List of Medieval Composers
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List of Medieval Composers

Medieval music generally encompasses the music of the Western Europe during the Middle Ages, from approximately the 6th to 15th centuries. The first and longest era of Western classical music, medieval music includes composers of a variety of styles, often centered around a particular nationality or composition school.

Composers of the Early Middle Ages (500-1000) almost exclusively concerned themselves with sacred music, writing in forms such as antiphons, hymns, masses, offices, sequences and tropes. Most composers were anonymous and the few whose names are known were monks or clergy. Of the known composers, the most significant are those from the Abbey of Saint Gall school, particularly Notker the Stammerer (Notker Balbulus); the Saint Martial school and its most prominent member, Adémar de Chabannes; and Wipo of Burgundy, who the well-known sequence "Victimae paschali laudes" is usually attributed to.

In the High Middle Ages (1000-1250) sequences reached their peak with Adam of Saint Victor. By the late 11th century, the poet-composer troubadours of southern France became the first significant proponents of secular music; equivalent movements arose in the mid-12th century, with the Minnesang in Germany, trovadorismo in Galicia and Portugal, and the trouvères in northern France. Principal exponents of these traditions include troubadours Arnaut Daniel, Bertran de Born, Bernart de Ventadorn, William IX, Duke of Aquitaine; Minnesänger Gottfried von Strassburg, Hartmann von Aue, Reinmar von Hagenau and Walther von der Vogelweide; and trouvère Adam de la Halle, Blondel de Nesle and Chrétien de Troyes. Simultaneous with the spur of secular activity, Léonin and Pérotin of the religious Notre-Dame school (part of the broader Ars antiqua) developed polyphony in forms such as the clausula, conductus and organum. The nun Hildegard of Bingen was also a prolific sacred composer of this time.

During the Late Middle Ages (1250-1500) the age of secular national schools gradually faded away, in part due to the Albigensian Crusade. In France, the troubadours, trouvère and ars antiqua music was succeeded by the ars nova led by Philippe de Vitry and Guillaume de Machaut. The music of the Trecento in Italy led by Francesco Landini is sometimes considered part of the ars nova style, but by the mid-14th century the movements had become too independent to warrant such a grouping. Part of this divergence was from the death of Machaut, where--after a brief continuance of the Ars nova style through the post-Machaut generation of F. Andrieu, Grimace, Jehan Vaillant and P. des Molins--there was a new rhythmically-complex style now known as ars subtilior. The major figures of ars subtilior included both composers from France and Italy; particularly Johannes Ciconia and Solage.

Medieval composers

No surviving music · Uncertain status as a composer

Medieval composers
Name Lifetime Nationality Musical school Surviving works Image Ref(s)
The Western Roman Empire falls in 476, ushering in the Middle Ages

(5th century) Early Middle Ages

High ?
(9th century) The Abbey of Saint Gall becomes a musical and literary center of Europe
Notker the Stammerer
(Notker Balbulus)
c. 840 - 912 Frankish? Abbey of Saint Gall Three works
Liturgical sequences
Notker der Stammler.jpg
[1][2][3][4]
Tuotilo c. 850 - 915 Frankish Abbey of Saint Gall Five works - [5][6]
Stephen of Liège c. 850 - 920 Belgian - Three works - [7]
Hucbald c. 850 - 930 Frankish - Five works - [8][9]
Odo of Cluny c. 878 - 942 French - 15 works
3 hymns and 12 antiphons (?)
Odo Cluny-11.jpg
[10][11]
Heriger of Lobbes
(Herigerus)
c. 925 - 1007 Belgian - Four works - [12]
Odo of Arezzo
(Abbot Oddo)
10th century - 11th century Italian - 4 works
antiphons from a tonary
- [13]
Fulbert of Chartres c. 960 - 1028 French - Three chants - [14]
William of Volpiano
(William of Dijon, William of Saint Benignus)
962 - 1031 Italian - One work?
Office of St Benignus
Orta San Giuglio Ambone Guglielmo da Volpiano.jpg
[15]
Notker Physicus
(Notker II)
d. 975 Frankish Abbey of Saint Gall Three works - [16]
Adémar de Chabannes c. 988/9 - 1034 French Saint Martial school Two works (?)
One office and mass
- [17]
Wulfstan the Cantor
(Wulfstan of Winchester)
fl. 992-6 English - Seven works; All uncertain attributions - [18]
Wipo of Burgundy c. 995 - c. 1050 Frankish? (Arles/
Burgundy)
- Victimae paschali laudes - [19]

(1000) High Middle Ages

Early ? Late ?
Arnold of Saint Emmeram c. 1000 - 1050 Benedictine Saint Emmeram's Abbey 60 works; over 40 antiphons and 20 responsories - [20]
Otloh of Sankt Emmeram c. 1010-1070 Benedictine Saint Emmeram's Abbey Exultemus in ista fratres, Kyrie O pater immense and chants - [21]
Hermann of Reichenau
Hermannus Contractus
1013-1054 German - Two works
Hermann der Lahme.gif
[22]
Berno of Reichenau before 1014 - 1048 German? - Two works - [23]
Godric c. 1069 - 1170 English - Three songs
Godric-Finchale.jpg
[24][25]
Adam of Saint Victor c. 1068 - 1146 French - Four works - [26][27]
(1071) The earliest Troubadour whose work survives, William IX, Duke of Aquitaine, is born[n 1]
William IX, Duke of Aquitaine
(Guilhem de Peitieus;
Guillaume d'Aquitaine)
1071-1126 Occitan Troubadour One work; 11 poems total
William IX of Aquitaine - BN MS fr 12473.jpg
[29]
Peter Abelard 1079-1142 French - Various chants, a hymn, three sequences and seven laments[30]
Abelard and Heloise.jpeg
[31]
Hildegard of Bingen 1098-1179 German - 72 works
Hildegard von Bingen.jpg
[32][33]
Jaufre Rudel fl. 1120-47 Occitan Troubadour Four works; six poems total
Hodierna and Jaufre Rudel.jpg
[34]
Marcabru fl.c. 1129-c1150 Occitan Troubadour Four works; 42 poems total
Marcabru - BN MS fr 12473.jpg
[35]
Archpoet
(Archipoeta)
c. 1130 - c. 1165 Western European
probably French or German
Goliard 10 medieval Latin poems - [36]
Bernart de Ventadorn c. 1130-1140 - c. 1190-1200 Occitan Troubadour 19 (1 fragmentary) works; 45 poems total
BernardDeVentadour.jpg
[37]
Giraut de Bornelh c. 1140 - c. 1200 Occitan Troubadour Four works; 77 poems total
Guiraut de Bornelh.jpg
[38]
(Mid 12th-century) Minnesänger are first recorded; beginning with Heinrich von Veldeke
Heinrich von Veldeke 1140-1150 - c. 1190 German Minnesänger No surviving works; 61 poems total
Codex Manesse Heinrich von Veldeke.jpg
[39]
(Mid 12th-century) Trouvères are first recorded; beginning with the pseudonymous "Vidame de Chartres" and Chrétien de Troyes[n 2]
"Vidame de Chartres"
(probably Guillaume de Ferrières)
c. 1145-1155 - 1204 French Trouvère Six (nine?) works - [41]
Albertus Parisiensis fl. 1146-1177 French - Congaudeant catholici - [42]
Peire d'Alvernha fl. 1149-70 Occitan Troubadour Two works; 24 poems total
BnF ms. 12473 fol. 1 - Peire d'Alvernhe (1).jpg
[43]
Dietmar von Aist fl. 2nd half of the 12th century German Minnesänger No surviving music
D v aist.jpg
[44]
Friedrich von Hûsen
(Friedrich von Hausen)
c. 1150 - 1190 German Minnesänger No music survives; 53 strophes
Codex Manesse Friedrich von Hausen.jpg
[45]
Rudolf von Neuenburg [de] c. 1150 - 30 August 1196 Swiss Minnesänger [46]
Léonin fl. 1150s - c. 1201 French Notre-Dame school (Ars antiqua) [47]
Bertran de Born 1150 - before 1215 Occitan Troubadour 1 work; 40 poems total
Bertran de Born.jpg
[48]
Gaucelm Faidit c. 1150 - c. 1220 Occitan Troubadour 14 works; 68 poems total
BnF ms. 12473 fol. 22 - Gaulcem Faidit (1).jpg
[49]
Arnaut Daniel c. 1150-60 - c. 1200 Occitan Troubadour Two works; 18 poems total
Arnaut Daniel - BN MS fr 12473.jpg
[50]
Raimbaut de Vaqueiras c. 1150-60 - 1207 Occitan Troubadour Seven works; 35 poems total
Raimbaut de Vaqueiras.jpg
[51]
Folquet de Marselha
(Folquet de Marseille)
c. 1150-60 - 1231 Occitan Troubadour 13 works; 29 poems total
BnF ms. 12473 fol. 46 - Folquet de Marseille (1).jpg
[52]
Chrétien de Troyes fl.c. 1160 - 1191 French Trouvère
Chrétien de Troyes.jpg
[53]
Conon de Béthune c. 1160 - 1219 /20 French Trouvère Seven works; eight poems total - [54]
Der von Kürenberg fl. 1160 German Minnesänger
Codex Manesse Der von Kürenberg.jpg
[55]
Hartmann von Aue c. 1160-1165 - after 1210 German Minnesänger [56]
Gace Brule c. 1160 - after 1213 French Trouvère - [57]
Peirol c. 1160 - after 1221 Occitan Troubadour 17 works; 34 poems total
BnF ms. 854 fol. 56v - Peirol (1).jpg
[58]
Philippe le Chancelier c. 1160 - 1236 French Notre-Dame school (Ars antiqua) - [59]
Raimbaut d'Aurenga fl. 1162-73 Occitan Troubadour
Rambautz d'Aurenga.jpg
[60]
Chastelain de Couci c. 1165 - 1203 French Trouvère -
Castelin-éd-Couci-chansons-p39.jpeg
[61]
Gautier de Dargies c. 1165 - after 1236 French Trouvère - [62]
Arnaut de Mareuil fl.c. 1170-1200 Occitan Troubadour
Arnaut de Mareuil.jpg
[63]
Walther von der Vogelweide c. 1170 - c. 1230 German Minnesänger
Codex Manesse Walther von der Vogelweide.jpg
[64]
Aimeric de Peguilhan c. 1175 - c. 1230 Occitan Troubadour Six works; 50 poems total
Aimeric de Pegulhan.jpg
[65]
Gautier de Coincy 1177/8 - 1236 French Trouvère Eight surviving poems with music
Gautier de Coinsi.jpg
[66]
Blondel de Nesle fl. 1180-1200 French Trouvère [67]
Peire Cardenal 1180-1278 Occitan Troubadour Three works; 90 poems total
Peire Cardenal MS I.gif
[68]
Peire Vidal fl.c. 1183 - c. 1205 Occitan Troubadour 12 works; 50 poems total
BnF ms. 12473 fol. 27 - Peire Vidal (1).jpg
[69]
Raimon de Miraval fl. 1185-1229 Occitan Troubadour 22 works; 48 poems total
Raimon de Miraval.jpg
[70]
Reinmar von Hagenau
(Reinmar der Alte)
fl. 1185-1205 - c. 1205 German Minnesänger
Codex Manesse Reinmar der Alte.jpg
[71]
Audefroi le Bastart fl. 1190-1230 French Trouvère - [72]
Comtessa de Dia
(Beatriz de Dia)
fl. late 12th/early 13th century Occitan Trobairitz
Beatriz de Dia - BN MS12473.jpg
[73]
Neidhart von Reuental c. 1190 - after 1236 German Minnesänger
Codex Manesse Neidhart.jpg
[74]
Guillaume le Vinier c. 1190 - 1245 French Trouvère [75]
Pérotin
(Perotinus)
fl.c. 1200 French Notre-Dame school (Ars antiqua) - [76]
Albrecht von Johansdorf c. 1180 - c. 1209 German Minnesänger
Codex Manesse Der von Johansdorf.jpg
[77]
Colin Muset fl. 1200-50 French Trouvère 12 works; seven with surviving music - [78]
Jehan Erart 1200-10 - 1258/9 French Trouvère [79]
Reinmar von Zweter c. 1200 - c. 1260 German Minnesänger -
Codex Manesse Reinmar von Zweter.jpg
[80]
Wincenty of Kielcza c. 1200 - after 1262 Polish - - [81]
Castelloza fl. early 13th century Occitan Trobairitz No surviving music; three poems - [82]
Jehan Bretel c. 1210 - 1272 French Trouvère [83]
Raoul de Soissons 1210-1215 - 1270 French Trouvère [84]
Moniot d'Arras fl. 1213-39 French Trouvère [85]
Guiot de Dijon fl. 1215-25 French Trouvère Four works; 17 poems total - [86]
Gontier de Soignies fl. before 1220 French Trouvère - [87]
Heinrich von Morungen d. 1222 German Minnesänger 32 minnelieder survive with music, one without
Codex Manesse 076v Heinrich von Morungen.jpg
[88]
Sordello c. 1200 -- before 1269 Italian Troubadour
BnF ms. 12473 fol. 109 - Sordel de Mantoue (1).jpg
[89]
Gautier d'Épinal before 1220 - before 1272 French Trouvère [90]
Konrad von Würzburg c. 1230 - 1287 German Minnesänger 23 songs
Codex Manesse Konrad von Würzburg.jpg
[91]
Guiraut Riquier c. 1230 - c. 1300 Occitan Troubadour 48 works; 49 poems total
Song of Guiraut Riquier.jpg
[92]
Martin Codax fl.c. 1240-70 Spanish (Galician) Galician-Portuguese lyric Six songs; one know to be lost
Martim Codax Cantigas de Amigo.jpg
[93]
Adam de la Halle 1245-50 - 1285-8/after 1306 French Trouvère 78 works
Adam de la halle.jpg
[94]

(1250) Late Middle Ages

High ?
Tannhäuser fl. mid 13th-century German Minnesänger
Codex Manesse Tannhäuser.jpg
[95]
Cerverí de Girona fl. 1259-1285 Catalan Troubadour No music survives; 114 lyric poems
Heinrich Frauenlob c. 1260 - 29 November 1318 German Minnesänger [96]
Der wilde Alexander
(Meister Alexander)
fl. mid to late 13th-century German Minnesänger 27 works; 24 Spruch strophes, two Minnelieder and one Leich
Codex Manesse Der wilde Alexander f412r.jpg
[97]
Franco of Cologne fl. mid to late 13th century German - - [98]
Petrus de Cruce fl.c. 1290 French Ars antiqua - [99]
W. de Wycombe fl. late 13th century English - - [100]
Philippe de Vitry 1291-1361 French Ars nova 13 works at least
Philippe de Vitry.jpg
[101]
Casella died before 1300 Italian - No surviving works - [102]
(14th century) The Trecento begins in Italy
Jehan de Lescurel fl. early 14th century French Ars nova 34 works; all monophonic except one - [103]
Maestro Piero c. 1300 - after 1350 Italian Trecento Eight works -
Guillaume de Machaut c. 1300 - 1377 French Ars nova 143 works
Machaut 1.jpg
[104]
Marchetto da Padova fl. 1305-19 Italian Trecento - [105]
(1310) Ars nova is inaugurated in France by the preparation of the Roman de Fauvel; Machaut and de Vitry dominate the movement
Jacopo da Bologna fl. 1340-1360 Italian Trecento 34 works -
Giovanni da Cascia
(Giovanni da Firenze)
fl. 1340? - 14th century Italian Trecento 19 works -
Gherardello da Firenze 1320/1325 - 1362/1363 Italian Trecento 18 works -
John Hanboys c. 1320? - 1380? English -
Francesco Landini c. 1325 - 1397 Italian Trecento
Landini.jpg
[106]
Lorenzo da Firenze
(Lorenzo Masini)
c. 1325 - 1372/1373 Italian Trecento -
Donato da Cascia fl. c. 1350 - after 1370 Italian Trecento -
Mönch von Salzburg
(Monk of Salzburg)
14th century - 14th century? German
Mönch von Salzburg.JPG
Johannes Alanus c. 1332? - 1373? English -
Vincenzo da Rimini c. 1332? - after 1364? Italian Trecento -
Bartolino da Padova fl. 1365 - after 1405 Italian Trecento -
Matheus de Sancto Johanne
(Mayshuet de Joan)
fl. c. 1365 - after 1387 French Ars subtilior -
Magister Franciscus[n 3] fl. 1370-80 French Ars nova? Two works; both three part ballades - [107]
Philippus de Caserta
(Philipoctus de Caserta)
fl. c. 1370 - c. 1400 Italian Trecento -
Egardus fl.c. 1370? - after 1400 Flemish Ars subtilior -
Egidius de Francia 14th century - 14th century? French Ars subtilior -
F. Andrieu[n 3] fl.c. 1377 - c. 1400 French Ars nova One work; a ballade for Machaut's death - [108]
Johannes Symonis Hasprois fl. 1378-1428 French Ars subtilior
Église de ste hiltrude liessies.JPG
[109]
Petrus de Goscalch fl. c. 1385-1395 French? Ars subtilior - [110]
P. des Molins fl. mid 14th century French Ars nova Two works; among the most popular pieces of their time - [111]
Niccolò da Perugia 14th century - c. 1400 Italian Trecento -
Jehan Suzay fl. c. 1380 - after 1395 French Ars subtilior -
Trebor fl. c. 1380 - c. 1400 French Ars subtilior -
Jan of Jen?tejn 1348 - 1400 Bohemian
Busta Jan z Jen?tejna.jpg
Závi? of Zápy c. 1350 - c. 1411 Czech -
Antonio Zacara da Teramo c. 1350/1360 - c. 1413/1416 Italian Trecento
Zachara da Teramo Squarcialupi Portrait.tif
Jacob Senleches fl. c. 1382 - after 1395 French Ars subtilior
HarpeJacobSenleches.jpg
Andrea da Firenze
(Andreas de Florentia)
fl. c. 1375 - c. 1415 Italian Trecento -
Paolo da Firenze
(Paolo Tenorista)
c. 1355 - c. 1436 Italian Trecento -
Solage 14th century - after 1403 French Ars subtilior - [112]
Hugo von Montfort 1357 - 1423 German (Austrian)
Hugo von Montfort Wappen cpg329.jpg
Jehan Vaillant
(Johannes Vaillant)
fl. 1360-1390 French Ars nova Five (six?) works - [113]
Giovanni Mazzuoli
(Giovanni degli Organi)
1360 - 1426 Italian Trecento -
Grazioso da Padova
(Gratiosus de Padua)
fl. c. 1391? - 15th century? Italian Trecento -
Martinus Fabri fl. 1395 - 1400 Dutch -
Borlet[n 4] fl.c. 1397? - after 1409 French Ars subtilior One work; a four-voice virelai - [114]
Aleyn fl. c. 1400 - 15th century English -
Johannes Ciconia c. 1370 - 1412 Flemish Trecento -
Matteo da Perugia fl. 1400 - after 1416 Italian Trecento -
Johannes de Lymburgia c. 1370 - 1430 Belgian Franco-Flemish School -
Johannes Tapissier
(Jean de Noyers)
c. 1370 - before 1410 Burgundian -
Johannes Cuvelier
Jean; Jacquemart le Cuvelier
fl.c. 1372 - after 1387 French Ars subtilior Four works - [115]
Antonio da Cividale
(Antonius de Civitate Austrie)
fl. c. 1392 - 1421 Italian Trecento -
Grimace fl. mid-to-late 14th century French Ars nova Five (Seven?) Works - [116]
Antonello da Caserta 14th century - after 1402? Italian Trecento -
Nicolas Grenon c. 1375 - 1456 Burgundian -
Oswald von Wolkenstein c. 1377 - 1445 German
Oswald von Wolkenstein 2.jpg
Andrea Stefani fl. c. 1399 - 15th century Italian Trecento -
Bartolomeo da Bologna fl. 1405 - after 1427 Italian Trecento
Baude Cordier c. 1380 - before 1440 French Ars subtilior
CordierColor.jpg
Thomas Fabri 1380 - 1420 Flemish
Pierre Fontaine c. 1380 - c. 1450 French
Nicolaus Ricci de Nucella Campli fl. 1401-20 - after 1436 Italian Trecento
Miko?aj Radomski
(Nicolaus de Radom)
c. 1380 - 15th century Polish
Ugolino da Forlì/da Orvieto c. 1380 - c. 1457 Italian Trecento
Leonel Power c. 1370/1385? - 1445 English
Canterbury Cathedral, view of the Western Towers engraved by J.LeKeux after a picture by G.Cattermole, 1821 edited.jpg
Jacobus Vide 1385 - 1433 Burgundian
Queldryk fl. c. 1400 - 15th century English
Johannes Cesaris fl. 1406 - 1417 French
Roy Henry
(probably Henry V of England)
fl. c. 1410 - 15th century English
Byttering
(possibly Thomas Byttering)
fl. c. 1410 - after 1420? English
Conradus de Pistoia
(Coradus de Pistorio)
fl. c. 1410 - 15th century Italian Trecento
John Dunstaple
(John Dunstable)
c. 1390 - 1453 English [117]
Hugo de Lantins fl. c. 1420 - after 1430? Flemish
Richard Loqueville died 1418 French [118]
Pycard fl. c. 1410 - 15th century English or French
Arnold de Lantins fl. 1423 - 1432 Flemish
Estienne Grossin fl. 1418 - after 1421 French
For further composers see: List of Renaissance composers

Timeline

John DunstapleLeonel PowerOswald von WolkensteinJohannes CiconiaSolageJacob SenlechesFrancesco LandiniJacopo da BolognaGuillaume de MachautPhilippe de VitryJohn KukuzelisDenis, King of PortugalFranco of CologneAdam de la HalleGuiraut RiquierAlfonso X of CastileTheobald I of NavarreNeidhart von ReuentalPeire CardenalGautier de CoincyPeire VidalWalther von der VogelweideGaucelm FaiditPérotinVaqueirasBlondel de NesleArnaut DanielBeatritz de DiaLéoninBernart de VentadornJaufre RudelHildegard von BingenMarcabruAbelardWilliam IX of AquitaineAdam of Saint VictorAdémar de ChabannesWilliam of VolpianoOdo of ClunyHucbaldStephen of LiègeTuotiloNotker the Stammerer

Notes

  1. ^ For a complete list see List of troubadours and trobairitz. As to not overwhelm this list with Troubadours, only those that Grove Music Online designates as the "principal troubadours" are included: Aimeric de Peguilhan, Arnaut Daniel, Arnaut de Mareuil, Bernart de Ventadorn, Bertran de Born, Cerveri de Girona, Folquet de Marselha, Gaucelm Faidit, Giraut de Bornelh, Guiraut Riquier, Jaufre Rudel, Marcabru, Peire d'Alvernhe, Peire Cardenal, Peire Vidal, Peirol, Raimbaut d'Aurenga, Raimbaut de Vaqeiras, Raimon de Miraval, Sordello and William IX, Duke of Aquitaine. In addition, for Trobaritzs, only what Grove identifies as "the most celebrated figures", are listed: Comtessa de Dia and Castelloza.[28]
  2. ^ For a complete list see Trouvère#List of trouvères. As to not overwhelm this list with Trouvèr, only those that Grove Music Online designates as "important trouvères" are listed.[40]
  3. ^ a b F. Andrieu and Magister Franciscus may be the same person; scholars identify them as the person with varying degrees of certainty:
    • Reaney 2001a: Their works being from the same manuscript "suggest that the two composers may be the same person".
    • Abraham & Hughes 1960, p. 27: "Franciscus is doubtless the same man as the F. Andrieu..."
    • Reaney 1954, p. 67: "It would not be impossible for Magister Franciscus and F. Andrieu to be one and the same person"
    • Günther 2001a: "[Magister Franciscus] may be the F. Andrieu..."
    • Strohm 2005, p. 53: "[F. Andrieu] may be the same man as Magister Franciscus"
    • Magnan 1993, p. 49: "[On the identification between Andrieu and Franciscus] this tenuous identification leads nowhere."
  4. ^ He may be the same person as Trebor

References

  1. ^ Hiley, David (2001). "Notker". Grove Music Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.20128. Retrieved 2020. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  2. ^ Yudkin 1989, p. 221.
  3. ^ Hoppin 1978, p. 155.
  4. ^ Reese 1940, pp. 129, 187-188.
  5. ^ Planchart, Alejandro Enrique (2001). "Tuotilo". Grove Music Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.28589. Retrieved 2020. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  6. ^ Reese 1940, p. 185.
  7. ^ Huglo, Michel (2001). "Stephen of Liège". Grove Music Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.26706. Retrieved 2020. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  8. ^ Chartier, Yves (2001). "Hucbald of St Amand". Grove Music Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.13475. Retrieved 2020. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  9. ^ Reese 1940, pp. 125-126.
  10. ^ Brockett, Clyde; Huglo, Michel (2001). "Odo of Cluny". Grove Music Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.20255. Retrieved 2020. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  11. ^ Reese 1940, p. 126.
  12. ^ Huglo, Michel (2001). "Herigerus". Grove Music Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.12853. Retrieved 2020. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  13. ^ Brockett, Clyde; Huglo, Michel (2001). "Odo of Arezzo". Grove Music Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.20255. Retrieved 2020. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  14. ^ Fassler, Margot E. (2001). "Fulbert of Chartres". Grove Music Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.10366. Retrieved 2020. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  15. ^ Huglo, Michel (2001). "Guillaume de Dijon". Grove Music Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.11982. Retrieved 2020. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  16. ^ Kühne, Udo [de] (2010). "Notker der Arzt" [Notker the doctor]. Historical Dictionary of Switzerland (in German). Bern, Switzerland: Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences. Retrieved 2020.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ Grier, James (2001). "Adémar de Chabannes". Grove Music Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.52477. Retrieved 2020. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
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Sources


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