List of Mycenaean Deities
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List of Mycenaean Deities

Many of the Greek deities are known from as early as Mycenaean (Late Bronze Age) civilization. This is an incomplete list of these deities[n 1] and of the way their names, epithets, or titles are spelled and attested in Mycenaean Greek, written in the Linear B[n 2] syllabary, along with some reconstructions and equivalent forms in later Greek.

Deities

Gods

Goddesses

Pantheon

  • Pantes Theoi - a special invocation "to All the Gods", irrespectively of sex, etc.; recurrently attested at Knossos (Linear B : , pa-si-te-o-i)[2][30][130][131][n 47][n 48][n 49]

Heroes, mortals and other entities or concepts

  • Proteus - could be the theonym of the sea-god Proteus, but probably just the anthroponym of a nobleman (Linear B: ?, po-ro-te-u)[133][134][135]

Possible deities

Deities speculated to have been worshipped but without hitherto attestation in the Linear B tablets

  • A possible sun goddess, predecessor to Helios and possibly related to Helen.[136][page needed][n 50] No unambiguous attestations of words for "sun" have been found yet, though the Mycenaean word for "sun" is reconstructed as *h?wélios.

See also

Notes and references

Notes
  1. ^ This list includes deities which in later Greek times and sources were thought of as semigods or mortal heroes. Scholars assign to attested words in Linear B a possibility or probability, sometimes controversially, of being a theonym or an anthroponym, a toponym, etc.; Mycenaean Linear B sources are often damaged inscriptions bearing lacunae, and in any case, they are too few to enable classifications with certainty.
    Finally there is a list of attested words which seem to refer to mortals or whose reference is unclear, yet they may have a connection to religion or to a divine or heroic figure of later times.
  2. ^ The names/words in Linear B and the transliteration thereof are not necessarily in the nominative case and also not necessarily of said gods per se, as e.g. in the case of Hephaestus.
  3. ^ See the noun .[5]
  4. ^ Found on the KN Fp 1 and KN Fp 13 tablets.[6][7]
  5. ^ The inscriptions read that the offers are made to her, thus they could refer to a goddess; this is not though, what modern scholars seem to believe.
  6. ^ The first cited form could just be an instance of a scribe forgetting to write the word-separator sign ? between two words. In that case *Anemohiereia should be instead read as *Anemon Hiereia also.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Found on the PY Tn 316 tablet.[14][15]
  8. ^ Cf. the nouns , , ;[16] whence despot in English;[17] in an etymological sense, it literally means "master of the house" and is related to potnia.
  9. ^ a b c d The word Poseidon (; variant forms include , the former's final syllable being a synaeresis of the latter's final two) itself, could be connected in an etymological sense - cf. - to Despotas (if indeed this is the correct reading-interpretation of do-po-ta) and Potnia;[26] likewise compare the same word in connection to Ge-Gaia (hence possibly to Ma Ga) and the possible Enesidaon and other undoubted later-times epithets of him, in consideration of the word-endings, etc.. Moreover some scholars have connected - in a similar manner to the one of Poseidon - Demeter to "Earth" via the De (Da; considered in this case as Pre-Greek and as meaning "Earth") syllable, the goddess thus viewed as representing Da-Mater, "Mother Earth" or similar; others on the other hand have interpreted Demeters Da syllable as related to domos (i.e. to be Indo-European), interpreting her name as "Mother of the House", creating thus an etymological connection to Despotas and Potnia. À propos, some scholars have considered the attested, on the PY En 609 tablet,[49] Mycenaean word , da-ma-te, as reading Demeter, but the view isn't widely held anymore; the former is indeed thought to be connected to domos, etc, but it is believed to probably be a form of, or something similar to, .[50][51][52][53]
  10. ^ According to Chadwick,[19] "Dionysos surprisingly appears twice at Pylos, in the form Diwonusos, both times irritatingly enough on fragments, so that we have no means of verifying his divinity". This old view can be found reflected in other scholars[20] but this has changed after the 1989-90 Greek-Swedish excavations at Kastelli Hill, Chania, unearthed the KH Gq 5 tablet.[11][21][22][23]
  11. ^ Cf. the verb -?.[28]
  12. ^ The inscription reads (line 10): di-ri-mi-jo? ?di-wo,i-je-we, i.e. *Drimi?i Diwos hi?wei, "to Drimios, the son of Zeus".[14][30][31]
  13. ^ Found on the KN M 719 tablet.[33]
  14. ^ Cf. , , Poseidon's later epithets.[34]
  15. ^ , when in the nominative, is thought to be read as (?h).[39]
  16. ^ Hiller's[2] or Schofield's[20] pa-ja-wo is not actually attested per se; the word actually attested on the damaged KN V 52 tablet and the fragments thereof, reads pa-ja-wo-ne; the latter would be the dative case form of the former.[45][46]
  17. ^ Found on the PY Tn 316 and PY Fr 1204 tablets.[14][57]
  18. ^ See the words ?, ?.[58][59][60]
  19. ^ It is generally thought to be connected to ?, i.e. the "collective, anonymous family ancestors",[55][61][62] but it could perhaps instead refer to Triptolemus, himself possibly "a 'hypostasis' of Poseidon".[61][63]
  20. ^ a b The King and the Two Queens are sometimes attested on tablets together, in the offerings or the libations to them; forms of both "the King" and "the Two Queens" are in the dative case. An example of said concurrent attested worship is the PY Fr 1227 tablet.[65]
  21. ^ a b On the other hand, there are scholars who have argued that "the King" and "the Two Queens" are not theonyms, that they simply refer to mortal royalty.[66]
  22. ^ Pertaining to the Dikti.[71]
  23. ^ Found on the KN Fp 1 tablet.[6]
  24. ^ Found on the PY An 607 tablet.[79]
  25. ^ Found on the KN Fp 1, KN V 52, and KN Fh 390 tablets.[46][85]
  26. ^ Cf. ko-ma-we, ?, ?.[89][90]
  27. ^ Cf. the Hindu goddess of the same name.
  28. ^ See the nouns , ?, and the adjective -?-.[95][96]
  29. ^ Cf. Diktynna about word formation, considered to be characteristically Pre-Greek.[27][99]
  30. ^ Found on the KN V 52 tablet.[46]
  31. ^ See the words ?-?-, .[103]
  32. ^ Could also be precursor of Leto.[]
  33. ^ See the noun and the epithet ?.[105]
  34. ^ Said Potnia or Potnia in general is found on only one table at Thebes: TH Of 36.[108] Her premises, her house is thought to have been her shrine.[19][106]
  35. ^ The word, on the same tablet, , po-re-na, *phorenas, understood to mean "those brought or those bringing" (it actually reads ?, po-re-na-qe, but a postfixed ?, qe, is usually a conjunction; cf. , , and Latin et, qve),[111][112] has been interpreted by some scholars as evidence of human sacrifice at said sanctuary:[113] "According to this interpretation, the text of Tn 316 was written as one of many extreme emergency measures just before the destruction of the palace. Tn 316 would then reflect a desperate, and abnormal, attempt to placate divine powers through the sacrifice of male victims to male gods and female victims to female gods".[114]
  36. ^ The nominative case form of the place (i.e. of the sanctuary) is ?, pa-ki-ja-ne; it is also found in other forms, including derivative words; the specific form found on the PY Tn 316 tablet is ?, pa-ki-ja-si, i.e. possibly its locative plural form.[110]
  37. ^ Possibly an ethnic or geographic adjective of Asia understood in this context as referring to Lydia or the Assuwa league; i.e. in the sense of, or similar to, Anatolia.[115]
  38. ^ Perhaps an epithet of Artemis.
  39. ^ Perhaps an epithet of Hera.[]
  40. ^ Could be some kind of "under" or "to weave" epithet;[76] cf. the preposition and the verb .[116][117]
  41. ^ Found on the PY An 1281 tablet.[118]
  42. ^ Possibly an epithet of Artemis; cf. , .[122][123][124]
  43. ^ Could be instead, form of Tiresias.[]
  44. ^ Cf. the noun ?.[125]
  45. ^ Perhaps connected to proposed PIE *G?ouu?ind?; cf. Govinda and Old Irish Boand.[126]
  46. ^ Also attested once on the PY 1219 table as ?, wa-no-so-i.[128][129]
  47. ^ This term is for example found, on the Kn Fp 1 and KN Fp 13 tablets.[6][7]
  48. ^ It should be made clear that an absence of offerings, in parallel, to explicitly named deities or people (like priests or priestesses) on relevant attested inscriptions, does not necessarily follow from the presence of this special dedication; for example, the Kn Fp 1 inscription also includes, among others, offerings to Zeus Diktaios, Pade, Erinys and Anemon Hiereia.
  49. ^ The words are two - despite the lack of a separator symbol - and in the dative plural case; their reconstructed form is *pansi t?eoihi; see the words , ?.[30][96][132]
  50. ^ See Etymology of .
References
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Gulizio (2008), page 4.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Hiller (1997), page 206.
  3. ^ Linear B Transliterations: a-ne-mo.
  4. ^ Billigmeier, Jon-Christian; Turner, Judy A. (2004) [1981]. "The socio-economic roles of women in Mycenaean Greece: A brief survey from evidence of the Linear B tablets". In Foley, Helene P. (ed.). Reflections of Women in Antiquity. Rootledge. p. 15. ISBN 0-677-16370-3.
  5. ^ . Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek-English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  6. ^ a b c D?mos: KN Fp 1 + 31.
  7. ^ a b D?mos: KN 13 Fp(1) (138)
  8. ^ Gulizio, Joann. "A-re in the Linear B Tablets and the Continuity of the Cult of Ares in the Historical Period" (PDF). Journal of Prehistoric Religion. 15: 32-38.
  9. ^ Linear B Transliterations: a-re.
  10. ^ Palaeolexicon: The Linear B word a-re.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al Hägg (1997), page 165.
  12. ^ Linear B Transliterations: do-po-ta.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Chadwick (1976), page 95.
  14. ^ a b c D?mos: PY 316 Tn (44).
  15. ^ Balcer, Jack Martin; Stockhausen, John Matthew, Mycenaean society and its collapse (PDF), pp. 66-67[permanent dead link].
  16. ^ , ,  in Liddell and Scott.
  17. ^ Harper, Douglas. "despot". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  18. ^ Palaeolexicon: The Linear B word di-wo-nu-so.
  19. ^ a b c d e Chadwick (1976), page 99.
  20. ^ a b c Schofield (2007), page 160.
  21. ^ a b c Trzaskoma et al (2004), page 443-446.
  22. ^ Linear B Transliterations: Khania Linear B Transliterations.
  23. ^ D?mos: KH 5 Gq (1).
  24. ^ Marinatos, Spyridon (1966). "? ". In Palmer, L.R.; Chadwick, John (eds.). Proceedings of the Cambridge Colloquium on Mycenaean Studies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 265-274.
  25. ^ Linear B Transliterations: di-pi-si-jo
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Budin (2004), pages 235-236.
  27. ^ a b c García-Ramón, J.L., in Duhoux and Morpurgo Davies (2011), page 236.
  28. ^  in Liddell and Scott.
  29. ^ a b c Ventris and Chadwick (1973).
  30. ^ a b c d e García-Ramón, J.L., in Duhoux and Morpurgo Davies (2011), page 230.
  31. ^ Palaeolexicon: The Linear B word i-je-we.
  32. ^ Linear B Transliterations: e-ne-si-da-o-ne.
  33. ^ D?mos: KN 719 M (140).
  34. ^ ,  in Liddell and Scott.
  35. ^ Linear B Transliterations: a-pa-i-ti-jo.
  36. ^ Gulizio (2000).
  37. ^ Linear B Transliterations: e-ma-a2.
  38. ^ Palaeolexicon: The Linear B word e-ma-ha.
  39. ^ Gulizio (2000), page 106.
  40. ^ Linear B Transliterations: a-re-ja.
  41. ^ Castleden (2003), page 122.
  42. ^ Linear B Transliterations: ma-ri-ne, ma-ri-ne-we.
  43. ^ Linear B Transliterations: pa-de.
  44. ^ Linear B Transliterations: KN V 52+.
  45. ^ a b Chadwick (1976), page 89.
  46. ^ a b c D?mos: KN 52 V + 52 bis + 8285 (unknown).
  47. ^ a b Palaima, Thomas G. (2009). "Continuity from the Mycenaean Period in a historical Boeotian Cult of Poseidon (and Erinys)" (PDF). In Danielidou, Despoina (ed.). . [Festschrift for Spyros Iakovides]. . 6. Athens: Academy of Athens. pp. 527-536.
  48. ^ Linear B Transliterations: po-se-da-o.
  49. ^ D?mos: PY 609 En.
  50. ^  in Liddell and Scott.
  51. ^ Beekes, Robert (2010) [2009]. "E.g., s.v. ?, , , ?". Etymological Dictionary of Greek. With the assistance of Lucien van Beek. In two volumes. Leiden, Boston. ISBN 9789004174184.
  52. ^ Linear B Transliterations: da-ma-te.
  53. ^  in Liddell and Scott.
  54. ^ Palaeolexicon: The Linear B word ti-ri-se-ro-e.
  55. ^ a b Linear B Transliterations: ti-ri-se-ro-e.
  56. ^ Trckova-Flamee, Alena. "Thrice-Hero". The Book of Threes. Retrieved .
  57. ^ D?mos: PY 1204 Fr (4).
  58. ^ ? in Liddell and Scott.
  59. ^ ? in Liddell and Scott.
  60. ^ Harper, Douglas. "hero". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  61. ^ a b Herda, Alexander (2011). "Burying a Sage: The Heroon of Thales in the Agora of Miletos" (PDF). Rencontres d'Archéologie de l'IFEA. Istanbul: Institut français d'études anatoliennes: 105.
  62. ^  in Liddell and Scott.
  63. ^ Peters, Martin (2002), "Aus der Vergangenheit von Heroen und Ehegöttinnen", in Fritz, Matthias; Zeifelder, Susanne (eds.), Novalis Indogermanica: Festschrift für Günter Neumann zum 80. Geburstag, Grazer vergleichende Arbeiten (in German), Graz: Leykam, pp. 357-380, ISBN 3701100322.
  64. ^ Linear B Transliterations: wa-na-ka.
  65. ^ D?mos: PY 1227 Fr (2).
  66. ^ a b Palaima (2006), page 66.
  67. ^ Linear B Transliterations: di-we.
  68. ^ Palaeolexicon:The Linear B word di-we; The Linear B word di-wo.
  69. ^ Linear B Transliterations: di-ka-ta.
  70. ^ Palaeolexicon: The Linear B word di-ka-ta-jo.
  71. ^  in Liddell and Scott.
  72. ^ Chadwick, John; Baumbach, Lydia (1963). "The Mycenaean Greek Vocabulary". Glotta. 41.3&4: 157-271, p. 176f, s.v. ?. a-te-mi-to- (genitive)
  73. ^ Souvinous, C. (1970). "A-TE-MI-TO and A-TI-MI-TE". Kadmos. 9: 42-47. doi:10.1515/kadm.1970.9.1.42. S2CID 162990140.
  74. ^ Christidis, T. (1972). "Further remarks on A-TE-MI-TO and A-TI-MI-TE". Kadmos. 11.2: 125-28.
  75. ^ Palaeolexicon: The Linear B word a-ti-mi-te.
  76. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Nosch, Marie-Louise, in Fischer-Hansen and Poulsen (2009), page 22.
  77. ^ Palaima, Thomas G. (2008) [Date of Conference: 25-29 March 2008]. "The Siginificance of Mycenaean Words Relating to Meals, Meal Rituals and Food" (PDF). In Hitchcock, Louise A.; Laffineur, Robert; Crowley, Janice (eds.). DAIS The Aegean Feast. Proceedings of the 12th International Aegean Conference. 12th International Aegean Conference. University of Melbourne. Aegaeum. Liège, Austin. pp. 383-389.
  78. ^ Linear B Transliterations: do-qe-ja.
  79. ^ D?mos: PY 607 An (1).
  80. ^ Linear B Transliterations: KN Gg 705, KN Od 714+.
  81. ^ Linear B Transliterations: e-re-u-ti-ja.
  82. ^ Palaeolexicon: The Linear B word e-re-u-ti-ja.
  83. ^ Linear B Transliterations: e-ri-nu.
  84. ^ Palaeolexicon: The Linear B word e-ri-nu-we.
  85. ^ D?mos: KN 1 Fp(1) + 31 (138), KN 390 Fh (141).
  86. ^ Palaeolexicon: The Linear B word e-ra.
  87. ^ Palaeolexicon: The Linear B word i-pe-me-de-ja.
  88. ^ Palaeolexicon: ko-ma-we-te-ja.
  89. ^ Linear B Transliterations: ko-ma-we.
  90. ^ ? in Liddell and Scott.
  91. ^ a b Castleden (2003), page 112.
  92. ^ Linear B Transliterations: ma-na-sa.
  93. ^ "Mother Goddesses". Timeless Myths: Classical Mythology.
  94. ^ a b c d e f Burkert (1985), page 44.
  95. ^  in Liddell and Scott.
  96. ^ a b -?-, ?,  in Liddell and Scott.
  97. ^ Linear B Transliterations: KN Fp 13.
  98. ^ Palaeolexicon: The Linear B word pi-pi-tu-na.
  99. ^ Hägg (1997), page 166.
  100. ^ Linear B Transliterations: Po-ti-ni-ja.
  101. ^ Palaeolexicon: The Linear B word po-ti-ni-ja.
  102. ^  in Liddell and Scott.
  103. ^ ?-?-,  in Liddell and Scott.
  104. ^ Linear B Transliterations: si-to-po-ti-ni-ja.
  105. ^ , ? in Liddell and Scott.
  106. ^ a b Nosch, Marie Louise, in Fischer-Hansen and Poulsen (2009), page 31.
  107. ^ Linear B Transliterations: wo-ko-de.
  108. ^ D?mos: TH Of 36 (303).
  109. ^ a b "Lesson 26: Narrative. Mycenaean and Late Cycladic Religion and Religious Architecture". Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology. Dartmouth College.
  110. ^ a b Linear B Transliterations: pa-ki-ja-ne.
  111. ^ ,  in Liddell and Scott.
  112. ^ et, qve. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
  113. ^ Gulizio (2000), pages 107-108.
  114. ^ Trzaskoma et al (2004), page 450.
  115. ^ a b Linear B Transliterations: a-si-wi-ja, a-*64-ja.
  116. ^  in Liddell and Scott.
  117. ^  in Liddell and Scott.
  118. ^ D?mos: PY 1281 An + frr.: 10 + fr. (12).
  119. ^ Burkert (1985), pages 45, 364.
  120. ^ Chadwick, John (1966). "The Olive Oil tablets of Knossos". In Palmer, L.R.; Chadwick, John (eds.). Proceedings of the Cambridge Colloquium on Mycenaean Studies. Cambridge University Press. p. 29.
  121. ^ Linear B Transliterations: qe-ra-si-ja.
  122. ^ a b Palaeolexicon: The Linear B word qe-ra-si-ja.
  123. ^  in Liddell and Scott.
  124. ^ Nosch, Marie Louise, in Fischer-Hansen and Poulsen (2009), pages 22-23.
  125. ^ ? in Liddell and Scott.
  126. ^ Campanile, Enrico (1985). "Old Irish Boand". Journal of Indo-European Studies. 13.3&4: 477-479.
  127. ^ Barton?k, Antonín (2002). "2. Substantiva und Adjektiva der I., II. und III. Deklination: I. Deklination (Substantiva)". Handbuch des mykenischen Griechisch. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag C. WINTER. pp. 165-6. ISBN 3825314359.
  128. ^ Ventris and Chadwick (1973), Mycenaean Vocabulary wa-no-so-i.
  129. ^ D?mos: PY 1219.
  130. ^ Gulizio (2008), page 3ff..
  131. ^ Linear B Transliterations: pa-si-te-o-i.
  132. ^  in Liddell and Scott.
  133. ^ Linear B Transliterations: po-ro-te-u.
  134. ^ Barton?k, Antonin (2002). "Mycenaean words in Homer". In Clairis, Christos (ed.). Recherches en linquistique grecque. L'Harmattan. p. 94. ISBN 2-7475-2742-5.
  135. ^ Palaeolexicon: The Linear B word po-ro-te-u.
  136. ^ Kristiansen, Kristian; Larsson, Thomas B. (2005). The Rise of Bronze Age Society: Travels, Transmissions and Transformations. Cambridge University Press.

Sources

Books

Articles in journals, periodicals and of conferences

Online databases and dictionaries

Mycenaean Greek and Linear B
Ancient Greek, Latin and of English etymology

Further reading

  • Morris, S.P. (2001) [Date of Conference: 12-15 April 2000]. Laffineur, R.; Hägg, R. (eds.). "Potnia Aswiya: Anatolian Contributions to Greek Religion". Aegaeum. Belgium. 22: Potnia. Deities and Religion in the Aegean Bronze Age. Proceedings of the 8th International Aegean Conference, Göteborg, Göteborg University: 423-434.
  • Sergent, Bernard (1990). "Héortologie du mois Plowistos de Pylo". Dialogues d'histoire ancienne. 16, n°1: 175-217. doi:10.3406/dha.1990.1464.
  • Duev, Ratko. "di-wi-ja and e-ra in the Linear B texts". In: Pierre Carlier, Additional editors: Charles De Lamberterie, Markus Egetmeyer, Nicole Guilleux, Françoise Rougemont and Julien Zurbach (editors). Études mycéniennes 2010. Actes du XIIIe colloque international sur les textes égéens, Sèvres, Paris, Nanterre, 20-23 septembre 2010. Biblioteca di Pasiphae. 10. Pisa; Roma: Fabrizio Serra editore, 2012. pp. 195-205. ISBN 9788862274722

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