List of Language Regulators
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List of Language Regulators

This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies. Language academies are motivated by, or closely associated with, linguistic purism and prestige, and typically publish prescriptive dictionaries,[1] which purport to officiate and prescribe the meaning of words and pronunciations. A language regulator may also have a more descriptive approach, however, while maintaining and promoting (but not imposing) a standard spelling. Many language academies are private institutions, although some are governmental bodies in different states, or enjoy some form of government-sanctioned status in one or more countries. There may also be multiple language academies attempting to regulate and codify the same language, sometimes based in different countries and sometimes influenced by political factors (see also: pluricentric language).

Many world languages have one or more language academies. However, the degree of control that the academies exert over these languages does not render the latter controlled natural languages in the sense that the various kinds of "simple English" (e.g. Basic English, Simplified Technical English) or George Orwell's fictional Newspeak are. They instead remain natural languages to a considerable extent and are thus not formal languages such as Attempto Controlled English. They have a degree of standardization that allows them to function as standard languages (e.g. standard French). The English language has never had a formal regulator anywhere, outside of private productions such as the Oxford Dictionary.

Natural languages

Language Territory Regulator(s)
Amis  Republic of China Council of Indigenous Peoples
Afrikaans  South Africa
Die Taalkommissie (The Language Commission)
Akan  Ghana Akan Orthography Committee (AOC)
Albanian  Albania
Academy of Sciences of Albania, Tirana
Arabic  Arab League Academy of the Arabic Language (? ?)
Arabic Language International Council
 Algeria Supreme Council of the Arabic language in Algeria ( ? ? )
 Egypt Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo (? ? )
 Iraq Iraqi Academy of Sciences ( ?)
 Jordan Jordan Academy of Arabic (? ? ?)
 Libya Academy of the Arabic Language in Jamahiriya
 Morocco Academy of the Arabic Language in Morocco
 Saudi Arabia Academy of the Arabic Language in Riyadh
 Somalia Academy of the Arabic Language in Mogadishu
 Sudan Academy of the Arabic Language in Khartum
 Syria Academy of the Arabic Language in Damascus (? ? )
 Tunisia Beit Al-Hikma Foundation ( )
Academy of the Arabic Language in Israel (? ?)
Aragonese  Aragon Academia de l'Aragonés (Academy of the Aragonese)
Armenian  Armenia Armenian National Academy of Sciences ()
Assamese India India Asam Sahitya Sabha ( ? )
Asturian  Asturias Academy of the Asturian Language (Academia de la Llingua Asturiana)
Azerbaijani  Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (Az?rbaycan Milli Elml?r Akademiyas?)
Basque Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country
Navarre Navarre
France French Basque Country
Euskaltzaindia, often translated as Royal Academy of the Basque language
Belarusian  Belarus The Jakub Kolas and Janka Kupala Institute of Language and Literature[2] at the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
Bengali (Bangla)  Bangladesh Bangla Academy ( ?)
 India Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi (? ?)
Berber  Morocco Royal Institute of Amazight Culture
 Algeria Haut-Conseil à l'amazighité
Algerian Academy of Amazigh Language
Central Bikol  Philippines Academia Bicolana defunct
Bosnian  Bosnia and Herzegovina
University of Sarajevo
Bulgarian  Bulgaria Institute for Bulgarian Language at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Burmese  Myanmar Myanmar Language Commission
Catalan  Catalonia Institute for Catalan Studies (Institut d'Estudis Catalans)
 Valencian Community Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (Valencian Language Academy)
Cebuano  Philippines Visayan Academy of Arts and Letters (Akademyang Bisaya)
Cherokee  Cherokee Nation Council of the Cherokee Nation (? )[3]
Standard Chinese  China State Language Work Committee ()
 Republic of China National Languages Committee (?)
 Singapore Promote Mandarin Council ()
 Malaysia Chinese Language Standardisation Council of Malaysia ()
Cornish  Cornwall Cornish Language Partnership (Keskowethyans an Taves Kernewek)
Croatian  Croatia Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics (Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje)
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
Czech  Czech Republic Institute of the Czech Language (of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) (Ústav pro jazyk ?eský (Akademie v?d ?eské republiky))
Danish  Denmark Dansk Sprognævn (Danish Language Council)
Dalecarlian Sweden Dalarna County Ulum Dalska
Divehi  Maldives Dhivehi Academy
Dutch  Netherlands
Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union)
Dzongkha  Bhutan Dzongkha Development Commission ()
English None official, but the Oxford English Dictionary is the principal historical dictionary of the English language.
Estonian  Estonia Emakeele Seltsi keeletoimkond (Language Board at the Mother Tongue Society) sets rules and standards, authoritative advice is given by the Institute of the Estonian Language (Eesti Keele Instituut)
Faroese  Faroe Islands Faroese Language Council (Málráðið)
Filipino  Philippines Commission on the Filipino Language (Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino)
Finnish  Finland Institute for the Languages of Finland
French  France Académie française
Délégation générale à la langue française et aux langues de France
 Belgium Académie royale de langue et de littérature françaises de Belgique (Royal Academy of French Language and Literature of Belgium)
 Quebec Office québécois de la langue française (Québec Office of the French Language)
Galician  Galicia Royal Galician Academy (Real Academia Galega)
German  Germany
 South Tyrol
Council for German Orthography (Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung)
Greenlandic  Greenland The Greenland Language Secretariat (Oqaasileriffik)
Greek  Greece
Center for the Greek Language (? ?)
Guarani  Paraguay Guarani Language Academy (Guarani Ñe' ? Rerekuapav?)
Gujarati  India Gujarat Sahitya Akademi ( ? )
Hakka  Republic of China Hakka Affairs Council ()
Haitian Creole  Haiti Akademi Kreyòl Ayisyen (Haitian Creole Academy)
Hebrew  Israel Academy of the Hebrew Language (? )
Hindi  India Central Hindi Directorate ( )
Hmar  India Hmar Literature Society[]
Hungarian  Hungary Research Institute for Linguistics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Nyelvtudományi Intézete)
Icelandic  Iceland Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies
Igbo  Nigeria Society for Promoting Igbo Language and Culture
Indonesian  Indonesia Language and Book Development Agency (Badan Pengembangan Bahasa dan Perbukuan)
Irish  Ireland
 Northern Ireland
Foras na Gaeilge (Irish Institute)
Italian  Italy
 San Marino
  Vatican City
Accademia della Crusca (Academy of the bran)
Japanese  Japan National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (?)
Kabiye  Togo Kab?y? Akademii (Académie kabiyè)
Kannada India Karnataka Various academies and Government of Karnataka
Kashubian  Poland Commission of the Kashubian Language [1]
Kazakh  Kazakhstan Ministry of Culture of Kazakhstan
Khmer  Cambodia Royal Academy of Cambodia ()
Korean  South Korea National Institute of the Korean Language (/)
 North Korea The Language Research Institute, Academy of Social Science ( )
 China China Korean Language Regulatory Commission (?/?)
Kven  Norway Kainun institutti - kvensk institutt
Kurdish  Kurdistan Kurdish Academy (? )
Kyrgyz  Kyrgyzstan National Committee for State Language under the President of the Kyrgyz Republic ( ? )
Lao  Laos Educational Science Research Institute, Ministry of Education and Sports ( ?)
Institute of Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, National University of Laos (? ? ?)
Latin   Holy See Pontifical Academy for Latin (Pontificia Academia Latinitatis) (ecclesiastical Latin)[4]
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy: botanical Latin)
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature: zoological Latin)
Latvian  Latvia Latvian State Language Center (Valsts Valodas Centrs)
Lithuanian  Lithuania Commission of the Lithuanian Language (Valstybin? lietuvi? kalbos komisija)
Lusoga  Uganda Lusoga Language Authority (LULA)
Luxembourgish  Luxembourg Council for the Luxembourgish Language (Conseil fir d'Letzebuerger Sprooch)
Macedonian  North Macedonia Linguistics and Literary Science Department at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Malagasy  Madagascar Foibe momba ny teny at the Akademia Malagasy (
Malay  Malaysia Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (The Institute of Language and Literature)
 Brunei Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Brunei (Language and Literature Bureau)
 Singapore Majlis Bahasa Melayu Singapura (Malay Language Council, Singapore)
Malayalam  India Kerala Sahitya Akademi (? ? )
Maltese  Malta National Council for the Maltese Language (
Manx  Isle of Man Coonceil ny Gaelgey
M?ori  New Zealand M?ori Language Commission
Marathi  India Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad (? ? )
Mirandese  Portugal Anstituto de la Lhéngua Mirandesa (Institute of the Mirandese Language)
Mixtec  Mexico Academy of the Mixtec Language (Ve'e Tu'un Sávi)
Khalkha Mongolian  Mongolia Council of the official state language ( ). Decisions have to be confirmed by the Mongolian government.[5]
Chakhar Mongolian  China Council for Language and Literature Work
Nepali    Nepal Nepal Academy ( ?-?)
Norwegian (Riksmål/Bokmål)  Norway Norwegian Academy
Norwegian Bokmål
Norwegian Nynorsk
Norwegian Language Council
Occitan  Occitania
Conselh de la Lenga Occitana (Occitan Language Council),[6]

Congrès Permanent de la lenga occitana (the permanent congress of occitan language),[7]
Institut d'Estudis Aranesi (Aranese)[8]

Odia  India Odisha Sahitya Akademi ( ? ?)
Pashto  Afghanistan Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
 Pakistan Pashto Academy
Persian  Iran Academy of Persian Language and Literature ( ? ? )
 Afghanistan Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Rudaki Institute of Language and Literature
Paiwan  Republic of China Council of Indigenous Peoples
Polish  Poland Polish Language Council (Rada J?zyka Polskiego), of the Polish Academy of Sciences
Portuguese  Portugal Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Classe de Letras
 Brazil Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazilian Literary Academy)
 Galicia Galician Academy of the Portuguese Language (Academia Galega da Lingua Portuguesa)
Quechua  Peru High Academy of the Quechua Language (Qheswa simi hamut'ana kuraq suntur)
Rohingya Arakan (Rakhine State) Rohingya Language Academy ( )
Romanian  Romania Institutul de Lingvistic? al Academiei Române (Institute for Linguistics of the Romanian Academy)
 Moldova Academia de ?tiin?e a Moldovei
Romansh   Switzerland Lia Rumantscha
Russian  Russia Russian Language Institute ( )
Scots  Scotland Scots Language Centre (Center for the Scots Leid)
Scottish Gaelic  Scotland Bòrd na Gàidhlig (The Gaelic Board)
Secwepemctsín  Canada Secwepemc Cultural Education Society
Serbian and Montenegrin  Serbia
Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language
Sindhi  Pakistan Sindhi Language Authority [2]
Sinhala  Sri Lanka Hela Havula ( ?)
Slovak  Slovakia ?udovít ?túr Institute of Linguistics (Jazykovedný ústav ?udovíta ?túra) at Slovak Academy of Sciences (Slovenská akadémia vied)
Slovene  Slovenia Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Somali  Djibouti
Regional Somali Language Academy
Sorbian  Germany
 Czech Republic
Serbski institut [3]
Spanish  Spain
 El Salvador
 Costa Rica
 Dominican Republic
 Puerto Rico
 United States
 Equatorial Guinea
Association of Spanish Language Academies (constituted by the Royal Spanish Academy plus 23 other separate national academies in the Spanish-speaking world and an Israel-based committee for Judaeo-Spanish.)
Swahili  Tanzania Baraza la Kiswahili la Taifa
 Kenya Chama cha Kiswahili cha Taifa
Swedish  Sweden Swedish Language Council
Swedish Academy
 Finland Swedish Language Department of the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland (Svenska språkbyrån)
Tamil  India Thanjavur Tamil University and Official Language Commission of Government of Tamil Nadu
 Sri Lanka Department of Official Languages, Sri Lanka
 Singapore Tamil Language Council, Singapore
 Malaysia Malaysia Tamil Language Standardisation Council ( )
Tatar  Tatarstan Institute of Language, Literature and Arts of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan [4]
Telugu  India Telugu Academy and Official Language Commission of Government of Andhra Pradesh
Tetum  East Timor National Institute of Linguistics at the National University of East Timor
Thai  Thailand Royal Society of Thailand (?)
Tibetan China Tibet Autonomous Region Committee for Tibetan Language Affairs [5]
 India Committee for the Standardisation of the Tibetan Language
Tulu  India Karnataka Tulu Sahitya Academy
Turkish  Turkey
 Northern Cyprus
Türk Dil Kurumu (Turkish Language Association)
Ukrainian  Ukraine NASU Institute of Ukrainian Language
Urdu  Pakistan National Language Promotion Department ( ? )
 India National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language (? ? ? ?)
Urhobo  Nigeria Urhobo Studies Association
Vietnamese  Vietnam Institute of Linguistics of Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences
Võro  Estonia Võro Institute
Waray  Philippines Sanghiran san Binisaya ha Samar ug Leyte (Academy of the Visayan Language of Samar and Leyte) defunct
Welsh  Wales Welsh Language Commissioner (Aled Roberts)
West Frisian  Friesland Fryske Akademy (Frisian Academy)
Wolof  Senegal Centre de linguistique appliquée de Dakar (Center of Applied Linguistics of Dakar at the Cheikh Anta Diop University)
Yiddish  United States
YIVO[9] (Note that YIVO does not regulate or hold any sway over the Yiddish used in Ultra-Orthodox circles where the Yiddish language is most used in current times. The orthography and pronunciation of Yiddish in the Ultra-Orthodox communities is dramatically different from the standardized version of Yiddish devised by YIVO. A prime example of this is the spelling of the name for the Yiddish language in Yiddish itself. YIVO promotes the spelling "", while the spelling "" is more commonly used in most Ultra-Orthodox contexts.)
Yoruba  Nigeria Yoruba Academy

Auxiliary languages


Apart from the Akademio de Esperanto, most auxiliary languages, also known as constructed languages (Conlangs) have no true linguistic regulators, language academies.[10]

Esperanto and Ido have been constructed (or planned) by a person or small group, before being adopted and further developed by communities of users through natural language evolution.

Bodies such as the Akademio de Esperanto look at questions of usage in the light of the original goals and principles of the language.

Other constructed languages

Language Regulator(s)
Klingon Marc Okrand
Talossan Comità per l'Útzil del Glheþ


The auxiliary language Interlingua has no regulating body, as its vocabulary, grammar, and orthography are viewed as a product of ongoing social forces. In theory, Interlingua therefore evolves independent from any human regulator. Interlingua's vocabulary is verified and recorded by dynamically applying certain general principles to an existing set of natural languages and their etymologies. The International Auxiliary Language Association ceased to exist in 1954, and according to the secretary of Union Mundial de Interlingua "Interlingua doesn't need its Academy".[10]

Other bodies

These bodies do not attempt to regulate any language in a prescriptive manner and are primarily concerned with aiding and advising the government on policies regarding language usage.

See also


  1. ^ Thomas, George (1991) Linguistic purism p.108, quotation:

    Whereas a number of the puristically motivated language societies have assumed de facto responsibility for language cultivation, the decisions of the academies have often had the force of law. ... Since academies are so closely associated with the notion of purism, a brief word on their history may not be out of place. The first academy to deal expressly and exclusively with language matters was the Accademia della Crusca ... Its orientation was essentially conservative, favouring a return to the Tuscan language as cultivated in the fourteenth century over the innovations of contemporary renaissance poets such as Torquato Tasso. ... One of its first tasks -- as with so many academies to follow -- was to produce a large-scale prescriptive dictionary of Italian

  2. ^ "Organizations Attached to the Department of Humanitarian Sciences and Arts". National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Archived from the original on 13 April 2012. Retrieved 2012. Field of Activities: ... compilation of the Belarusian language dictionaries including Belarusian - the other Slavonic languages and the other Slavonic languages - Belarusian dictionaries; ...
  3. ^ Council of the Cherokee Nation
  4. ^ "Pontificia Academia Latinitatis" (in Latin). 10 November 2012. Retrieved 2013.
  5. ^ "? ? ?". (in Mongolian). Archived from the original on 14 September 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  6. ^ "CLO". Retrieved 2021.
  7. ^ "Lo Congrès". Retrieved 2019.
  8. ^ "Reconeishença der Institut d'Estudis Aranesi coma academia e autoritat lingüistica der occitan, aranés en Aran - Conselh Generau d'Aran".
  9. ^ "YIVO Institute". Retrieved 2019.
  10. ^ a b Johan Derks, Prilingvaj institutoj de 18 naciaj lingvoj (Language Institutes of eighteen states), Interlingvistikaj Studoj, UAM, 2014/17, Esperanta Interlingvistiko 1

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