused Vanilla Linux drivers.
gLinux, a Linux distribution that Google uses internally
Fuchsia is a capability-based, real-time, operating system (RTOS) scalable to universal devices, in early development, from the tiniest embedded hardware, wristwatches, tablets to the largest personal computers. Unlike Chrome OS and Android, it is not based on the Linux kernel, but instead began on a new microkernel called "Zircon", derived from "Little Kernel". Wear OS a version of Google's Android operating system designed for smartwatches and other wearables.
Green Hills Software
Vulcan O/S - Proprietary O/S for Harris' Computer Systems (HCX) Harris UNIX - Proprietary UNIX based OS for Harris' Computers (MCX)
Heathkit, Zenith Data Systems
HP Multi-Programming Executive (MPE, MPE/XL, and MPE/iX) - runs on HP 3000 and HP e3000 mini-computers
HP-UX - runs on HP9000 and Itanium servers (from small to mainframe-class computers) NonStop OS - runs on HP's NonStop line of Itanium servers
iRMX - real-time operating system originally created to support the Intel 8080 and 8086 processor families in embedded applications. ISIS, ISIS-II - "Intel Systems Implementation Supervisor" was an environment for development of software within the Intel microprocessor family in the early 1980s on their Intellec Microcomputer Development System and clones. ISIS-II worked with 8 inch floppy disks and had an editor, cross-assemblers, a linker, an object locator, debugger, compilers for PL/M, a BASIC interpreter, etc. and allowed file management through a console.
On early mainframes: 1400, 701, 704, 709, 7090, 7094
On S/360, S/370, and successor mainframes
OS/360 and successors on IBM S/360, S/370, and successor mainframes
OS/360 (first official OS targeted for the System/360 architecture)
PCP (Primary Control Program, a kernel and a ground breaking automatic space allocating file system)
MFT (original Multi-programming with a Fixed number of Tasks, replaced by MFT II)
MFT II (Multi-Programming with a Fixed number of Tasks, had up to 15 fixed size application partitions, plus partitions for system tasks, initially defined at boot time but redefinable by operator command) MVT (Multi-Programming Variable Tasks, had up to 15 application regions defined dynamically, plus additional regions for system tasks) OS/VS (port of OS/360 targeted for the
System/370 virtual memory architecture, "OS/370" is not correct name for OS/VS1 and OS/VS2, but rather refers to OS/VS2 MVS and MVS/SP Version 1), Customer installations in the following variations:
SVS (Single Virtual Storage, both VS1 & VS2 began as SVS systems)
OS/VS1 (Operating System/Virtual Storage 1, Virtual-memory version of MFT II) OS/VS2 (Operating System/Virtual Storage 2, Virtual-memory version of OS/MVT but without multiprocessing support)
MVS/SE (MVS System Extensions)
MVS/SP (MVS System Product)
MVS/XA (MVS/SP V2. MVS supported eXtended Architecture, 31-bit addressing)
MVS/ESA (MVS supported Enterprise System Architecture, horizontal addressing extensions: data only address spaces called Dataspaces; a Unix environment was available starting with MVS/ESA V4R3)
OS/390 (Upgrade from MVS, with an additional Unix environment)
Phoenix/MVS (Developed at Cambridge University) z/OS (OS/390 supported z/Architecture, 64-bit addressing)
DOS/360 and successors on IBM S/360, S/370, and successor mainframes
BOS/360 (early interim version of DOS/360, briefly available at a few Alpha & Beta System/360 sites)
TOS/360 (similar to BOS above and more fleeting, able to boot and run from 2x00 series tape drives)
DOS/360 (Disk Operating System (DOS), multi-programming system with up to 3 partitions, first commonly available OS for System/360)
DOS/360/RJE (DOS/360 with a control program extension that provided for the monitoring of remote job entry hardware (card reader & printer) connected by dedicated phone lines)
DOS/VS (First DOS offered on System/370 systems, provided virtual storage)
DOS/VSE (also known as VSE, upgrade of DOS/VS, up to 14 fixed size processing partitions )
VSE/SP (program product replacing DOS/VSE and VSE/AF) VSE/ESA (DOS/VSE extended virtual memory support to 32-bit addresses (Extended System Architecture)).
z/VSE (latest version of the four decades old DOS lineage, supports 64-bit addresses, multiprocessing, multiprogramming, SNA, TCP/IP, and some virtual machine features in support of Linux workloads) CP/CMS (Control Program/Cambridge Monitor System) and successors on IBM S/360, S/370, and successor mainframes
TPF Line (Transaction Processing Facility) on IBM S/360, S/370, and successor mainframes (largely used by airlines)
Unix-like on IBM S/360, S/370, and successor mainframes
Others on IBM S/360, S/370, and successor mainframes:
BOS/360 (Basic Operating System)
MTS (Michigan Terminal System, developed by a group of universities in the US, Canada, and the UK for the IBM System/360 Model 67, System/370 series, and compatible mainframes) RTOS/360 (IBM's Real Time Operating System, ran on 5 NASA custom System/360-75s)
TOS/360 (Tape Operating System)
TSS/360 (IBM's Time Sharing System)
MUSIC/SP (developed by McGill University for IBM System/370) ORVYL and WYLBUR (developed by Stanford University for IBM System/360)
On PC and Intel x86 based architectures
PC DOS, IBM DOS
PC DOS 1.x, 2.x, 3.x (developed jointly with Microsoft)
IBM DOS 4.x, 5.0 (developed jointly with Microsoft)
PC DOS 6.1, 6.3, 7, 2000, 7.10
On other hardware platforms
DMS (Disk Monitor System)
TSX (Time Sharing eXecutive) MPX (Multi Programming eXecutive)
DPCX (Distributed Processing Control eXecutive) DPPX (Distributed Processing Programming Executive)
DMS (Disk Management System)
IBM System/34, IBM System/36
SSP (System Support Program)
CPF (Control Program Facility)
AS/400, iSeries, System i, Power Systems i Edition
IBM i (previously known as OS/400 and i5/OS, descendant of System/38 CPF, includes System/36 SSP and AIX environment)
UNIX on IBM RT PC
AOS (a BSD Unix version, not related to Data General AOS) AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive, a System V Unix version)
UNIX on POWER ISA, PowerPC, and Power ISA
AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive, a System V Unix version) Others
International Computers Limited
J and MultiJob - for the System 4 series mainframes
GEORGE 2/3/4 GEneral ORGanisational Environment - used by ICL 1900 series mainframes
Executive - used on the 1900 and 290x range of minicomputers. A modified version of Executive was also used as part of GEORGE 3 and 4.
TME - used on the ME29 minicomputer
ICL VME - including early variants VME/B and VME/2900, appearing on the ICL 2900 Series and Series 39 mainframes, implemented in S3 VME/K - on early smaller 2900s
Lynx Real-time Systems, LynuxWorks, Lynx Software Technologies
MicroC/OS-II - small pre-emptive priority based multi-tasking kernel MicroC/OS-III - small pre-emptive priority based multi-tasking kernel, with unlimited number of tasks and priorities, and round robin scheduling
TMX - Transaction Management eXecutive
IMOS - Interactive Multiprogramming Operating System (circa 1978), for the NCR Century 8200 series minicomputers VRX - Virtual Resource eXecutive
ES is a computer operating system developed originally by Nintendo and since 2008 by Esrille. It is open source and runs natively on x86 platforms.
NetWare - network operating system providing high-performance network services. Has been superseded by Open Enterprise Server line, which can be based on NetWare or Linux to provide the same set of services.
Open Enterprise Server - the successor to NetWare
RTXC Quadros RTOS - proprietary C-based RTOS used in embedded systems
Time Sharing Operating System (TSOS) - first OS supporting virtual addressing of the main storage and support for both timeshare and batch interface
DSPnano RTOS - 8/16 Bit Ultra Tiny Embedded Linux Compatible RTOS
Tizen is an operating system based on the Linux kernel, a project within the Linux Foundation and is governed by a Technical Steering Group (TSG) while controlled by Samsung and backed by Intel. Tizen works on a wide range of Samsung devices including smartphones, tablets, smart TVs, PCs and wearable. One UI
SCO, SCO Group 
Xenix, Unix System III based distribution for the Intel 8086/8088 architecture
Xenix 286, Unix System V Release 2 based distribution for the Intel 80286 architecture Xenix 386, Unix System V Release 2 based distribution for the Intel 80386 architecture
SCO Unix, SCO UNIX System V/386 was the first volume commercial product licensed by AT&T to use the UNIX System trademark (1989). Derived from AT&T System V Release 3.2 with an infusion of Xenix device drivers and utilities plus most of the SVR4 features
SCO Open Desktop, the first 32-bit graphical user interface for UNIX Systems running on Intel processor-based computers. Based on SCO Unix
SCO OpenServer 5, AT&T UNIX System V Release 3 based
SCO OpenServer 6, SVR5 (UnixWare 7) based kernel with SCO OpenServer 5 application and binary compatibility, system administration, and user environments UnixWare
UnixWare 2.x, based on AT&T System V Release 4.2MP UnixWare 7, UnixWare 2 kernel plus parts of 3.2v5 (UnixWare 2 + OpenServer 5 = UnixWare 7). Referred to by SCO as SVR5
Scientific Data Systems (SDS)
PikeOS - a certified real time operating system for safety and security critical embedded systems
TRSDOS - A floppy-disk-oriented OS supplied by Tandy/Radio Shack for their TRS-80 Z80-based line of personal computers. Eventually renamed as LS-DOS or LDOS.
Color BASIC - A ROM-based OS created by Microsoft for the TRS-80 Color Computer.
NewDos/80 - A third-party OS for Tandy's TRS-80 personal computers. DeskMate - Operating system created by Tandy Corporation and introduced with the Tandy 1000 computer.
TCSC (later NCSC)
TI-RTOS Kernel - Real-time operating system for TI's embedded devices.
WPS Wang Word Processing System. Micro-code based system. OIS Wang Office Information System. Successor to the WPS. Combined the WPS and VP/MVP systems.
Wind River Systems
VxWorks - Small footprint, scalable, high-performance RTOS for embedded microprocessor based systems. 
For Elektronika BK
Other proprietary non-Unix-like
?-1 (Elbrus-1) and ?-2 - used for application, job control, system programming, implemented in  u-76 (AL-76).
EOS - developed by ETA Systems for use in their ETA-10 line of supercomputers EMBOS - developed by
Elxsi for use on their mini-supercomputers
GCOS - a proprietary Operating System originally developed by General Electric
MAI Basic Four - An OS implementing Business Basic from MAI Systems.
Michigan Terminal System - Developed by a group of universities in the US, Canada, and the UK for use on the IBM System/360 Model 67, the System/370 series, and compatible mainframes
MUSIC/SP - an operating system developed for the S/370, running normally under VM OS ES - an operating system for
PC-MOS/386 - DOS-like, but multiuser/multitasking Prolog-Dispatcher - used to control Soviet
Buran space ship.
SINTRAN III - an operating system used with Norsk Data computers.
SkyOS - commercial desktop OS for PCs
SODA - used by the Odra 1204 computers. 
TSX-32 - a 32-bit operating system for x86 platform. TX990/TXDS, DX10 and DNOS - proprietary operating systems for TI-990 minicomputers
Other proprietary Unix-like and POSIX-compliant
Aegis ( Apollo Computer)
Amiga Unix (Amiga ports of Unix System V release 3.2 with Amiga A2500UX and SVR4 with Amiga A3000UX. Started in 1990, last version was in 1992)
Coherent ( Unix-like OS from Mark Williams Co. for PC class computers)
DC/OSx (DataCenter/OSx—an operating system developed by Pyramid Technology for its MIPS-based systems)
DG/UX (Data General Corp)
DNIX from DIAB
DSPnano RTOS (POSIX nanokernel, DSP Optimized, Open Source)
HeliOS developed and sold by Perihelion Software mainly for transputer-based systems
Interactive Unix (a port of the UNIX System V operating system for Intel x86 by Interactive Systems Corporation)
IRIX from SGI
NeXTSTEP (developed by NeXT; a Unix-based OS based on the Mach microkernel)
OS-9 Unix-like RTOS. (OS from Microware for Motorola 6809 based microcomputers) OS9/68K
Unix-like RTOS. (OS from Microware for Motorola 680x0 based microcomputers; based on OS-9)
OS-9000 Unix-like RTOS. (OS from Microware for Intel x86 based microcomputers; based on OS-9, written in C)
OSF/1 (developed into a commercial offering by Digital Equipment Corporation)
QNX (POSIX, microkernel OS; usually a real time embedded OS)
Rhapsody (an early form of Mac OS X)
RISC iX - derived from BSD 4.3, by Acorn computers, for their ARM family of machines
RISC/os (a port by MIPS Technologies of 4.3BSD for its MIPS-based computers)
SCO UNIX (from SCO, bought by Caldera who renamed themselves SCO Group)
SINIX (a port by SNI of Unix to the MIPS architecture)
Solaris (from Sun, bought by Oracle; a System V-based replacement for SunOS)
SunOS (BSD-based Unix system used on early Sun hardware)
SUPER-UX (a port of System V Release 4.2MP with features adopted from BSD and Linux for NEC SX architecture supercomputers)
System V (a release of AT&T Unix, 'SVR4' was the 4th minor release)
System V/AT, 386 (The first version of AT&T System V UNIX on the IBM 286 and 386 PCs, ported and sold by Microport)
Trusted Solaris (Solaris with kernel and other enhancements to support multilevel security)
UniFLEX ( Unix-like OS from TSC for DMA-capable, extended addresses, Motorola 6809 based computers; e.g. SWTPC, GIMIX and others)
Unicos (the version of Unix designed for Cray Supercomputers, mainly geared to vector calculations) UTX-32 (Developed by Gould CSD (Computer System Division), a Unix-based OS that included both BSD and System V characteristics. It was one of the first Unix based systems to receive NSA's C2 security level certification.)
Zenix, Zenith corporations Unix (a popular USA electronics maker at the time)
Unix or Unix-like
Cosmos - written in C#
FreeDOS - open source DOS variant
Genode - operating system framework for microkernels (written in C++)
Ghost OS - written in Assembly, C/C++
Haiku (open source inspired by BeOS, under development)
ITS - written by MIT students (for the PDP-6 and PDP-10) (written in MIDAS)
osFree - OS/2 Warp open source clone.
OSv - written in C++
Phantom OS - persistent object oriented
ReactOS - open source OS designed to be binary compatible with Windows NT and its variants ( Windows XP, Windows 2000, etc.); currently in development phase
SharpOS - written in .NET C#
TempleOS - written in HolyC Visopsys - written by Andy McLaughlin (written in C and Assembly)
Unix or Unix-like
Disk operating systems (DOS)
86-DOS (developed at Seattle Computer Products by Tim Paterson for the new Intel 808x CPUs; licensed to Microsoft, became PC DOS/MS-DOS. Also known by its working title QDOS.)
PC DOS (IBM's DOS variant, developed jointly with Microsoft, versions 1.0-7.0, 2000, 7.10) MS-DOS (Microsoft's DOS variant for OEM, developed jointly with IBM, versions 1.x-6.22 Microsoft's now abandoned DOS variant)
Concurrent CP/M-86 3.1 (BDOS 3.1) with PC-MODE (Digital Research's successor of CP/M-86 and MP/M-86)
Concurrent DOS 3.1-4.1 (BDOS 3.1-4.1)
Concurrent PC DOS 3.2 (BDOS 3.2) (Concurrent DOS variant for IBM compatible PCs)
DOS Plus 1.1, 1.2 (BDOS 4.1), 2.1 (BDOS 5.0) (single-user, multi-tasking system derived from Concurrent DOS 4.1-5.0)
Concurrent DOS 8-16 (dual-processor variant of Concurrent DOS for 8086 and 8080 CPUs)
Concurrent DOS 286 1.x
FlexOS 1.00-2.34 (derivative of Concurrent DOS 286)
Concurrent DOS 386 1.0, 1.1, 2.0, 3.0 (BDOS 5.0-6.2)
Concurrent DOS 386/MGE (Concurrent DOS 386 variant with advanced graphics terminal capabilities) Multiuser DOS 5.0, 5.01, 5.1 (BDOS 6.3-6.6) (successor of Concurrent DOS 386)
CCI Multiuser DOS 5.0-7.22 (up to BDOS 6.6)
Datapac Multiuser DOS
IMS Multiuser DOS 5.1, 7.0, 7.1 (BDOS 6.6-6.7)
IMS REAL/32 7.50, 7.51, 7.52, 7.53, 7.54, 7.60, 7.61, 7.62, 7.63, 7.70, 7.71, 7.72, 7.73, 7.74, 7.80, 7.81, 7.82, 7.83, 7.90, 7.91, 7.92, 7.93, 7.94, 7.95 (BDOS 6.8 and higher) (derivative of Multiuser DOS)
Concurrent DOS XM 5.0, 5.2, 6.0, 6.2 (BDOS 5.0-6.2) (real-mode variant of Concurrent DOS with EEMS support)
DR DOS 3.31, 3.32, 3.33, 3.34, 3.35, 5.0, 6.0 (BDOS 6.0-7.1) single-user, single-tasking native DOS derived from Concurrent DOS 6.0)
PalmDOS 1 (BDOS 7.0) Novell
DR DOS "StarTrek" Novell DOS 7 (single-user, multi-tasking system derived from DR DOS, BDOS 7.2)
Novell DOS 7 updates 1-10 (BDOS 7.2)
Caldera OpenDOS 7.01 (BDOS 7.2)
Enhanced DR-DOS 7.01.0x (BDOS 7.2)
Dell Real Mode Kernel (DRMK) Novell DOS 7 updates 11-15.2 (BDOS 7.2)
Caldera DR-DOS 7.02-7.03 (BDOS 7.3)
DR-DOS "WinBolt" OEM DR-DOS 7.04-7.05 (BDOS 7.3)
OEM DR-DOS 7.06 (PQDOS)
OEM DR-DOS 7.07 (BDOS 7.4/7.7)
FreeDOS ( open source DOS variant)
ProDOS (operating system for the Apple II series computers)
PTS-DOS (DOS variant by Russian company Phystechsoft)
TurboDOS (Software 2000, Inc.) for Z80 and Intel 8086 processor-based systems Multi-tasking user interfaces and environments for DOS
Network operating systems
Generic, commodity, and other
A2 formerly named Active Object System (AOS), and then Bluebottle (a concurrent and active object update to the Oberon operating system) BS1000 by
BS2000 by Siemens AG, now BS2000/OSD from Fujitsu-Siemens Computers (formerly Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme) BS3000 by
Siemens AG (functionally similar to OS-IV and MSP from Fujitsu)
Contiki for various, mostly 8-bit systems, including the Apple II series, the Atari 8-bit family, and some Commodore machines. FLEX9 (by
Technical Systems Consultants (TSC) for Motorola 6809 based machines; successor to FLEX, which was for Motorola 6800 CPUs)
Graphics Environment Manager (GEM) (windowing GUI for CP/M, DOS, and Atari TOS)
GEOS (popular windowing GUI for PC, Commodore, Apple computers)
JavaOS JNode (Java New Operating System Design Effort), written 99% in Java (native compiled), provides own JVM and JIT compiler. Based on
GNU Classpath.  
JX Java operating system that focuses on a flexible and robust operating system architecture developed as an open source system by the University of Erlangen.
KERNAL (default OS on Commodore 64) MERLIN for the
MorphOS (Amiga compatible) MSP by
Fujitsu (successor to OS-IV), now MSP/EX, also known as Extended System Architecture (EXA), for 31-bit mode 
NetWare (networking OS by Novell)
Oberon (operating system) (developed at ETH-Zürich by Niklaus Wirth et al.) for the Ceres and Chameleon workstation projects OSD/XC by
Fujitsu-Siemens (BS2000 ported to an emulation on a Sun SPARC platform) OS-IV by
Fujitsu (based on early versions of IBM's MVS)
Pick (often licensed and renamed)
PRIMOS by Prime Computer (sometimes spelled PR1MOS and PR1ME)
Sinclair QDOS (multitasking for the Sinclair QL computer) SSB-DOS (by
Technical Systems Consultants (TSC) for Smoke Signal Broadcasting; a variant of FLEX in most respects)
SymbOS (GUI based multitasking operating system for Z80 computers)
Symobi (GUI based modern micro-kernel OS for x86, ARM and PowerPC processors, developed by Miray Software; used and developed further at Technical University of Munich)
TurboDOS (Software 2000, Inc.)
UCSD p-System (portable complete programming environment/operating system/virtual machine developed by a long running student project at UCSD; directed by Prof Kenneth Bowles; written in Pascal)
VOS by Stratus Technologies with strong influence from Multics VOS3 by
Hitachi for its IBM-compatible mainframes, based on IBM's MVS
VM2000 by Siemens AG
Visi On (first GUI for early PC machines; not commercially successful) VPS/VM (IBM based, main operating system at Boston University for over 10 years.)
Mobile operating systems
Mobile Operating systems
Datapoint 2200 Cassette Tape Operating System (PDF). Datapoint. May 1972.
Disk Operating System DOS. User's Guide (PDF). Datapoint. February 1975.
"Container-Optimized OS from Google documentation". . Google Cloud Platform
"RTOS: extending OS/360 for real time spaceflight control", J. L. Johnstone, in AFIPS '69 (Spring) Proceedings of the May 14-16, 1969, spring joint computer conference, pages 15-27.
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"Redox - Your Next(Gen) OS - Redox - Your Next(Gen) OS". www.redox-os.org.
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^ "Despite its name suggesting some similarity to Unix, Xinu is a different type of operating system, written with no knowledge of the Unix source code, or compatibility goals. It uses different abstractions, and
system calls, some with names matching those of Unix, but different semantics."
Garfinkel, Simson; Spafford, Gene; Schwartz, Alan (2003). Practical UNIX and Internet Security. O'Reilly. p. 19.
"JNode 0.2.8 Released", Thom Holwerda, OSNews, 4 February 2009.
Jnode: Java New Operating System Design Effort, jnode.org. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
"Fujitsu Extended System Architecture (EXA) Operating System" (PDF). Fujitsu.com . Retrieved .
"HP News - LG Electronics Acquires webOS from HP to Enhance Smart TV". .hp.com. 2013-02-25 . Retrieved .
"LCOS Data-Sheet" (PDF).
"Mentor Nucleus RTOS".
"QNX operating systems, development tools, and professional services for connected embedded systems". www.qnx.com.
Wulf, William A.; Harbison, Samual P. "Reflections in a pool of processors - An experience report on C.mmp/Hydra" (PDF). University of Auckland. p. 945 . Retrieved .