List of Industrial Processes
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List of Industrial Processes
Steelworks of Italy in 1958
Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical, physical, electrical or mechanical steps to aid in the manufacturing of an item or items, usually carried out on a very large scale. Industrial processes are the key components of heavy industry.
Chemical processes by main basic material
Certain chemical process yield important basic materials for society, e.g., (cement, steel, aluminum, and fertilizer). However, these chemical reactions contribute to climate change by emitting carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, through chemical reactions, as well as through the combustion of fossil fuels to generate the high temperatures needed to reach the activation energies of the chemical reactions.
- Calcination - Limestone, which is largely composed of fossilized calcium carbonate (CaCO3), breaks down at high temperatures into useable calcium oxide (CaO) and carbon dioxide gas , which gets released as a by-product. This chemical reaction, called calcination, figures most prominently in creating cement (the paste within concrete). The reaction is also important in providing calcium oxide to act as a chemical flux (removal of impurities) within a blast furnace.
- CaCO3(s) -> CaO(s) + CO2(g)
- Smelting - Inside of a blast furnace, carbon monoxide (CO) is released by combusting coke (a high-carbon derivative of coal) and removes the undesired oxygen (O) within ores. is released as a by-product, carrying away the oxygen and leaving behind the desired pure metal. Most prominently, iron smelting is how steel (largely iron with small amounts of carbon) is created from mined iron ore and coal.
- Fe2O3(s) + 3 CO(g) -> 2 Fe(s) + 3 CO2(g)
- Hall-Héroult process - Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is smelted with coke (C) in a high-temperature electrolysis reaction, yielding the desired pure aluminum (Al) and a mixture of CO and .
- Al2O3(s) + 3 C(s) -> 2 Al(s) + 3 CO(g)
- 2 Al2O3(s) + 3 C(s) -> 4 Al(s) + 3 CO2(g)
- CH4(g) + H2O(g) -> CO(g) + 3 H2(g)
- CO(g) + H2O(g) -> H2(g) + CO2(g)
- N2(g) + 3 H2(g) -> 2 NH3(g)
Other chemical processes
The availability of electricity and its effect on materials gave rise to several processes for plating or separating metals.
Iron and steel
The physical shaping of materials by forming their liquid form using a mould.
Many materials exist in an impure form, purification, or separation provides a usable product.
Distillation is the purification of volatile substances by evaporation and condensation
In additive manufacturing, material is progressively added to the piece until the desired shape and size are obtained.
Petroleum and organic compounds
The nature of an organic molecule means it can be transformed at the molecular level to create a range of products.
Organized by product
- Aluminium - ( Hall-Héroult process, Deville process, Bayer process, Wöhler process)
- Ammonia, used in fertilizer - (Haber process)
- Bromine - (Dow process)
- Chlorine, used in chemicals - (chloralkali process, Weldon process, Hooker process)
- Fat - (rendering)
- Fertilizer - (nitrophosphate process)
- Glass - (Pilkington process)
- Gold - (bacterial oxidation, Parkes process)
- Graphite - (Acheson process)
- Heavy water, used to refine radioactive products - (Girdler sulfide process)
- Hydrogen - (water gas shift reaction, steam reforming)
- Lead (and Bismuth) - (Betts electrolytic process, Betterton-Kroll process)
- Nickel - (Mond process)
- Nitric acid - (Ostwald process)
- Paper - (pulping, Kraft process, Fourdrinier machine)
- Rubber - (vulcanization)
- Salt - (Alberger process, Grainer evaporation process)
- Semiconductor crystals - (Bridgeman technique, Czochralski process)
- Silver - (Patio process, Parkes process)
- Silicon carbide - (Acheson process, Lely process)
- Sodium carbonate, used for soap - (Leblanc process, Solvay process, Leblanc-Deacon process)
- Sulfuric acid - (lead chamber process, contact process)
- Titanium - (Hunter process, Kroll process)
- Zirconium - (Hunter process, Kroll process, crystal bar process, iodide process)
A list by process: