List of Glossing Abbreviations
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List of Glossing Abbreviations

This article lists common abbreviations for grammatical terms that are used in linguistic interlinear glossing of oral languages[nb 1] in English.

The list provides conventional glosses as established by standard inventories of glossing abbreviations such as the Leipzig Glossing rules,[2] the most widely known standard. These will generally be the glosses used on Wikipedia. Synonymous glosses are listed as alternatives for reference purposes. In a few cases, long and short standard forms are listed, intended for texts where that gloss is rare or common.

For interlinear glossing in Wikipedia, see templates {{interlinear}}, {{Gcl}} and Module:Interlinear/data.


  • Grammatical abbreviations are generally written in full or small caps to visually distinguish them from the translations of lexical words. For instance, (small) cap -DOWN might be a locative suffix used in nominal inflections, prototypically indicating direction downward but possibly also used where it is not translatable as 'down' in English, whereas lower-case 'down' would be a direct English translation of a word meaning 'down'.[3] Not all authors follow this convention.
  • Person-number-gender is often further abbreviated, in which case the elements are not small caps. E.g. 3ms or 3msg for 3SG.M, 2fp or 2fpl for 2PL.F, also 1di for 1DU.INCL and 1pe for 1PL.EXCL.[4][nb 2]
  • Authors may more severely abbreviate glosses than is the norm, if they are particularly frequent within a text, e.g. IP rather than IMM.PST for 'immediate past'. This helps keep the gloss graphically aligned with the parsed text when the abbreviations are longer than the morphemes they gloss. Such shortened forms may be ambiguous with other authors or texts are so are not presented as normative here. Glosses may also be less abbreviated than the norm if they are not common in a particular text, so as to not tax the reader, e.g. TRANSTVZR for 'transitivizer' or SUBJUNCT for 'subjunctive'. At the extreme, glosses may not be abbreviated at all but simply written in small caps, e.g. COMPLEMENTIZER, NONTHEME or DOWNRIVER rather than COMP, NTH, DR.[5] Such long, obvious abbreviationse.g. in [6] have been omitted from the list below, but are always possible.
  • When a morpheme is difficult to gloss, authors may sometimes use it in (small) caps as its own gloss. For example, if a language has a prefix sh- with multiple or subtle meanings that would be impractical to gloss using normal conventions, it may be glossed simply as itself (SH-) and explained elsewhere.
  • Lexical morphemes are typically translated, using lower-case letters, though they may be given a grammatical gloss in small caps if they play a grammatical role in the text. Exceptions include proper nouns, which typically are not translated, and kinship terms, which may be too complex to translate. Proper nouns/names may simply be repeated in the gloss, or may be replaced with a placeholder such as "(name.F)" or "PN(F)" (for a female name). For kinship glosses, see the dedicated section below for a list of standard abbreviations.
  • Lehmann recommends that abbreviations for syntactic roles not be used as glosses for arguments, as they are not morphological categories. Glosses for case should be used instead, e.g. ERG or NOM for A.[7] These abbreviations are typically typeset as full capitals even when small caps are used for glosses, and include A (agent of transitive verb), B (core benefactive),[8] D or I (core dative / indirect object),[9] E (experiencer of sensory verb),[10] G (goal),[11] L (location argument),[12] R (recipient – indirect object of ditransitive verb),[11] O or P (patient of transitive verb), S (single argument of intransitive verb), SA (Sa) and SP or SO (Sp, So) (agent- and patient-like argument in split-S alignment),[13] Se and Sx (argument of equative/copular and existential verb),[9] Su (subject of v.t. or v.i.),[9] and T (theme – direct object of ditransitive verb).[12]
These abbreviations are, however, commonly used as the basis for glosses of 'trigger' morphemes (also called 'focus' or – inaccurately – 'voice' morphemes), such as AT (agent trigger), BF (beneficiary 'focus'), LV (locative 'voice'). See Austronesian alignment § Properties.
  • Glosses for generic concepts like 'particle', 'infix', 'tense', 'object marker' and the like are generally to be avoided in favor of specifying the precise value of the morpheme.[7] However, they may be appropriate for historical linguistics or language comparison, where the value differs between languages or a meaning cannot be reconstructed.
  • Authors also use placeholders for generic elements in schematicized parsing, such as may be used to illustrate morpheme or word order in a language. Examples include HEAD or HD 'head'; ROOT or RT 'root'; STEM or ST 'stem'; PREF, PRFX or PX 'prefix'; SUFF, SUFX or SX 'suffix'; CLIT, CL or ENCL '(en)clitic'; PREP 'preposition' and POS or POST 'postposition', PNG 'person–number–gender element' and TAM 'tense–aspect–mood element' (also NG number–gender, PN person–number, TA tense–aspect, TAME tense–aspect–mood–evidential) etc.[2][14] These are not listed below as they are not glosses for morphological values.


Nonabbreviated English words used as glosses are not included in the list below. Caution is needed with short glosses like AT, BY, TO and UP, which could potentially be either abbreviations or (as in these cases) nonabbreviated English prepositions used as glosses.

Transparent compounds of the glosses below, such as REMPST or REM.PST 'remote past', a compound of REM 'remote' and PST 'past', are not listed separately.

Abbreviations beginning with N- (generalized glossing prefix for non-, in-, un-) are not listed separately unless they have alternative forms that are included. For example, is not listed, as it is composable from + . This convention is grounded in the Leipzig Glossing Rules.[2] Some authors use a lower-case n, for example for 'non-human'.[14]

Some sources are moving from classical lative (LAT, -L) terminology to 'directional' (DIR), with concommitant changes in the abbreviations. Other authors contrast -lative and -directive.[15]

Some sources use alternative abbreviations to distinguish e.g. nominalizer from nominalization,[16] or shorter abbreviations for compounded glosses in synthetic morphemes than for independent glosses in agglutinative morphemes.[17] These are seldom distinct morphosyntactic categories in a language, though some may be distinguished in historical linguistics. They are not distinguished below, as any such usage tends to be idiosyncratic to the author.

Punctuation and numbers

Conventional Gloss Variants Meaning Reference
- separator for segmentable morphemes, e.g., Lezgian amuq'-da-? (stay-FUT-NEG) "will not stay" [2]
= ?, ? [optional in place of hyphen] separator for clitics, e.g., West Greenlandic palasi=lu niuirtur=lu (priest=and shopkeeper=and) "both the priest and the shopkeeper" [2][18]
. when a morph is rendered by more than one gloss, the glosses are separated by periods, e.g., French aux chevaux (to.ART.PL horse.PL) "to the horses"
A period is not used between person and number, e.g. 1PL, 2SG, 1DU, 3NSG (nonsingular).
_ [optional in place of period] when the language of the gloss lacks a one-word translation, a phrase may be joined by underscores, e.g., Turkish ç?k-mak (come_out-INF) "to come out" [2]
> >, ->, : [optional in place of period] direction of polypersonal agreement in a single gloss, whether
(a) possession (1S>SG means 1S possessor and singular possessum)
or (b) transitivity (2>3 means 2 acts on 3, as in guny-bi-yarluga (2DU>3SG-FUT-poke) "(who) do you two want to spear?"
A colon is used by some authors: 1S:SG, 2DU:3SG-FUT-poke.
: [optional in place of period] separates glosses where segmentation is irrelevant (morphemes may be segmentable, but author does not wish to separate them) [2]
; : [optional in place of period] separates glosses that are combined in a portmanteau morpheme, as in aux chevaux (to;ART;PL horse;PL) "to the horses".
Some authors use the colon indiscriminately for this convention and the previous.[21]
+ [optional] compound word or fused morpheme.
(Also used in 1+2 (inclusive) vs 1+3 (exclusive) person; EMPH+ strong emphatic)
& [optional in place of period] cross-referencing: X&Y = X>Y or Y>X or both [7]
/ | alternative meanings of ambiguous morpheme, e.g. 2/3 for a morpheme that may be either 2nd or 3rd person, or DAT/GEN for a suffix used for both dative and genitive. [24][6]
\ [optional in place of period] a morpheme indicated by or affected by mutation, as in Väter-n (father\PL-DAT.PL) "to (our) fathers" (singular form Vater) [2]
[...] [optional in place of period] indicates unmarked element (such as fils (son[MSG], which has no suffix for MSG). The null suffix -? may be used instead. [2]
(...) [optional in place of period] inherent category, such as covert gender (when glossed at all) [2]
~ [required in place of hyphen] marks reduplication and retriplication (e.g. Greek gé~graph-a PRF~write-1SG 'I have written', with word-initial reduplication) [2]
⟨...⟩ <...> [required in place of hyphen] marks off an infix (e.g. ⟨ITER⟩Vb is word-initial infixation that makes the verb iterative) [2]
?...? -...-, >...< [optional in place of hyphens] marks off a circumfix or bipartite stem. The second element may be glossed the same as the first, or as CIRC, STEM or $:
ge?lauf?en   ⟨PART.PRF⟩run
ge?lauf?en   PART.PRF?run?PART.PRF
ge?lauf?en   PART.PRF?run?CIRC
ge-lauf-en   PART.PRF-run-PART.PRF
ge-lauf-en   PART.PRF-run-CIRC
$ (second part of a discontinuous lexeme) [25]
? [optional] used by some authors to mark which element is the root (in ⟨x-?y-z⟩, 'y' is the root) [26][27]
? , X (morpheme not understood, unidentified morpheme) [28][29]
? 0, Ø zero (null) morpheme (such as fils-? (son-MSG), with a 'zero' suffix for MSG). Brackets may be used instead. [2][30][7][31]
0 zeroth person ('one', as in Finnish, Keres) [32]
0 epenthetic segment (semantically null) [8]
1 first person (1msg, 1fpl, 1EXCL, DEM1 etc.) [2]
2 second person [2]
3 third person (3SG.M or 3msg or 3ms; 3PL.F or 3fpl or 3fp; 3DU.N or 3ndu or 3nd) [2]
12, 13 inclusive, exclusive person (especially if not thought of as a form of 1pl)
(rarely other digit compounds, e.g. 12 dual vs 122 plural inclusive, 33 vs 333 for 3du vs 3pl, etc.)
3sp impersonal 'space' subject [17]
3.3?.CJ (3rd-person subj, 3rd-person obj conjunct-order verb) [1]
4 (a) fourth person (= OBV)
(b) first person inclusive
I, II, III, IV etc. noun classes / genders [36][37][20]
> >=
older and younger: 1SG> 'I' (speaker older than addressee), 2SG 'you' (speaker addressing addressee of same age or younger), 3SG> 's/he' (referent older than (a) speaker or (b) addressee, depending on requirements of discourse) [33]
= ? same and different generations: 3DU? 'they two' (of different generations, e.g. grandchild and great-grandchild), 1PL= 'we' (of same generation, e.g. me and my siblings) [33]
? varies with [1]

Grammatical abbreviations

Conventional Gloss Variants Meaning Reference
A actor trigger/focus/voice/topic [7]
-A athematic (TAMA athematic tense-aspect-mood, ANTA athematic antecedent, etc.) [38]
A- associating (prefix on case abbreviation) [21]
AB from. May be equivalent to ABESS or ABL. Compounded for ABE(SS), ABL(AT), ABEL etc. if a single morpheme, as AB-ESS, AB-LAT or AB-DIR, AB-ELA etc. if not. []
AB, ABV[] above deictic center [39]
ABESS ABE, AB abessive case (AKA caritive case or privative case: 'without')

Lehmann (2004) recommends using privative (PRV) or aversive (AVERS) instead[7]

ABIL ABL, CAP[] (cap)ability (ACQ.ABIL acquired ability, INTR.ABIL intrinsic ability) [42]
ABL ABLA ablative case ('from') [2][29]
ABM ablative-modalis case [43]
ABS ABSOL, AB[] absolutive case [2][16]
ABSL absolute (free, non-incorporated form of noun) [7]
ABST AB abstractive; abstract [44][10]
ABSTR abstract (of nominal) [7]
ABSV ABSN absentive (occurring in a place displaced from the deictic centre) [45][46]
AC motion across (as opposed to up/down-hill, -river) []
AC animacy classifier [27]
ACC AC accusative case [2][47]
ACCOM accompanier [13]
ACH achievement [32]
ACP, ACCMP accomplishment [48][32]
ACR, ACT cn? actor role. [7]
ACT AC active voice [30][7][48]
ACT actual [38][20]
ACTL actualizing [14]
ACTY activity [32]
AD near, by. May be equivalent to ADESS or ALL. Compounded for ADE(SS), (irregular ALL), ADEL etc. if a single morpheme, as AD-ESS, AD-LAT, AD-ELA etc. if not. [14][15]
AD agent demotion [18]
ADD ADDIT additive case; additive focus [7][49][50]
ADESS AD, ADE, ADES adessive case ('at'; more specific than LOC). See AD. [10][51][30][7][2][27][52][28]
ADEL adelative [53][7][10]
ADJ adjective (ADJZ adjectivizer) [2][54][14]
ADJZ ADJR adjectivizer [54][55]
ADM ADMON admonitive mood (warning) [7][56]
ADR ADDR, AD addressive; addressee-anchored/orientated [15][14][19][57][1]
ADV adverb(ial) (ADVZ ~ ADVR adverbializer); adverbial case [2][11][58][7]
ADV advancement [46]
ADVM adverb marker [17]
ADVS ADV, ADVRS, ADVRST adversative (maleficiary, 'whereas') [55][48][46][1]
ADVZ ADVR, ADVZR adverbializer [11][55][29]
AEQ EQ, EQL, EQTV aequalis (equalis) case (like, as), equational particle, equative (adj in nominal clause; EQA, EQS = active, stative equative) [59][35][22][51][32]
AF AV actor/agent focus, agent voice ~ actor voice (NAF non-actor focus) [53][60][61][46]
AFF AFFMT, AFFM AFFIRM affirmative [30][46][55][14]
AFFECT affectionate [21]
AFM aforementioned [46]
AFFT AFF affective case [55][62][20][14]
aFOC argument-focus marker [1]
AFW away from water (= UH) [63]
AGG aggregate, collective (cf. COL) [29]
AGN, AG.N, AGNR agent nominalization/noun [64][15][29]
AGR, AG agreement affix (typically number–gender; cf. PNG)
Lehmann (2004) recommends avoiding and specifying agreement categories.[7]
AGT AG agentive case (AGNZ agentive nominalizer)
Lehmann (2004) recommends avoiding 'agent', as it is not the value of a morphological category.[7]
AJC adjacent [65]
AL ALIEN cn? alienable possession [7][57]
ALL ADL, ADDIR allative case ('to'; also 'aditive' [sic], 'adlative', 'addirective') [2][10][34]
ALLOC AL allocutive (addressee honorific) [7][16]
AMBIPH ambiphoric pronoun [20]
AMP amplifier [64]
AN ANIM animate gender (ANPL animate plural; cf R; may exclude human referents) [13][27][30]
AN, ACNR, ACNNR action noun, action nominalizer [15][46][7]
ANA ANP, ANAPH anaphoric (demonstrative, suffix) [66][22][44][19][43]
ANA action narrowly averted [1]
AND andative ('going towards', cf venitive) [7]
ANP adnominal verb [1]
ANT anterior tense (relative tense; used for PRF in some traditions) [30]
ANT Antecedent (ANTA athematic antecedent, ANTT thematic antecedent) [38]
ANT anticipated [6]
ANT ANTE in front of. May be equivalent to ANTESS or ANTL. Compounded for ANTE(SS), ANTL(AT), ANTEL etc. if a single morpheme, as ANT-ESS, ANT-LAT, ANT-ELA etc. if not. [14][3]
ANTEL anteelative (antelative) [15]
ANTESS ANTE[] antessive case, anteessive ('before') [15]
ANTIC, AC ACAUS anticausative [67][53][7][68][46]
ANTIC anticipatory (ANT.SU anticipatory subject) [1]
ANTIP, AP APASS, APS, ANTI, ATP antipassive voice [41][67][25][7][2][62][68][59][35][49][14]
ANTLAT ANTDIR antelative (ante-lative), antedirective [15]
AO agent-orientated verb [48]
AOBL attributive oblique [69]
AOR AO aorist (= PST.PFV) [30][17]
AP adverbial particle [note: better to gloss the actual meaning] [16]
APF adjective prefix [6]
APL APPL, APP, AL applicative (subtypes APL.INS etc.)[7] [2][59][24][27]
APPOS APP apposition, appositional mood [57][70][43]
APPROB approbation [71]
APR APPR apprehensive mood, apprehensional ('lest') [1][7][38]
APRT PRESP,[] PRPART, PRP active participle, present participle [72][41][8]
APRX APPR approximative [13][14]
APUD near, in the vicinity of. May be equivalent to APUDESS or APUDL. Compounded for APUDE(SS), APUDL(AT), APUDEL etc. if a single morpheme, as APUD-ESS, APUD-LAT, APUD-ELA etc. if not. [14][3]
AR, AREA areal (place/time/situation) [54][65][1]
ARG argumentative [73]
ART article [2]
AS aseverative [74]
AS actor (agent-role subject) [4]
ASC ASSOC, ASSC, ASS (a) associative case ('with', 'à'; not = COM),
(b) associative plural (also ASC.PL, ASSOC.PL, ASS.P),
(c) associative mood
(d) compounds, e.g. ASSOC.MOT associated motion
ASP aspect, aspectual
Lehmann (2004) recommends avoiding this and specifying the aspect.[7]
ASRT ASS, ASST, ASSERT assertive mood [7][1][65][75][17]
ASSP asserted past participle [17]
ASSUM ASS cn? assumptive mood, assumed evidential [7]
AST assistive [75]
AT agent trigger (= AF/AV agent focus / voice) [76]
AT at (locative) [English preposition as a gloss] [14]
ATN attention-calling [43]
ATR ATTR, AT attributive (L.ATR attributive derived from place name), attributor [37][53][15][7]
ATTEN ATT, ATTN attenuative [2][7][1]
AUD auditory evidential, auditive [7][34]
AUG (a) augmentative;
(b) augment (in Bantu noun classes)
(c) augmented number (e.g. of imperative)
AUX auxiliary verb
Per Lehmann (2004), this should only be used if it uniquely identifies the morpheme (i.e., there is only one auxiliary morpheme in the language.)[7]
AVERT avertive [65]
AVR AVERS aversative, aversive [77][7][32]
BE, TB 'be' verb (a conflation of EXIST and COP) []
BEL below deictic center [39]
BEN BENEF benefactive case ('for') [2][23]
BF beneficiary focus [60]
BG BCKG background [78][49]
BI bivalent [74]
BOUND geographic boundary [21]
BR bound root [46]
C COMM common gender (C.SG or cs common singular, C.PL or cp common plural) [30][7]
-C 'compass', in languages where relative position is based on cardinal direction rather than left, right, front and behind (ABLC compass ablative, ALLC compass allative) [38]
C- complementizing (prefix on case abbreviation) [21]
C.EXIST ceased existence [1]
CAR CARIT caritive case [79][80]
CARD cardinal numeral (morpheme or grammatical feature) [7]
CAU causal-final case [72]
CAUS CAU, CS, CSTVZR causative [2][47][71][28]
CC conditional converb [8]
CDM core development [46]
CDN conjunct dubitive neutral [17]
CDP conjunct dubitive preterite [17]
CE continued event [64]
CENT centric case [68]
CENTRIF centrifugal (motion) [6]
CENTRIP centripetal (motion) [6]
CERT certainty (evidential) [66][80]
CESS cessative [55]
CF circumstantial focus (= CIRC.FOC) [53]
CHEZ at X's place, at the home of (from the French preposition chez) [14]
CHR cohortative (often = HORT) [43]
CIF contrary information flow [81]
CIRC CIR, CIRCUM circumstantial (voice), circumstantive ('in', 'by') [7][60][8][80][9]
CIRC CIRCUM, $ (empty tag to mark second element of a circumfix) [2][25]
CIRC circumferential [14]
CIRCUMESS circumessive []
CIS CISL, CISLOC cislocative [82][59][64][73]
CIT citation form ending [47]
CJT CJ conjoint [19][6]
CL close link (necessary condition; temporal closeness) [83]
CL clause-level, e.g. &CL clause-level 'and', COMPL.CL completive clause marking [28][17]
CLF CL, CLASS, CLFSR classifier (base or morpheme) (NCL noun class). Some distinguish CLF classifier from CL class marker.[20]
The category of classifier should be specified,[7] e.g. "CLF:round"[84] or "CLF.HUM"[7]
CM (a) conjugation marker;
(b) noun-class marker
CMPD compound []
CMPL COMPL, CPL, CMP, COMP, CMPLT, COMPLET completive (completitive) aspect (e.g. PAST.COMPL completed past) – normally = PFV[7] [17][2][18][80][14][60][55]
CMPR CMP, COMP, COMPR, CMPAR comparative [72][7][14][55][17]
CMT, COMM commitment, committal [64][9]
CN common noun (e.g. CN.DET common-noun determiner) [74]
CN conjunct nominal [54]
CNEG, CNG, CN connegative [60][1][4]
CNJ CONJ, CONJUN conjunction [13][30][17]
CNS, CONSTR, CNSTR construct state/form [85][73][1]
CNSQ, CONS consequential mood [59][38]
CNTF CF, CTR, CTRFCT, CNTR.FACT counterfactual conditional, contrafactuality [53][80][81][43][1][21]
CNTR CONTR, CTR, CONT contrastive, contranstive focus (= CONTR.FOC) [17][53][47][68][57][20][8]
CNTREXP counterexpectation [1]
CO.AG co-agency [80]
COCAUS concomitative-causitive
COH coherence [46]
COL COLL collective number/numeral [7][13]
COM COMIT comitative case ('together with', 'in the company of') [2][14]
COMP CMP, COMPL, COMPLR complementizer (= SUBR)[7] [2][30][80][64][55]
COMP compassion [71]
COMPV comparative case (unequal comparison) [32]
COMPUL compulsional [80]
CON CNA, CNTV conative [65][14][43][7]
CON concrete []
CONC CNCS, CONCESS concessive ('although') [7][59][80][14]
CONC concurrent [6]
CONC concord marker [to be avoided in favor of specifying the agreement] [73]
COND CND, CON conditional mood ('if', 'would') [2][10][72]
CONF CONFIRM confirmational, confirmative [17][44]
CONJ CJ conjunctive (interpropositional relation), conjunct person marking [7][17][18]
CONJC CONJ conjectural (evidential) [7][80][1]
CONN CN, CNN, CT connective (particle, mood, case) [2][53][7][68][86][43][50]
CONR CNCT connector [19][57]
CONS consecutive; concessive [19][22]
CONSEC, CONS consecutive mood ('so that') [73][6]
CONST, CNS, CST constant, constancy [64][43]
CONT CNT cn?, CTN, CONTIN continuous aspect, continuative aspect [30][53][7][18][1]
CONT on a vertical surface. (From English contact.) May be equivalent to CONTESS or CONTL(AT). Compounded for CONTE(SS), CONTL(AT), CONTEL etc. if a single morpheme, as CONT-ESS, CONT-LAT or CONT-DIR, CONT-ELA etc. if not. [14][3]
CONT continuous direction [21]
CONT contentive [15]
COOP cooperative [80]
COORD coordination [14]
COP BE copula, copulative [2][44][28]
COR COREF, CO.REF coreference, coreferential [34][68][80][17]
CQ content question (= WH.Q) [28]
CRAS crastinal tense ('tomorrow') [7]
CRD, CARD cardinal pronoun [20][48]
CRS current relevance marker, currently relevant state (as in the perfect) [87]
CSM change of state marker [17]
CSO cosubordinator [88]
CT circumstantial topic [1]
CTEXP contraexpectative [66]
CTG CNTG contingent mood [66][59][35]
CTM CTEMP, COTEMP, CONTEMP, CONT contemporative (at that/the same time) [66][35][20][48][73][1]
CTR control [46]
CUS CU, CUST, CUSTOM customary (cf. USIT [43][36][88][80][73]
CV copula verbalizer [88]
CV characteristic vowel [89]
CV conveyance 'voice' [90]
CVB CONV, CNV converb [2][19][1]
DAT dative case [2]
DC dectic center [57]
DC downcoast []
DD discourse definite [91]
DE different event, change of event (cf DS) [92][22]
DE discontinued event [64]
-de DE dual exclusive (= DU.EX) [4][7]
DEAG deagentive [74][73]
DEB OBLG, OBLIG, OBL debitive / obligative mood [80][14][15][71]
DEC decausative [8]
DECL DEC declarative mood [2][1]
DED deductive evidential [47]
DEF definite [2]
DEFIN definitive [73]
DEFOC defocus [80]
DEFR deferential (speaker-humble) [7]
DEI cn?, DEIC, DEIX, DX D deixis, deictic (D12 deictic of 12 person) [13][14][69][7]
DEL.IMP delayed imperative (a command to do s.t. later; cf. IMM) [93]
DEL delative case ('off of', 'down from') [7]
DEL, DLM[] delimiter, delimitative ('just, only'), delimiting [64]
DEL deliberative mood []
DEM demonstrative (DEM1 proximate dem, DEM2 present/given dem, DEM3 remote dem; DEM.ADDR near addressee, DEM.DOWN lower than reference point, DEM.NEAR ~ DEM.NR near, DEM.SP near speaker, DEM.UP higher than reference point) [13][2][14]
DEN denizen [38]
DENOM denominal [12]
DEO DEONT deontic mood [77][22][33]
DEOBJ deobjective [67]
DEP D dependent (as in DEP.FUT), dependent clause marking (use SJV)[7] [36][68][17][1]
DEPO deportmentive [38]
DEPR depreciatory, deprecative [34]
DER DERIV derivation, derivational morpheme (e.g. ADJ.DER adjective-derived) [36][81][72]
DEREL derelational [55]
DES DESI cn?, DESID desiderative mood (= OPT) (DESN desiderative noun)[8] [30][7][74][22][58][73]
DEST destinative aspect or case ('to') (non-finite verb form = supine)[7] [30][51]
DET D determiner [2][16]
DETR DTRNZ detransitivizer, detransitive [7][13][17]
DETR detrimental [17]
DFLT default [94]
DH downhill, seaward (cf DR) []
-di DI dual inclusive (= DU.IN) [4][7]
DIF direct information flow [81]
DIM DIMIN diminutive [30][12]
DIR.EV DIREV, DIR cn?, DR, DRCT direct evidential (= EXP; DIR/INFR direct/inferred) [30][7][64][17][32]
DIR DIREC directive, directional (= LAT); typically suffixed to another element such as AD-, POST-, SUB-, SUPER-. [30][7][58][57][21]
DIR, DR direct case, direct voice (opposite of INV) [30][80][7]
DIR directed (DIRA athematic directed, DIRT thematic directed) [38]
DIS dislocative [22]
DISC DM, DSC, D discourse marker [29][30][54][46]
DIS.CON discursive connector [29]
DISJ DIS disjunction, disjunctive, disjunct person marking [95][17][8]
DISSAT dissatisfaction [71]
DIST DIS, DS, DSTL, FAR distal, distant (DIST.FUT, DIST.PST; DIST.IMPV distal imperative) [2][12][35][28][17][1][27]
DISTR DSTR, DISB, DIST (a) distributive case;
(b) distributive plural[]
DITR ditransitive [18]
DIV diversative [8]
DN deverbal noun [17]
DM demonstrative marker [20]
DO DO, DOBJ direct object(ive) [30][4]
DO do like a ... (verbalizing suffix) [21]
DOM (a) differential object marking; (b) direct-object marker [96][14][50]
DON donative (auxiliary of benefactive) [38][7]
DOX doxastic [42]
DP distant past. = REM.PST [66]
DP discourse particle [use actual gloss if possible] [17]
DP destinative participle [8]
DPAST direct past (evidentiality) [17]
DPC distant past continuative [46]
DPP distant past completive [46]
DR downriver (cf DH toward the water) [97][68]
DR different reference [1]
DS DA different-subject/actor/agent (change of subject) marker (cf DE) [53][36][22]
DSC DISCNT, DISCONT discontinuative aspect [64][53][51]
DT different taxis [22]
DTR detrimentary [59]
DU DL, d dual number (M.DU or md masculine dual, F.DU or fd feminine dual) [2][36][81]
DUB DUBIT dubitative mood [7][48]
DUPLIC, DV duplicative [73][1]
DUR durative aspect (continuous aspect) [2]
DY DYAD cn? dyadic (e.g. wife-DY 'man and wife') [98][56]
DYN DYNM dynamic aspect / eventive [7][20]
-E (used to form various essive cases)
EC euphonic consonant (= EP) [14]
EFF effector [23]
EFOC extra-focal [74]
EGO egophoric [14]
EGR egressive [7]
EI euphonic insertion [13]
ELA EL, ELAT, ELV elative case ('out of') [67][30][41][7][74][6]
EM extension marker [14]
EMO EMOT[] emotive [38][75]
EMP EMPH, EM (a) emphatic (e.g. emphatic base of pronouns),
(b) emphasizer, emphatic marker
END, FP, FIN clause-final particle (joshi)
Per Lehmann (2004), glosses as 'particle' should be avoided; instead translate/gloss the meaning.[7]
ENZ enunciative [16]
EP E, EPENTH, EPENT, 0 epenthetic morpheme, epenthetical [13][53][22][73][8]
EPI, EPIS, EM, EPST, EPIST epistemic mood or modality [22][60][84]
EPIT epithet [33]
ERG ergative case [2]
ES echo subject [1]
ESS essive case ('as') [30]
EV EVD, EVI, EVID evidential (DIR.EV etc.)
[per Lehmann (2004), the particular evidential should be specified][7]
(PREV.EVID.EV previous-evidence evidential)
EV euphonic vowel (= EP) [14]
EVIT evitative case (= aversive case) [22][38]
EVT eventual [14]
EXAL DEF exaltive/deferential (high-status register) [99][86]
EXC, XS excessive [cf. EXESS 'ex-essive', which is commonly misspelled 'excessive'] [14][17][21]
EXCL, EX EXC, e exclusive person (as in 1EX, 1PL.EX, 1e) [2][12]
EXCLAM EXCLM, EXCL, EXC exclamative [13][80][33][43]
EX.DUR excessive duration [81]
EXESS exessive case [100]
EXFOC extrafocal (cleft subordinate clause
EXH, ADH exhortative, adhortative [101][25]
EXH.FOC exhaustive focus [1]
EXIST EXST, EX, EX.BE existential ('there is') [30][14][28][1]
EXO exocentric case [68]
EXP, EXPER cn? experiencer [30][13][41]
EXP EXPER, EXP.EV experiential, eyewitness = direct evidential (cf. WIT). EXPER.PAST experienced past. [30][7][73][17]
EXPECT expectational [80]
EXPL, EXP expletive (dummy / meaningless form) [22]
EXPR expressive [33][8]
EXT extended (aspect, demonstrative), extendible; extension (sound stretch) [36][48][43][31]
EXT extent [17]
EXTRV extraversive (trz by addition of ugr) [7]
EZF, EZ, IZAF ezafe = izafet [14][50][73]
F FEM feminine gender (F.SG, FSG or fs feminine singular, F.PL, FPL or fp feminine plural) [2]
FA future actor [41]
FAC FACT (a) factive evidential/mood, factual;
(b) factitive (A-FACT NP 'make NP A')
FAM familiar, as for familiar register (as the T-V distinction) and familiar pronominal [53][7]
FCL facilitive [14]
FH, FIRSTH firsthand (NFH non-firsthand) [32][17]
FI feminine indefinite [1]
FILL, SFL morphological filler, sentence filler (expletive) [71]
FIN finite verb (NFIN non-finite) [30]
FIN finalis [14]
FMR former, deceased, 'late' [64]
FNL phrase-final suffix [6]
FOC focus (A.FOC, AGFOC agent/actor focus; P.FOC, PFOC patient focus; LFOC location focus, BFOC beneficiary focus, ACFOC accompanier focus, IFOC instrument focus, CFOC conveyance focus) [2][32]
FOR FRM, FORM, FRML (a) formal register (as the T-V distinction);
(b) formal mood;
(c) formal case (in the capacity as...)
FP far past [17]
FPRT FP future participle [72][8]
FPST far past [83]
FRACT fraction, fractional (numeral) [2]
FREQ FRQ, FR cn? frequentative aspect [7][35]
FRUS FRUST, FRST, FR frustrative [33][19][34][31][17]
FS false start [19]
FTV FACT factative tense (PRES if stative, PAST if not) [19][38]
FUNC functional [38]
FUNC functive case [51]
FUT F future tense (FOBJ future objective) [2][17][21]
FUT.INT, ITF future intention, intentional future [80][14]
FV, TV final/terminal vowel [6][1]
G1, G2, G3, G4 etc. GND etc. gender / noun class (e.g. G4 = 4th gender; may be used alongside M, F etc.) [2][50]
GEN GN genitive case [2][28]
GENZ generalized [1]
GER gerund, gerundive (for the latter, use obligative)[7] [30][41]
GF goal focus [68]
GIV given [102]
GM gender marker [or specify the gender] [14]
GNO GNOMIC gnomic (generic) aspect [68][81]
GNR GENR, GNRL, GENER, GENRL, GEN generic, general (e.g. classifier, tense; APPL.GEN general applicative) [7][19][34][56][51][20][1][43]
GNT general tense [14]
GO&, AM, DK associated motion. GO&DO (go to a place and perform the verb) (= ASC.MOT) [20][6][4]
GPST general past [83]
GRP group numeral [15]
GT GV goal trigger (Austronesian; = GF/GV goal focus/voice) [76][13]
gTOP given topic [25]
H Head [30]
H hearer/reader [30]
H high variety/code, in adiglossic situation [30]
H HUM human, anthropic gender (H.SG or hs human singular, H.PL or hp human plural, ALLH human allative) (cf. R) [38][30][19][49][37]
H higher animacy, higher object (cf. LA) [71][20]
HAB HABIT habitual aspect [7][30]
HBL habilitive [14]
HCR hypocoristic [7]
HES HESIT hesitation, hesitation particle [19][88]
HEST hesternal tense ('yesterday') [7]
HIST historic(al), as in historical present or past historic tense [19]
HNDR number of hundreds (in a numeral)
HOD TOD hodiernal tense ('today' in HOD.FUT/HODFUT hodernial future, HOD.PST/TODP hodernial past) [7][1]
HON HNR honorific [30][43]
HOR horizon of interest [14]
HOR horizontal [25]
HORT HOR [cn] hortative (1st-person imperative) [7]
HPL human plural (H.PL [89]
HR.EV heard evidential (= AUD) [80]
HRS HSY, HS, HRSY, EH hearsay/reported evidential [88][59][34][17][1][4]
HUM HML, HBL cn? humiliative (humble/low-status register) [7][99]
HYP HYPO, HYPOTH cn? hypothetical mood [22][30][7][44]
I inflected (AUX.I inflected auxiliary) [81]
IA involuntary agent [74]
IA indirect agent(ive) [25]
IA instrumental advancement [41]
IAM iamitive [14]
IC involuntary causative (natural or accidental events) [13][27]
IC indirective copula [17]
ICOM involuntary comitative [64]
ICVB, IC imperfective converb [69][8]
ID identical (~ NID) []
IDENT identificational [48]
IDENTIF identifiable [20]
IDEO IDPH, IDEOPH ideophone (? MIM) [16][44][19][34][103]
IE informal ending [9]
IF instrument focus [60]
IFUT indefinite future [81]
IGN IGNOR ignorative [43][80]
ILL ILLA, ILLAT illative case ('into') [30][75][15]
IM interrogative marker [16]
IMI impersonal infinitive [8]
IMM IM, IMD, IMMED immediate, as in IM.IMP immediate imperative mood, IM.FUT near future tense, IM.PAST/IMPST immediate past [7][36][43]
IMMED immediate past, = IMM.PST [73]
IMN imminent (future) = IMM.FUT [43]
IMP IMPER, IMPV, IMPRT imperative mood [2][12][17][6]
IMPARF imparfait [17]
IMPF IMPERF, IMPRF, IMPFT, IM imperfect (= PST.IPFV) [30][19][14][83][17]
IMPL implicated [1]
IMPOSS modal impossibility [71]
IMPR IMPREC cn? imprecative mood [104][42]
IMPRS IMPERS, IMPR, IMPS cn?, IMPL, IMP impersonal, impersonal verb [53][7][46][62][80][81][27][105]
IN in a container. May be equivalent to INESS or INL. Compounded for INE(SS), INL(AT), INEL etc. if a single morpheme, as IN-ESS, IN-LAT, IN-ELA etc. if not. [14][3]
INAB, IMPOT impotential [42][9]
INABL inablative [27]
INACT inactive [14]
INAL inalienable possession [13][19]
INAN INANIM inanimate gender [13][30][14]
INC increment [38]
INCEP, INC, INCP, IP inceptive (= inchoative or ingressive) [7][55][19][56][65]
INCH INCHO, INC inchoative [7][55][43]
INCL, IN INC inclusive person (as 1IN or 1PL.IN) [2]
INCP, INCIP incipient (INCPA athematic incipient, INCPT thematic incipient) [38]
IND INDIC indicative mood [2][16]
INDCAUS indirect causative [69]
INDEP independent [1]
INDET indeterminate [106][84]
INDH indefinite human ('somebody') [107]
INDIR indirective (motion inward); indirect(?) (INDIR.COP indirective copula) [80][14][73][17]
INDIV individualizer [21]
INDN indefinite non-human ('something') [107]
INEL inelative case ('from within') [10][51]
INESS INE, INES, INSV, IN inessive case ('in') [7][16][50][41][1][52]
INF infinitive [2]
INFL inflectional [30]
INFR INFER, INFERN, INF inferential mood, inferred evidential [7][89][1][17]
ING, INGR ingressive case [35][46]
INJ INTERJ, INTJ, INT, INTER interjection (incl. 'filler'), interjective [43][10][30][17][8]
INS INST, INSTR instrumental case [2][55][25]
INS instantiated [38]
INT INTER, INTERR interrogative (= Q); C.INT content interrogative mood [53][7][17][90]
INTER within (a solid object). May be equivalent to INTERESS or INTERL. Compounded for INTERE(SS), INTERL(AT), INTEREL etc. if a single morpheme, as INTER-ESS, INTER-LAT, INTER-ELA etc. if not. [14][3]
INTERESS interessive
INTERP interpellative mood [104]
INTF interfix [67]
INTL INTEN, INT intentional conditional, intentive future [101][81][64]
INTRST complement of interest [17]
INTRV introversive [74]
INTS INT, ITS, INTN, INTNS, INTEN, INTENS intensifier, intensive [53][7][43][8][13][80][28][1]
INTV INTENTV intentive [42][20]
INV inverse [53][7]
INVN inverse number (as in Kiowa: sg of default pl, pl of default sg) [32]
IO IO, IOBJ indirect object(ive) [62][25][4]
IP immediate past. = IM.PST [34]
IPAST indirective past [17]
IPD impeditive [64]
IPS (a) impersonal passive (passive w/o promotion to subject);
(b) impersonalizer (AGIPS agent impersonalizer)
IQ indirect question, self-addressed question [15]
IR irregular (compounded with other glosses, e.g. LOC.IR irregular locative) [28]
IRR IRLS cn?, IRREAL, IR irrealis mood [2][33][4]
IRREL, IRRELEV irrelevence (= NRELEV [80]
IS indirect speech [30]
IS impersonal subject [13]
ITER IT, ITE, ITR iterative aspect [30][12][22][43]
ITG intangible [1]
ITM intermittent [43]
ITV ITIV, IT itive [6][25]
IVC impersonal verb construction [1]
J thematic [38]
JUS JUSS jussive mood [7][64]
KIN kinship suffix [19][20]
KNWN known [49]
-L (used to form various lative cases)
L low variety/code, in adiglossic situation [30]
L local (exophoric) person (= 1/2)
L2 B tags translation as code-switching. [30][51]
LA lower animacy (cf. H) [20]
LAT lative case (= MVMT, direction) [7]
LC limited control [75]
LCL locational [6]
LENGTH vowel or consonant emphasis lengthening []
LEX lexical-thematic (affix) [65]
LF LV locative focus ~ locative 'voice' [60][90]
LIG ligature, possessor ligature [19][60][20]
LIM limitative [77][75]
LKLY likely (modality) [32]
LL land gender [20]
LL lower level (spatial deixis) [83]
LM landmark [48]
LM linking morph [18]
LNK LK linker, linking element: an interfix or a ligature [53][7][57][73]
LOC LCV locative case (includes essive case), locative verb (EXIST) [2][43]
LOG logophoric (LOG.A speaker-logophoric PN, LOG.B addressee-logophoric PN) [7][1]
LOQ delocutive [48]
LP linking particle [1]
LS lexical stem [14]
LV linking vowel [18][46]
M MASC masculine gender (M.SG, MSG or ms masculine singular, M.PL, MPL or mp masculine plural) [2]
M- (a) modal case (prefix on case abbreviation, e.g. MABL modal ablative)
(b) marked (e.g. MNF marked non-future)
MAL malefactive case [34][22]
MAN MNR manner; mood–aspect–negation (e.g. purpose-manner converb) [7][74][14][17]
MDT, MEDIT meditative [14][73]
M.E. multiple event [80]
MEA measure [64]
MED (a) mediative; (b) medial (e.g. medial past, medial demonstrative = GIV); (c) middle voice (= MID) [12][44][14][73]
MID MD, MP, M middle voice, medio-passive [53][7][48][91][21]
MIM mimetic (? IDEO) [103]
MIN minimal number [88][20]
MIR ADM (ad)mirative [68][22][65][80]
MIRN negative mirative [22]
MIS miscellaneous gender [62]
MIT mitigation [42]
MLOC modal locative [6]
MOD, MO modal case (modalis), e.g. certainty [80][35][51][4]
MOD MDL mood, modal, modal particle [30][81][75][51][17]
MOD modifier [30][60][51]
MOM momentane, momentative (single-event verb) [53][13][4]
MONO monofocal person [53]
MOT motion (combined with location glosses), mutative [73][89]
MOV MVMT movement [59][34]
MSD MASD ma?dar (verbal noun) [37][51][14]
MT mental state (classifier) [27]
MUL MULT, MLT,[] MLTP[] multiplicative case, numeral [72][49]
MULT multal [51]
N NEUT, NT neuter gender (N.SG, NSG or ns neuter singular [cf. NSG non-singular], N.PL, NPL or np neuter plural)
Sometimes = non-human.
N noun (as a gloss in NZ nominalizer) [67]
N- n-, NON- non-, in-, un-, a-
(e.g. NSG, non-singular;
NPST, non-past;
NF, non-feminine;
NFIN, non-finite;
NPOSS, non-possessed;
N1, n1 non-1st person [i.e. 2/3];
NPFV, imperfective)
-N name (PN place name or proper name, FN feminine name, MN masculine name, GN geographic name[56])
NARR NAR cn? narrative tense [53][7]
NC noncontrol [18]
NC noun-class marker [6]
NCOMPL ICP, INC, INCMP, INCPL, INCMPL, INCOMPL incompletive/noncompletive aspect (normally = NPFV) [53][7][80][64][20][73]
NCTM ICM in contemporative (perfective appositional) [35]
NCUR noncurative [15]
NDEF INDF, IDF, INDEF, IND indefinite [2][13][55][8]
NEC necessitative [67][17]
NEG NOT, NG negation, negative [2][108][28]
NEGAT negatory, negator [38][21]
NEGN negative nominalization [21]
NEUT NEUTR neutral aspect [19][51]
NEWSIT new situation [73]
NEX non-extended [43]
NF non-final form/marker (cf. non-feminine) [91][24]
NF non-finite (cf. non-feminine) [6]
NFC non-finite conditional [14]
NFIN NF cn? non-finite (nonfinite verb, non-finite clause)
(NF may be ambiguous with non-feminine)
NH NHUM, nH non-human [7][19][14]
NM, NMASC non-masculine [1]
NMZ NMLZ, NLZ, NOMZ, NOMZR, NM, NML, NMNL, NOM, NOMI, NOMIN, NOMN, NOML, NZR, NR, NZ nominalizer/nominalization (e.g. PAT.NZ patient nominalizer) [1][16][46][109][2][33][35][29][81][86][49][51][64][108][73][17][18]
NOM NM nominative case [2][47]
NOMS S-only nominative (S case in tripartite system, = NTR) [32]
NONDUM 'not yet' [14]
NONIN noninstigational [34]
N/P neuter plural [48]
NP noun particle (cf. NP 'noun phrase') [17]
NP near past [31]
NPC non-past completive [48]
NPDL noun-phrase delimiter [6]
NPF noun prefix [6]
NPFV IPFV, IPF, IMP, IMPFV, IMPERFV, IMPRF, IMPF imperfective aspect [2][12][91][16][55]
NPOSS, UNPOSS non-possessed (marker of unpossessed noun) [73][17]
NPP non-past progressive [48]
NR near (as in NR.DIST 'near distal') [66]
NTEL, ATEL, AT atelic [73][27]
NS non-subject (see oblique case) [68]
NS non-singular [1]
NTR INTR cn?, INTRANS, ITR intransitive (covers an intransitive case for the S argument, = NOMS) [2][23][14]
NTS non-topical subject [49]
NUM numeral, numerative (NUM.CL numeral classifier) [30][14][17]
NV neutral version (cf. SBV subjective version) [89]
NVEXP nonvisual experiential (evidential) [17]
NVIS INVIS, NVSEN non-visual (evidential: NVSEN non-visual sensory); invisible (deixis) [19][20][32]
NVN nominal cyclical expansion (cf. VNV) [43]
NVOL invol} nonvolitional, avolitional, involuntative/involitive [46][17][42][14][33]
NW non-witnessed [89]
NX.PST (= UWPST) non-experienced past [75]
-O object(ive) (ABLO objective ablative, EVITO objective evitative), 3mO 3m object, 2SG.O 2sg object [38][33][4]
OBJ OBJV, OB object(ive), object agreement (TOP.OB topical object); objective case [30][7][13][18]
OBL oblique case [2]
OBV obviative [53][7]
OFC object focus. = O.FOC or P.FOC [75]
OINV inverted object [89]
OM object marker [16]
ONOM onomatopoeia [64][17]
OP object prefix [6]
OPP opposite [55]
OPT optative mood (= DES) [30]
OR orientation (direction) marker [17]
OR open reference (not specifically DS or SS) [32]
ORD ordinal numeral [7]
ORD ordinary [110]
ORIG origin, originative [38][20][48]
OS oblique stem [14]
OV objective version [17]
P pre-, post- (P.HOD prehodiernal, P.CRAS postcrastinal) [81]
P proper (as opposed to common: ABS.P absolutitive proper case; GEN.P genitive proper case. Cf. PERS personal (proper) article. [60]
-P possessor: 1P, 2P, 3fP, 3mP (1st, 2nd, 3rd masc & fem possessor). = 1POSS etc. [33]
P.ANT past anterior [6]
P.IMP plural imperative [28]
PASS PAS cn?, PSS, PSV passive voice [2][9][43]
PABS past absolutive [17]
PAT patientive (= UND)
Lehmann (2004) recommends avoiding, as it is not the value of a morphological category.[7]
PAUS pausal, pause [19][73]
PAU PAUC, PA cn?, pc paucal number (M.PAU or mpc masculine paucal, F.PAU or fpc feminine paucal; GPAUC greater paucal) [7][32][22][66]
PC past completive [48]
PC concord particle [17]
PC perfective converb [8]
PCP completive participle [64]
PDR past, deferred realization [17]
PDS previous event, different subject [17]
PE perpetuity [22]
PE previous event [106]
-pe PE plural exclusive (= PL.EX) [4][7]
PEG pegative case (a special case for the giver) [19]
PEJ pejorative [22][35]
PERAMB perambulative [66][29]
PERI peripheral [83]
PERL PER cn?, PRL perlative case [7][48][43]
PERM permission, permissive mood [53]
PERM permanent [6]
PERS P personal (PERS.EV personal evidential / personal experience, PERS.AG personal agency, PERS.EXP personal experience); personal article (= PERS.ART); 'personal' affix (= 4th person) [30][60][80][52]
PERS, PERSIS persistive [49][73][18]
PERSE personal experience (= PERS.EV) [23]
PERT pertensive [1]
PERV pervasive [73]
PF PV patient focus ~ patient 'voice' [60][61]
PFV PF, PERFV perfective aspect [2][65][23]
PHAB past habitual [48]
PHAS phasal aspect [64]
-pi PI plural inclusive (= PL.IN) [4][7]
PIMPF progressive imperfective []
PIMPV past imperfective [71]
PINF physical inferential [17]
PK personal knowledge [1]
PL p, PLUR plural (but 1PL also 1p, 3PL.M also 3mp) [2][41]
PLUP PLU, PPRF, PPERF, PLUPERF, PLUPRF, PLPF, PLPERF, PPF[] pluperfect [30][83][25][7][19][14][41][17]
PLUR, VPL PLU, PLR, PL, PLURAC pluractional (= VPL verbal plural) [49][44][75][33][29]
PM predicate marker [16]
PN, PR cn proper noun/name (e.g. PN.DET proper-noun determiner) [74]
PO primary object [7]
PO patient-orientated verb [48]
PODIR postdirective (= postlative) [10]
POEL POSTEL postelative case [10]
POESS POSTE, POSTESS postessive case ('after') [10][46][51][15]
POL polite register [30]
POS positive [1]
POSS POS, PO, PSR possessive, possessor (2POSS 2nd-person possessive; POSS.CL possessive classifier) [2][12][18][1]
POSB POSSB, POSSIB possible, modal possibility [53][71][50]
POSSD possessed [20]
POST PO- postlocative (behind). May be equivalent to POSTESS or POSTL. Compounded for POSTE(SS) (POESS), POSTL(AT) (PODIR), POSTEL (POEL) etc. if a single morpheme, as POST-ESS, POST-LAT or POST-DIR, POST-ELA etc. if not. [37][14][3][10]
POST, POSTP postposition, postpositional case [53]
POST post-terminal aspect [17]
POSTL PODIR, POSTLAT, POSTDIR postlative case, or 'postdirective' [10][15]
POT POTEN cn? potential mood (cf. VER) [30][7]
PP (a) predicative possessive particle;
(b) present progressive;
(c{ past perfect
PPA active perfect participle [16]
PPAST post-terminal past [17]
PPFV past perfective (= perfect) [71]
PPP (a) past passive participle;
(b) past perfect participle
PPRT PP, PPART, PASTP [cn] passive participle, past participle [75][8][72]
PPS pseudo-passive [43]
PR pragmatic (in PR.PART pragmatic particle) [1]
PRC precedence [43]
PREC precative mood (requests) [7]
PREC, PRECON precondition (PRECA athematic precondition, PRECT thematic precondition) [38][21]
PREC precise [22]
PRED predicative affix, predicative [2][10][20]
PREDICT prediction [80]
PREP preposition, prepositional case [30]
PRET PRT preterite (= PFV.PST) [2][1]
PREV previous (in evidentials) [17]
PREVEN preventative [17]
PRF PFT, PF, PERF perfect [30][49][46][7][55][2]
PRFRM, PERFORM performative [34][73]
PRIOR, PR prior [38][6]
PRIV PRV, PRVT privative case [7][46][14]
PRO PN, PRN, PRON pronominal base, (PRO only) proform [30][19][49][64]
PROB PB probabilitive [81][17]
PROCOMP procomplement [17]
PROD product verbalizer [17]
PROG PRG, PROGR progressive aspect [2][64][90]
PROH PRH, PROHIB prohibitive mood ('don't!') [2][30][43][17]
PROL PROLAT, PRL prolative case (= VIA) [7][19][14]
PROL prolonged action [105]
PROP PROPR proprietive case (quality of having X) [53][7][67][38][6]
PROP proper-noun marker [6][60]
PROPOS, PROP propositive mood (inclusive jussive) [110][9]
PROS PROSEC prosecutive case ('across', 'along') [111][73]
PROSP PRSP cn? prospective aspect or mood [7][86][51]
PROT protasis [81]
PROV pro-verb [8]
PROX PX, PRX proximal demonstrative; proximate (e.g. PROX.IMP proximate imperative) [2][28][17][90]
PRS PRES, PR present tense [2][55][1]
PRSC prescriptive [56]
ps- pseudo: psAP pseudo-antipassive, psPASS pseudo-passive [25]
PS passing state [22]
PS passé simple [17]
PS undergoer (patient-role subject) [4]
PSA previous same agent of v.t. (PSS previous same subject) [64]
PSS previous event, same subject of v.i. (PSA previous same agent); PSSI and PSST previous event, same subject of v.i. and v.t. [64][17]
PSSM, PSSD possessum (impersonal), possessed [44][46]
PSSR possessor [59]
PST PAST, PA, PS, P, PAS past tense (e.g. PINDEF past indefinite) [2][48][1][17][29]
PSTN past nominalization [21]
PST.PR past/present (different readings on different word classes) [28]
PT patient trigger (= PF/PV patient focus/voice) [76]
PT potent case inflection [20]
(Lehmann (2004) recommends avoiding this and instead translating/glossing the meaning.),[7]
PTCP {PART, PCP, PPL, PTP, PPLE, PTCPL, PARTIC, PARTICIP participle, participial (mood) [2][30][9][7][11][37][23][43][91][16][73]
PTV PRTV, PAR, PART, PRT, PTT, PARTVE partitive case [30][7][11][55][32][17]
PUNC PUNCT, PNC, PU, PNCL, PCT punctual aspect, punctiliar [6][53][7][12][34][22][32]
PRP PURP, PUR purposive case/converb (NPRP non-purposive) [32][2][90]
PV pivot form/nominal [48]
PVB PREV, PRV, PV preverb [19][53]
PX possessive suffix [52]
Q QST, QUES, QUEST, QP question word or particle (= INT) [2][43][12][68]
QM quantity marker [23]
QU, QM question marker [2][68]
QUAL qualifier [65][49]
QUANT QNT quantifier [30][14]
QUOT QUO, QT quotative (quotative case or quotative mood) [2][108][1]
QV quotative verb [88]
R rational gender (thinking beings) (R.SG or rs rational singular, R.PL or rp rational plural) []
-R reflexive (e.g. 3R 3rd-person reflexive) [43]
R- relational (prefix on case abbreviation) [21]
R.EXT, RT.EXT root extension [14][6]
R/A realis/assertive [20]
RA repeated action [17]
RA relative agreement [18]
RAR raritive [51]
RE refactive [14]
REA reactive (responding) [43]
REAL RLS, RL, R realis mood [7][44][75][49]
REC REC.PST, REC.P, RCT recent past tense [7][17][32]
RECP RCP, RECIP, REC reciprocal voice [2][38][55]
RED, RDP, REDUP, RDPL, DUP[] reduplication, reduplicant (avoid if possible; instead gloss with meaning of reduplicated element) [53][19][20][75]
REF RFR referential, referentive [36][68][18][46]
REFL RFL, RFLX, REFLX, REF, RFLEX, RX, R reflexive (reflexive pronoun/possessive, reflexive voice; 'R' used with person-number-gender) [2][62][59][81][48][28][4][50][43]
REG regal (e.g. pronouns) [33]
REG regularity [43]
REGR REG regressive [1][33]
REL R (a) relative clause marker (RELZ relativizer);
(b) relative pronoun affix;
(c) relational (REL.CL relational classifier)
(d) relative case (possessor + A role)
(e) e.g. PAST.REL relative past
REL.FUT relative future [80]
RELEV relevance [80]
REM RM cn?, RMT remote: REM.PST or REM.P or REMP remote past tense, REM.FUT or REM.F or REMF remote future tense; also REM remote past tense [53][7][36][16][1][32]
REP REPET, RPT (a) repetitive aspect (cf ITER)
(b) repetitive numeral
RES RESU, RESULT resultative (RES.N resultative noun) [2][108][73][15]
RESID residue class [83]
RETURN returnative [6]
REV revisionary [1]
RLN relational [18]
RSM, RES[] resumptive marker, resumptive pronoun [49]
RESP respect [53]
RESP responsive [80]
RET retrospective (recollection; synonym for 'perfect' in some traditions) [86]
REV reversative, reversive [22][91][6]
R/M reflexive/middle voice [33]
RM relative marker [73]
RNR result nominalizer [17]
ROOT R, $ (empty tag to mark second element of a divided root) [2][14][25]
ROY royal (e.g. pronouns) [33]
RP (a) recent past, = REC.PST
(b) remote past, = REM.PST
RPC remote past continuous [48]
RPI remote past inferred [46]
RPR remote past reported [46]
RPST remote past [83]
RPT RPRT, REP, RPR reported evidential (= HSY); reportative [29][7][30][80][64][17][46][43]
RPV remote past visual [46]
RQ RHET, RQT rhetorical question [14][22][60][43]
RR, R reflexive/reciprocal [71][64]
RSN reason [59]
RSTR REST restrictive (restrictive numeral, adverbial) [31][106][8]
RT roundtrip [6]
-S subjective (ABLS subjective ablative, EVITS subjective evitative), 3fS 3f subject [38][33]
SAL salient [22]
SAP speech-act participant [25]
SBEL SUBEL subelative case ('from under') [10]
SBEN self-benefactive [57]
SBESS SUBE cn?, SUBESS subessive case ('under') [10][7]
SBJ SUBJ, S, S/A, SBJT, SJ subject case, subject agreement (NSBJ non-subject) [2][30][55][64][112][17]
SBV subjective [89]
SCEP sceptical [80]
SD sudden-discovery tense [17]
SDS simultaneous event, different subject [17]
SE same event (cf SS) (SE.DA same event, different argument/subject) [92][22]
SEC second-hand (SEC.EV secondhand evidential, IMP.SEC secondhand imperative) [80][17]
SEJ sejunct (opposite of conjunct) [38]
SEM SMLF, SEMEL semelfactive aspect ('once') [113][7][32]
SEN SENS, SENS.EV sensory evidential mood, = VIS+AUD (NVSEN non-visual sensory) [32][7][17]
SEP spatial separation, separative [14][1]
SEQ SQ sequential [53][7][1]
SER serial marker [13][20]
SF subject focus [17]
SF stem formation [46]
SFN softener [43]
SFOC sentence focus [48]
SFP sentence-final particle [17]
SG s, SING singular (but 1SG also 1s, 3SG.M also 3ms) [2][41]
SGV SGT, SING, SINGL, SGLT singulative number, singulative nominal [7][44][49][1]
SH subject honorific [86]
SIM SIMUL simultaneous aspect, simultaneity [51][53][7][13][106]
SIMV SIM, SML similative (e.g. plural based on prototypical member of group) [51][13][106][14]
sIN singular intransitive action [17]
SINV inverted subject [89]
SIT situative (situational aspect) [27][73]
SJV SBJV, SUBJ, SUBJV, SUB, SB cn?, SU subjunctive mood (SUB and SUBJ may be ambiguous with 'subject') [24][2][30][16][73][1][89][29][17]
SL same level (spatial deixis) [83]
SM series marker [14]
SMBL SEMBL semblative [20][62][38]
SMI semeliterative [1]
SMR same reference [1]
SO same object [1]
SOC (a) sociative case; (b) sociative causative [50][73][106]
SP SPEC, SPECFC specific, specifying (NSP, NSPEC nonspecific) [7][34][56][25]
SP sentence particle (= FP). See usage note at particle and FP. [81]
SP simple past,[] perfective past [75]
SP subject prefix [6]
SP speaker: SP.PROX speaker-proximate, DEM.SP demontrative near speaker [20][14]
SPAT spatial [84]
SPECFR SPEC specifier [30][34]
SPECL SPEC speculative mood [17][30]
SPKR speaker-anchored [57]
SPL spotlighting [43]
SR same referent [20]
SRC, SO source [46][50]
SRP self-reporting pronoun [88]
SS SA same-subject/actor/argument marker (cf SE) [53][7][36][22]
SSO same-subject overlap ('while') [28]
SSS same-subject succession ('then') [28]
SSS simultaneous event, same subject (SSSI of intransitive clause, SSST of transitive clause) [17]
STAT STV, ST, STA, STT stative aspect, stative verb [7][13][60][43]
STEM ST, $ (empty tag to mark second element of a divided stem) [2][74][25]
STIM stimulative [34]
STR strong [1]
SUB sublocative (under). May be equivalent to SUBESS or SUBL. Compounded for SUBE(SS) (SBESS), SUBL(AT) (SBDIR), SUBEL (SBEL) etc. if a single morpheme, as SUB-ESS, SUB-LAT or SUB-DIR, SUB-ELA etc. if not. [37][14][3][10]
SUBL SBDIR, SUBLAT, SUBDIR sublative case ('down under'), also 'subdirective' [72][10][15]
SUBR SUB, SUBORD, SBRD, SR subordinator ('that'), subordinate [30][17][53][18][7][59][46]
SUBS subsequent [6]
SUBSEC subsecutive mood [73]
SUBST substitutive [14]
SUBZ,[] SBST substantivizer (= nominalizer) [51][23]
SUC successive ('then') []
SUG suggestive mood [73]
SUP supine [30]
SUP [dbl check next] superlative (most: cf. super-lative, super-essive) [7]
SUP, SUPL cn?, SUPPL supplicative, supplication [30][6]
SUPEL SREL, SUPEREL superelative case ('from on top of', 'from above') [51][10]
SUPER SUP-, SPR superlocative. May be equivalent to SUPERESS or SUPERL. Compounded for SUPERE(SS) (SUPESS), SUPERL(AT) (SUPDIR), SUPEREL (SUPEL), SUPERABL etc. if a single morpheme, as SUPER-ESS, SUPER-LAT or SUPER-DIR, SUPER-ELA etc. if not. [37][14][3][10][69]
SUPESS SUP, SUPE cn?, SRESS, SPRESS, SUPER, SUPERESS cn? superessive case ('above'; 'on') [7][30][27][10][14][25]
SUPL SUPLAT, SUPDIR, SRDIR, SPR super-lative, superdirective ('to above') [7][30][10][72][55][15]
SUPP PRESUPP (pre)suppositive, presumptive, suppositional [17][73][21]
SURP surprise [60]
SVC serial verb construction [105]
-T trigger (used for AT, PT, GT etc.) [76]
-T thematic (TAMT thematic tense-aspect-mood, ANTT thematic antecedent, etc.) [38]
T, TMP temporal [17][6]
TA T/A tense/aspect [13][62][51]
TAG question tag [14]
TAM tense-aspect-mood [13][74]
TEL (a) telic aspect (cf PFV) (A:TEL anticipatory telic, C:TEL culminatory telic)
(b) contrastive emphasis
TEMP TEM temporal case; temporal converb [30][72][89]
TEMP temporarily [6]
TENS number of tens (in a numeral)
TENT tentative [51][46]
TER TERM, TERMIN terminative ~ terminalis ('up to') (case, aspect) [30][72][73]
TERM non-subject [17]
TF theme focus [53]
TH, THM, THEM, THEMAT thematic element (e.g. thematic consonant, suffix) [13][38][14][89][105][21]
TJ trajector [48]
TKN teknonym [43]
TM- tense marker: TMhrs, TMdays, TMyrs for events hours, days, years ago [33]
TND tendency [43]
TNS T, TENS, TS tense
Lehmann (2004) recommends avoiding this and specifying the tense.[7]
TOP TP, TPC topic marker (TOPP topical patientive) [2][36][19][49]
TOPZ, TOPR topicalizer [55]
TOT totalitative, totality [13][22]
TR TRANS, TRNS transitive verb (TRZ, TRR transitivizer); transitive case (rare) [2][55][46]
TR transitional sound [49]
TRANSF, TRNSF transformative ('becoming', dynamic equiv. of essive) [19][7]
TRANSP (transposition of deictic zero away from ego, e.g. 'uphill' from an object rather than from the speaker) [115]
TRANSL TRA, TRAL, TRANS, TRNSL, TRANSLV cn?, TRANSLAT, TRLtranslative, TSLtranslocative (a) translative case (becoming, into);
(b) translocative (across; may be compounded for e.g. ANT-TRANS pass in front of, POST-TRANS pass behind, SUB-TRANS pass under)
TRI TRL, TR trial number [32][7][4]
TRIP retriplication [note: usually best to gloss with the meaning and ⟨~⟩] [116]
TRM transmutative [59]
TRN transnumeral (neither SG nor PL) [49][16]
TRPOSS transfer of possession [19]
TRZ TZ transitivizer [75][16]
TS (a) thematic suffix; (b) tense [14][17]
TV thematic vowel [75][29]
TVF truth-value focus [68]
U uninflected (AUX.U uninflected auxiliary) [81]
UA unit augmented [20]
UC upcoast []
UF uncertain future [88]
UF UV undergoer focus (undergoer 'voice') [60][117]
UGR, UG, UND cn?, U cn? undergoer role (cf PAT) [7][36][62][2][90]
UH uphill, inland (= AFW. cf UR.) []
UL upper level (spatial deixis) [83]
UNCERT uncertain mood [73]
UNIF unified [4]
UNSP UNSPEC unspecified (person, tense) [13][7][49][20]
UNW 'unwillingness' marker [74]
UR upriver (cf UH away from the water) [68]
USIT usitative, for usual, customary or typical events [62][48]
UTIL utilitive [38]
UWPST unwitnessed past [89]
VA verbal adjective [17]
VAL valency-increasing; valence marker [13][25]
VAL validator [73][29]
VB V verbal (as a gloss in VBZ, VZ verbalizer, VPL verbal plural = PLUR, VCL verb class, VD verbal dative, VALL verbal allative, etc.) [30][7][67][106][21]
VBZ VBLZ, VBLZR, VERB, VERBL, VBZR, VR, VZ verbalizer [1][109][6][58][7][75][55][46][29]
VCL verb class marker / classifier [20]
VCO voluntary comitative [64]
Vd VD, v.d. verb, ditransitive (e.g. as a covert category) [118]
VE VEG vegetable (food) gender. Some authors distinguish VE gender from VEG food affix.[20] [62]
VEN VENT venitive/ventive (coming towards; cf andative) [7][25][73][6]
VER veridical, veridical mood (certain conditional; cf. POT) [68]
VERIF verificative [34][14]
VERS versionizer; versative [14][69]
VERT vertical classifier [19][49][17]
VIA vialis case [59][66]
VIRT virtual mode [119]
VIS VS (a) visual evidential (PRES.VIS present visual);
(b) visible (demonstrative, e.g. 3vis)
Vi VI, v.i. verb, intransitive (e.g. as a covert category) [118]
VN verbal noun [19][12]
VNV verbal cyclical expansion (cf. NVN) [43]
VOC vocative case [2]
VOL volitive mood; volitional (cf. AVOL avolitional) [101][106]
VP verbal particle [17]
Vr VR, v.r. verb, reflexive (e.g. as a covert category) [118]
VSM verb-stem marker [64][20]
Vt VT, v.t. verb, transitive (e.g. as a covert category) [118][13]
WH.EX exclamatory wh- clause ('what a ...!') []
WH interrogative pronoun (wh-word), wh- agreement [51][14]
WHQ WH.Q wh- question [14][120][18]
WIT witnessed evidential (cf. EXP) [34][14]
WP, WPST witnessed past [75][89]
X ? (unidentified morpheme) [29][28]
YNQ, PQ, P.INT, PI yes–no question, polar question/interrogative [120][14][17][1]
-Z -(al)izer (e.g. ADJZ adjectivizer, NZ nominalizer, TRZ transitivizer, VBZ verbalizer)
ZO zoic gender (animals) [121]


It is common to abbreviate grammatical morphemes but to translate lexical morphemes. However, kin relations commonly have no precise translation, and in such cases they are often glossed with anthropological abbreviations. Most of these are transparently derived from English; an exception is 'Z' for 'sister'. A set of basic abbreviations is provided for nuclear kin terms (father, mother, brother, sister, husband, wife, son, daughter); additional terms may be used by some authors, but because the concept of e.g. 'aunt' or 'cousin' may be overly general or may differ between communities, sequences of basic terms are often used for greater precision. There are two competing sets of conventions, of one-letter and two-letter abbreviations:[122][123][43][21]

Gloss Meaning Equivalent sequence of nuclear relations
A Au aunt = MZ or FZ / MoSi or FaSi
B Br brother [basic term]
C Ch child = S or D / So or Da
Cu cousin = MZD, MZS, MBD, MBS, FZD, FZS, FBD, FBS
= MoSiDa, MoSiSo, MoBrDa, MoBrSo, FaSiDa, FaSiSo, FaBrDa, FaBrSo
D Da daughter [basic term]
e, E o, el elder/older (e.g. eB, eZ)[49]
ex ex- (e.g. exH, exW)
F Fa father [basic term]
F female kin
G Gr grand- e.g. GF = PF (MF or FF); GS = CS (SS or DS)
e.g. GrFa = PaFa (MoFa or FaFa); GrSo = ChSo (SoSo or DaSo)
Gen generation (see below)
H Hu husband [basic term]
LA La -in-law e.g. BLA = WB or HB or ZH / BrLa = WiBr or HuBr or SiHu
M Mo mother [basic term]
M male kin
Ne nephew = BrSo or SiSo
Ni niece = BrDa or SiDa
P Pa parent = M or F / Mo or Fa
S So son [basic term]
SI Sb sibling = B or Z / Br or Si
SP Sp spouse = H or W / Hu or Wi
st step-
U Un uncle = MB or FZ / MoBr or FaBr
W Wi wife [basic term]
y, Y y, yo younger (e.g. yB, yZ)
Z Si sister [basic term]
(m.s.) male speaking (when kin terms differ by gender of speaker)
(f.s.) female speaking
? ? male ego (when kin terms differ by gender of the person they are related to)
? ? female ego
? parallel (across a brother-brother or sister-sister link)
+ cross (across a brother-sister link)
os opposite sex (of ego) (some langs distinguish siblings of the same and opposite gender from the ego; e.g. for some Tok Pisin speakers, a woman's susa (osSb, from English 'sister') is her brother and her brata (ssSb, from English 'brother') is her sister)
ss same sex (as ego)

These are concatenated, e.g. MFZS = MoFaSiSo 'mother's father's sister's son', yBWF = yBrWiFa 'younger brother's wife's father'. 'Elder/older' and 'younger' may affix the entire string, e.g. oFaBrSo (an older cousin – specifically father's brother's son), MBDy (a younger cousin – specifically mother's brother's daughter) or a specific element, e.g. MFeZS 'mother's father's elder sister's son', HMeB 'husband's mother's elder brother'.

'Gen' indicates the generation relative to the ego, with ? for the same (zero) generation. E.g. Gen?Ch (child of someone in the same generation, i.e. of a sibling or cousin); ?Gen+1F (female one generation up, i.e. mother or aunt, of a male); Gen-2M (male two generations down, i.e. grandson or grandnephew).

'Cross' and 'parallel' indicate a change or lack of change in gender of siblings in the chain of relations. Parallel aunts and uncles are MoSi and FaBr; cross-aunts and uncles are FaSi and MoBr. Cross-cousins (+Cu) and parallel cousins (?Cu) are children of the same. Parallel niece and nephew are children of a man's brother or woman's sister; cross-niece and nephew are the opposite. 'Elder' and 'younger' occurs before these markers: o?Cu, y+Cu, and the gender of the ego comes at the very beginning, e.g. ?o?CuF, ?y+CuM.


  • Payne, Thomas E. 1997. Describing Morphosyntax.
  • Summary of case forms: Blake, Barry J. (2001) [1994]. Case (Second ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 195-206.


  1. ^ The transcription and glossing of sign languages is in its infancy. Glossing is typically a sign-by-sign translation with almost no grammatical parsing. Some of the few standardized conventions are:
    A-- (sign A held in its final position)
    A#B (A and B signed simultaneously)
    A^B (host-clitic combination)
    ____t (non-manual marking for topic)
    ____y/n (non-manual marking for polar question)
    IX or INDEX (3rd-person referents / pointing signs)[1]
  2. ^ 3SG.N should be fully abbreviated to 3ns, rather than to *3nsg, to avoid confusion with 3NSG (3 non-singular).


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by Alexandra Aikhenvald & RMW Dixon (2017) The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Typology
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc Comrie, B., Haspelmath, M., & Bickel, B. (2008). The Leipzig Glossing Rules: Conventions for interlinear morpheme-by-morpheme glosses. Department of Linguistics of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology & the Department of Linguistics of the University of Leipzig. Retrieved January, 28, 2010.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Nina Sumbatova, 'Dargwa', in Maria Polinskaya (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Languages of the Caucasus.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Elena Filimonova (2005) Clusivity
  5. ^ Jeanette Sakel & Daniel Everett (2012) Linguistic Fieldwork: A Student Guide
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao Antoine Guillaume & Harold Koch (2021) Associated Motion. De Gruyter
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd Christian Lehmann (2004), Interlinear morphemic glossing, In: Booij, Geert & Lehmann, Christian & Mugdan, Joachim & Skopeteas, Stavros (eds.), Morphologie. Ein internationales Handbuch zur Flexion und Wortbildung. 2. Halbband. Berlin: W. de Gruyter (Handbücher der Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft, 17.2), p. 1834-1857, taken from authors draft
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Irina Nikolaeva & Maria Tolskaya (2001) A Grammar of Udighe. Mouton de Gruyter.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k John Du Bois, Lorraine Kumpf & William Ashby (2003) Preferred Argument Structure
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Martin Haspelmath (2011) A Grammar of Lezgian
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Seppo Kittilä, Katja Västi, Jussi Ylikoski (2011) Case, Animacy and Semantic Roles
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Andrej Malchukov, Bernard Comrie & Martin Haspelmath, eds. (2010) Studies in Ditransitive Constructions: A Comparative Handbook
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Mark Donohue & Søren Wichmann (2008) The Typology of Semantic Alignment
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck Maria Polinskaya (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Languages of the Caucasus.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Nina Sumbatova (2003) A grammar of Icari Dargwa. Lincom Europa.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Bernd Heine & Tania Kuteva (2006) The changing languages of Europe.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da Alexandra Aikhenvald (2004) Evidentiality. OUP.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Paul Kroeber (1999) The Salish language family: reconstructing syntax. University of Nebraska Press.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak A. A. Kibrik (2011) Reference in Discourse
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