List of Formula One Constructors
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List of Formula One Constructors

Formula One, abbreviated to F1, is the highest class of open-wheeled auto racing defined by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), motorsport's world governing body.[1] The "formula" in the name alludes to a series of rules established by the FIA to which all participants and vehicles are required to conform.[1][2] Each year, the F1 World Championship season is held, consisting of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held usually on purpose-built circuits, and in a few cases on closed city streets.[3] Constructors are awarded points based on the finishing position of each of their two drivers at each Grand Prix, and the constructor who accumulates the most points over each championship is crowned that year's World Constructors' Champion.[4] As of the 2021 Hungarian Grand Prix, there have been 171 Formula One constructors from 24 different national racing licences who have raced at least one of the 1,046 FIA World Championship races since the first such event, the 1950 British Grand Prix.[5][6]

Constructors are people or corporate entities which design key parts of Formula One cars that have competed or are intended to compete in the FIA World Championship. Since 1981, it has been a requirement that each competitor must have the exclusive rights to the use of certain key parts of their car - in 2018, these parts were the survival cell, the front impact structure, the roll structures and bodywork.[7]

Terminology: constructors vs. teams

In Formula One racing the terms "constructor" and "entrant" have specific and differing meanings. An entrant is the person or corporate entity that registers a car and driver for a race, and is then responsible for preparing and maintaining that car during the race weekend. As a result of this preparation role and active involvement in the running of the race, the term "team" has become commonly applied to an entrant organisation.[] Statisticians do not always agree on how to count statistics related to these entities.[8]

Constructors

The Constructors' Championship trophy

Under Article 6.3 of the FIA Sporting Regulations, "A constructor is the person (including any corporate or unincorporated body) which designs the Listed Parts set out in Appendix 6. The make of an engine or chassis is the name attributed to it by its constructor."[7] These "listed parts" include the survival cell, the front impact structure, the roll structures and bodywork. However, if the chassis and engine are made by different entities, the constructor comprises both (e.g. McLaren-Mercedes, Lotus-Climax etc.), with the name of the chassis constructor being placed before that of the engine constructor.[7][9] As both engine and chassis are included in the constructor name, chassis run with different engines (e.g. Williams-Ford, Williams-Honda in 1983) are counted as two separate constructors and score points separately.[7]

Under article 6.2 of the FIA sporting regulations, "The title of Formula One World Champion Constructor will be awarded to the competitor which has scored the highest number of points".[7] Up until the 1979 season, most seasons saw only the highest-scoring driver in each race for each constructor contributing points towards the World Constructors' Championship, but the current rules state that points from both cars entered by each constructor will count towards their championship total.

Teams

Since the 1981 season the FIA have required that Formula One entrants own the intellectual rights to the chassis that they enter, and so the distinction between the terms "entrant" and "constructor", and hence also "team", have become less pronounced, though the intellectual rights of engines may still be owned by a different entity.

Before this time, constructors were free to sell their chassis to as many other teams as they liked. Brabham and Lotus chassis were used extensively by other teams during the 1960s and 1970s and several quite competitive teams never built their own chassis. Rob Walker Racing Team was the most successful example, being responsible for the first victories in Formula One for both Cooper and Lotus. The concept of a "works" or "factory" team (i.e. the official team of the company producing the cars, as opposed to a customer team which buys them off the shelf) therefore applied to chassis in the same way as it does in rallying and sports car racing.

There have been some recent exceptions where a specialist company, not itself entered in the championship, has been commissioned to design and build a chassis for a team; Lola built cars for Larrousse and Scuderia Italia in the late 1980s and early 1990s, for example. Larousse had their points from the 1990 season erased after the FIA decided that they had falsely nominated themselves and not Lola as the chassis constructor. In 1978, the new Arrows team which had been established by former Shadow personnel was sued by Shadow on the grounds that the Arrows FA/1 car was a copy of Shadow's DN9 - a view upheld by the UK High Court, which placed a ban on Arrows racing the FA/1.

There have been more recent cases with Ligier (1995), Sauber (2004), Scuderia Toro Rosso (2006 & 2007) and Super Aguri (2007 & 2008) where teams have been accused of using a chassis produced by another constructor (respectively Benetton, Ferrari, Red Bull Racing and Honda). No action was taken against any of these teams, the sporting authorities being satisfied in each case that the team owned the intellectual property to the chassis they raced.

From the middle of the 1973 season until the end of the 2013 season, each team had permanent racing numbers from race to race throughout the season. Between 1974 and 1995 the numbers were based on the teams' finishing positions in the 1973 Constructors' Championship (with slight modifications, e.g. Ferrari´s traditional numbers were 11-12 until 1980 and 27-28 from 1981 onwards) and each team only changed numbers if they had the driver who had won the World Drivers' Championship in the previous season - the winning driver taking the number 1 and his teammate the number 2, and the team that had previously had those numbers switching to the newly-vacated ones. Between 1996 and 2013 the numbers were based on the teams' finishing positions in the Constructors' Championship from the previous season, with numbers 1-2 assigned to the defending champion and his teammate. During the period of 1974-1995 Tyrrell was the only team to keep the same numbers (3 and 4) every season. Since 2014, racing numbers have been assigned to drivers instead of teams.

The number of cars entered by one team into a single race was not strictly limited in the 1950s and early 1960s. Since the 1963 season teams were generally allowed to enter only two regular cars, with the third car reserved for an occasional driver. Entering more than three cars was exceptionally tolerated, most notably regarding the BRM team in the 1971 and 1972 seasons. However, many teams during this period entered only two cars, e.g. Ferrari have entered no more than two cars (with one exception at the 1976 Italian Grand Prix in connection with Lauda's comeback) every season since 1973. Since the 1985 season the FIA have required that teams enter no more than two cars for a race.[a]

Team's nationality

Unlike drivers who are required to compete in the FIA Formula One World Championship under the nationality of their passport, the FIA's International Sporting Code states that teams competing in the FIA Formula One World Championship shall compete under the nationality of their parent National Automobile Club that issued their FIA racing licence.[10] On the basis of this regulation, despite the fact that most current teams are based in the UK, this country is officially represented in Formula One only by teams holding a racing licence issued by the British National Sporting Authority. Teams take the nationality of their parent National Automobile Club that issued their licence for the period of validity of that licence and the change of the nationality is allowed. Several teams changed their nationality during their competition in Formula One, some of them even twice (e.g. Shadow in 1976 from American to British, Benetton in 1996 from British to Italian, Red Bull in 2007 from British to Austrian, Renault in 2011 from French to British and in 2016 back to French). Benetton is the only team to have achieved victories while racing under two different nationalities. Before the arrival of sponsorship liveries in 1968 team's nationality determined the colour of a car entered by the team; thus, Italian teams' cars were rosso corsa red, French were bleu de France blue, and British (with several exceptions, such as Rob Walker, Brabham and McLaren) were British racing green. Since the licence is given to a team and not to a constructor, privateer teams entering cars built by constructors from another country before the 1968 season painted cars in the national colour of their home country, e.g. the French Guy Ligier's privateer team entered cars painted in bleu de France blue which were built by the British constructor Cooper in 1966 and 1967 seasons.

Relating to the team's nationality because of teams' bases in Britain several mistakes occurred on official entry lists issued by or podium ceremonies organized by the FIA or race organisers, e.g. Wolf[11][12] holding the Canadian nationality and Shadow (in 1973)[13] and Penske[14][15] holding the American nationality all identified as the British by official entry lists, or the British national anthem played on the podium in honour of the winning Jordan and Red Bull (in 2009) holding the Irish and Austrian nationality respectively.[16][17]

2021 constructors

Correct as of the 2021 Hungarian Grand Prix

Key: Races Entered = Number of individual races entered; Races Started = Number of individual races started; Drivers = Number of driversTotal Entries = Total number of race entries; Wins = Number of races won; Points = Number of World Constructors' Championship points scored; Poles = Number of pole positionsFL = Number of fastest lapsPodiums = Number of podium finishes; WCC = World Constructors' Championships won; WDC = World Drivers' Championships won.

Constructor Engine Licensed in Based in Seasons Races Entered Races Started Drivers Total Entries Wins Points Poles FL Podiums WCC WDC Antecedent teams
Alfa Romeo Ferrari   Switzerland[b]  Italy[c]
1950-1951,
1979-1985,
2019-present
159 159 20 333 10 118 12 14 26 0 2 Switzerland Sauber
(1993-2005, 2011-2018),
Germany/Switzerland BMW Sauber
(2006-2010)
AlphaTauri Honda  Italy  Italy 2020-present 28 28 3 56 1 175 0 1 2 0 0 ,
Italy Toro Rosso (2006-2019)
Alpine Renault  France 2021 11 11 2 22 1 77 0 0 1 0 0
Aston Martin Mercedes  United Kingdom  United Kingdom 1959-1960,
2021
17 16 5 33 0 48 0 0 1 0 0 , , ,
Ferrari Ferrari  Italy  Italy 1021 1019 81 2168 238 8551.5 230 254 776 16 15 --
Haas Ferrari
2016-present 111 111 6 222 0 200 0 2 0 0 0 --
McLaren Mercedes 1966-present 895 891 51 1859 182 5718.5 155 158 491 8 12 --
Mercedes Mercedes  Germany  Germany[d]
1954-1955,
2010-present
238 238 12 488 119 5988 130 89 250 7 9
Red Bull Honda  Austria[e]  United Kingdom 2005-present 315 314 11 627 70 5334.5 68 73 193 4 4
Williams Mercedes 1978-present 748 747 44 1413 114 3571 128 133 312 9 7 --

Former constructors

Key: Races Entered = Number of individual races entered; Races Started = Number of individual races started; Drivers = Number of driversTotal Entries = Total number of race entries; Wins = Number of races won; Points = Number of Constructors' Championship points scored; Poles = Number of pole positionsFL = Number of fastest lapsPodiums. = Number of podium finishes; WCC = Constructors' Championships won; WDC = Drivers' Championships won.

Constructor Licensed in Seasons Races Entered Races Started Drivers Total Entries Wins Points Poles FL Podiums WCC WDC
Alex von Falkenhausen Motorenbau  Germany 1952-1953[f] 4 4 6 9 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0
Automobiles Gonfaronnaises Sportives  France 1986-1991 80 32 10 124 0 2 0 0 0 0 0
Alta  United Kingdom 1950-1952[g] 5 5 4 6 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0
Amon  New Zealand 1974 4 1 2 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Andrea Moda  Italy 1992 12 1 4 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Apollon   Switzerland 1977 5 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arrows[h]  United Kingdom 1978-2002 394 383 36 783 0 167 1 0 8 0 0
Arzani-Volpini  Italy 1955 1 0 1 1 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0
Aston Butterworth  United Kingdom 1952 4 1 2 4 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0
Automobili Turismo e Sport  Italy 1963[i] 5 5 2 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ATS (Auto Technisches Spezialzubehör)  Germany 1977-1984 107 89 15 146 0 7 0 0 0 0 0
British American Racing[j]  United Kingdom 1999-2005 118 116 7 236 0 227 2 0 15 0 0
Behra-Porsche  Germany 1959-1960 4 2 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bellasi   Switzerland 1970-1971 6 2 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Benetton[k]  United Kingdom / [l] 1986-2001 260 260 17 520 27 851.5 15 36 102 1 2
Boro  Netherlands 1976-1977 8 6 4 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Brabham  United Kingdom 1962-1987, 1989-1992 403 394 39 995 35 843 39 42 124 2 4
Brawn GP  United Kingdom 2009 17 17 2 34 8 172 5 4 15 1 1
British Racing Motors  United Kingdom 1951, 1956-1977 208 197 71 559 17 385 11 15 61 1 1
British Racing Partnership  United Kingdom 1963-1964 13 13 2 19 0 11 0 0 0 0 0
Bugatti  France 1956 1 1 1 1 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0
Caterham  Malaysia 56 56 8 112 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cisitalia  Italy 1952 1 0 1 1 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0
Coloni[m]  Italy 1987-1991 65 13 8 81 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Connaught  United Kingdom 1952-1959 18 17 29 52 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Connew  United Kingdom 1972 2 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cooper Car Company  United Kingdom 1950, 1952-1969 129 129 111 528 16 301 11 14 58 2 2
Dallara  Italy 1988-1992 80 78 6 144 0 15 0 0 2 0 0
Derrington-Francis  United Kingdom 1964 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Peter de Klerk[n]  South Africa 1963, 1965 2 2 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
De Tomaso  Italy 1961-1963, 1970 15 10 8 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Eagle (Anglo American Racers)  United States[26] 1966-1969 26 26 7 35 1 17 0 2 2 0 0
Eifelland  Germany 1972 8 8 1 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Emeryson  United Kingdom 1956, 1961-1962 6 4 6 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Eisenacher Motorenwerk  East Germany 1953 1 1 1 1 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0
Ecurie Nationale Belge  Belgium 1962 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ensign  United Kingdom 1973-1982 134 98 25 154 0 19 0 1 0 0 0
English Racing Automobiles  United Kingdom 1950-1952 7 7 7 12 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0
EuroBrun  Italy / 1988-1990 46 15 5 76 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ferguson Research Ltd.  United Kingdom 1961 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
FIRST  Italy 1989 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Fittipaldi Automotive (Copersucar)  Brazil[27] 1975-1982 120 103 8 156 0 44 0 0 3 0 0
Fondmetal  Italy 1991-1992 29 19 4 42 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Force India[o] (Sahara)  India 2008-2018 203 203 7 406 0 987 1 5 6 0 0
Forti  Italy 1995-1996 28 23 4 54 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Frank Williams Racing Cars[p]  United Kingdom 1972-1976 61 56 25 112 0 6 0 0 0 0 0
Frazer-Nash  United Kingdom 1952 4 4 2 4 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0
Fry  United Kingdom 1959 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Gilby Engineering  United Kingdom 1961-1963 6 3 2 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Gordini  France 1952-1956 33 33 23 101 0 n/a 0 1 2 n/a 0
Greifzu  East Germany 1953 1 1 1 1 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0
Hesketh  United Kingdom 1974-1978 60 52 15 97 1 48 0 1 7 0 0
Hill  United Kingdom 1975 11 10 6 21 0 3 0 0 0 0 0
HRT (Hispania Racing Team)  Spain 2010-2012 58 56 8 116 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Honda  Japan 1964-1968
2006-2008
88 88 8 154 3 154 2 2 9 0 0
HWM (Hersham and Walton Motors)  United Kingdom 1951-1955 16 14 15 48 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0
Jaguar[q]  United Kingdom 2000-2004 85 85 8 170 0 49 0 0 2 0 0
JBW  United Kingdom 1959-1961 6 5 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jordan[r]  Ireland[29] 1991-2005 250 250 30 500 4 291 2 2 19 0 0
Kauhsen  Germany 1979 2 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Klenk  Germany 1954 1 1 1 1 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0
Kojima  Japan 1976-1977 2 2 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Kurtis  United States 1959 12 12 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Lambo (Modena Team)  Italy 1991 16 6 2 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Lancia  Italy 1954-1955 4 4 4 10 0 n/a 2 1 1 n/a 0
Larrousse  France 1993-1994 32 32 7 64 0 5 0 0 0 0 0
LDS  South Africa 1962-1963, 1965, 1967-1968 5 5 3 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
LEC  United Kingdom 1977 5 3 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Leyton House[s]  United Kingdom 1990-1991 32 30 3 64 0 8 0 0 1 0 0
Life  Italy 1990 14 0 2 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ligier[t]  France 1976-1996 332 326 28 612 9 388 9 10 50 0 0
Lola[u]  United Kingdom 1962-1963, 1967-1968, 1974-1975, 1985-1991, 1993, 1997 152 146 27 280 0 45 1 0 3 0 0
Lotus (1958-1994)  United Kingdom 1958-1994 491 489 122 1332 79 1332 107 70 172 7 6
Lotus (2010-2011)  Malaysia 2010-2011 38 38 3 76 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Lotus (2012-2015)  United Kingdom 2012-2015 77 77 5 154 2 706 0 5 25 0 0
Lyncar  United Kingdom 1974-1975 2 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Maki  Japan 1974-1976 8 0 3 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Manor  United Kingdom 2016 21 21 3 42 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
March[v]  United Kingdom 1970-1977, 1981-1982, 1987-1989, 1992 208 197 54 579 3 172.5 5 7 21 0 0
Martini  France 1978 9 4 1 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Marussia[w]  Russia / 2012-2015 74 73 7 144 0 2 0 0 0 0 0
Maserati  Italy 1950-1960 77 70 106 423 9 9 10 15 37 0 2
Matra  France 1967-1972 61 61 5 117 9 163 4 12 21 1 1
MBM   Switzerland 1961 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
McGuire  Australia 1977 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Merzario  Italy 1978-1979 31 10 3 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Midland[x]  Russia 2006 18 18 2 36 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Milano  Italy 1950 1 0 1 1 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0
Minardi[y]  Italy 1985-2005 346 340 42 676 0 38 0 0 0 0 0
Onyx  United Kingdom 1989-1990 26 17 6 52 0 6 0 0 1 0 0
O.S.C.A.  Italy 1951-1953, 1958 7 4 5 11 0 0 0 0 0 0
Osella[z]  Italy 1980-1990 172 132 17 253 0 5 0 0 0 0 0
Pacific  United Kingdom 1994-1995 33 22 5 66 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Parnelli  United States 1974-1976 16 16 1 16 0 6 0 1 0 0 0
Penske  United States[36] 1974-1977 41 40 7 46 1 23 0 0 3 0 0
Porsche  Germany 1957-1964 36 33 13 75 1 46 1 0 5 0 0
Prost[aa]  France 1997-2001 83 83 9 166 0 35 0 0 3 0 0
RAM  United Kingdom 1983-1985 44 31 8 73 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Racing Point Force India[ab]  United Kingdom 2018 9 9 2 18 0 52 0 0 0 0 0
Racing Point  United Kingdom 2019-2020 38 38 3 76 1 268 1 0 4 0 0
RE  Rhodesia 1965 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Renault  France / [ac] 1977-1985,
2002-2011,
2016-2020
403 400 26 788 35 1777 51 33 103 2 2
Rebaque  Mexico 1979 3 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Rial  Germany 1988-1989 32 21 6 48 0 6 0 0 0 0 0
Sauber/BMW Sauber[ad]   Switzerland / [ae] 1993-2018 465 462 30 902 1 865 1 5 26 0 0
Scarab  United States 1960 5 2 4 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Scirocco  United Kingdom 1963-1964 7 5 3 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Shadow  United States / [af] 1973-1980 112 103 21 240 1 67.5 3 2 7 0 0
Shannon  United Kingdom 1966 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Simca-Gordini  France 1950-1953 15 14 11 29 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0
Simtek  United Kingdom 1994-1995 21 21 7 40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Spirit  United Kingdom 1983-1985 25 23 3 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Spyker[ag]  Netherlands 2007 17 17 4 34 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Stebro  Canada 1963 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Stewart[ah]  United Kingdom 1997-1999 49 49 4 98 1 47 1 0 5 0 0
Super Aguri  Japan 2006-2008 39 39 5 39 0 4 0 0 0 0 0
Surtees  United Kingdom 1970-1978 119 118 38 260 0 53 0 3 2 0 0
SVA  Italy 1950 1 0 1 1 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0
Talbot-Lago  France 1950-1951 13 13 18 81 0 n/a 0 0 2 n/a 0
Tec-Mec  United States 1959 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Tecno  Italy 1972-1973 12 10 3 14 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Theodore  Hong Kong 1978, 1981-1983 51 34 10 64 0 2 0 0 0 0 0
Token  United Kingdom 1974 4 3 3 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Toleman[ai]  United Kingdom 1981-1985 70 53 9 131 0 26 1 2 3 0 0
Toro Rosso[aj]  Italy 2006-2019 268 268 14 536 1 500 1 1 3 0 0
Toyota  Japan 2002-2009 140 139 9 276 0 278.5 3 3 13 0 0
Trojan  United Kingdom 1974 8 6 1 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Tyrrell[ak]  United Kingdom 1970-1998 433 430 47 884 23 617 14 20 77 1 2
Vanwall  United Kingdom 1954-1960 29 28 12 66 9 48 7 6 13 1 0
Venturi  France 1992 16 16 2 32 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Veritas  Germany 1951-1953 6 6 15 18 0 n/a 0 0 0 n/a 0
Virgin[al]  United Kingdom / [39] 2010-2011 38 38 3 76 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Wolf (Walter Wolf Racing)[am]  Canada[40][41] 1977-1979 48 47 4 54 3 79 1 2 13 0 0
Zakspeed  Germany 1985-1989 74 54 7 136 0 2 0 0 0 0 0
Constructor Licensed in Seasons Races Entered Races Started Drivers Total Entries Wins Points Poles FL Podiums WCC WDC

Note: Until 1965 every constructor was licensed in the country where it was really based. In 1965 Japanese constructor Honda moved their team from Tokyo to Amsterdam, Netherlands, followed in 1966 by American constructor Eagle which was based in Rye, East Sussex, UK.[42] Since the early 2000s most constructors have been based in the United Kingdom, but licensed in another country.

Indianapolis 500 only

Constructors whose only World Championship participation was in the Indianapolis 500 from 1950 to 1960. All were American-based and licensed.

Privateer teams

The following are privateer teams which never built their own chassis, and thus were not "constructors":

Privateer teams by number of wins

* All constructor's wins
** First win for the constructor
*** Team's only championship race

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Renault became the last team to have entered three cars for a race at the 1985 German Grand Prix, but only two of their cars were eligible for championship points.
  2. ^ Alfa Romeo had an Italian licence in 1950-1951 and 1979-1985.
  3. ^ Between 1950-1951 and 1979-1985.
  4. ^ Between 1954-1955.
  5. ^ Red Bull had a British licence in 2005 and 2006.[18]
  6. ^ In 1949 and 1950, AFM participated in the German Formula 2 championship.[19]
  7. ^ From 1950 to 1959, Alta was also an engine manufacturer for teams HWM, Cooper and Connaught.[20]
  8. ^ Arrows were known as Footwork from 1991 to 1996.[21]
  9. ^ In 1964 and 1967, ATS was an engine manufacturer for teams Derrington-Francis and Cooper, racing at the 1964 Italian and 1967 British Grands Prix with Mário de Araújo Cabral and Silvio Moser.[22]
  10. ^ BAR formerly Tyrrell; subsequently became Honda, then Brawn, then Mercedes.[23]
  11. ^ Benetton formerly Toleman; subsequently became Renault, then Lotus F1 and again, Renault.[23]
  12. ^ From 1986 to 1995 Benetton had a British licence; from 1996 to 2001, an Italian one.[24]
  13. ^ Coloni subsequently became Andrea Moda.[25]
  14. ^ Peter de Klerk contested the 1963 and 1965 South African Grands Prix in a home-built "Alfa Romeo Special"
  15. ^ Force India formerly Jordan, Midland and Spyker; subsequently became Racing Point Force India.[23]
  16. ^ Frank Williams Racing Cars includes Politoys (1972), Iso-Marlboro (1973-1974) and Wolf-Williams (1976) cars. Prior to 1972 FWRC ran customer chassis. Subsequently became Wolf. Williams Grand Prix Engineering was a new constructor established by Frank Williams and Patrick Head after Williams left Wolf-Williams.[28]
  17. ^ Jaguar formerly Stewart Grand Prix. Subsequently became Red Bull Racing.[23]
  18. ^ Jordan subsequently became Midland F1 Racing, then Spyker, then Force India.[23]
  19. ^ Leyton House formerly March Engineering.[30]
  20. ^ Ligier subsequently became Prost Grand Prix.[31]
  21. ^ Lola includes Larrousse (1990) and MasterCard Lola (1997) entries.[32]
  22. ^ March subsequently became Leyton House Racing, later reappearing as March for one final season.[30]
  23. ^ Marussia formerly Virgin Racing, subsequently became Manor Racing.[33][34]
  24. ^ Midland formerly Jordan Grand Prix; subsequently became Spyker F1, then Force India.[23]
  25. ^ Minardi subsequently became Scuderia Toro Rosso, then AlphaTauri.[23]
  26. ^ Osella subsequently became Fondmetal.[35]
  27. ^ Prost formerly Ligier.[31]
  28. ^ Racing Point Force India formerly Jordan, Midland, Spyker and Force India; subsequently became Racing Point.[23]
  29. ^ Renault had a British licence in 2011.[37]
  30. ^ From 1993 to 2005 and from 2011 to 2018 as Sauber; from 2006 to 2010 as BMW Sauber; subsequently became Alfa Romeo.[23]
  31. ^ From 1993 to 2005 and from 2010 to 2018 Sauber had a Swiss licence (in 2010 as BMW Sauber); from 2006 to 2009, a German one (as BMW Sauber).
  32. ^ From 1973 to 1975 Shadow had an American licence; from 1976 to 1980, a British one.[38]
  33. ^ Spyker formerly Jordan Grand Prix and Midland F1 Racing; subsequently became Force India.[23]
  34. ^ Stewart subsequently became Jaguar Racing.[23]
  35. ^ Toleman subsequently became Benetton Formula.[23]
  36. ^ Scuderia Toro Rosso formerly Minardi; subsequently became AlphaTauri.[23]
  37. ^ Tyrrell subsequently became British American Racing.[23]
  38. ^ Virgin subsequently became Marussia F1, then Manor Racing.[33][34]
  39. ^ Wolf formerly Frank Williams Racing Cars.[28]
  40. ^ In 1952 and 1953 Scuderia Platé built their own engines for the Maserati-Platé 4CLT.

Bibliography

  • Mansell, Nigel, ed. (2001). The Official 2001-2002 Formula One Record Book. Holborn, London: European Press Ltd. ISBN 0-9541368-0-2.
  • Hughes, Mark; Tremayne, David (2002). The Concise Encyclopedia of Formula 1. Parragon. pp. 82-83. ISBN 0-75258-766-8.
  • Hayhoe, David; Holland, David (2006). Grand Prix Data Book (4th ed.). Haynes Publishing. ISBN 1-84425-223-X.

References

General
Specific
  1. ^ a b "The FIA FAQ on Formula One World Championship". Atlas F1. Archived from the original on 5 April 2001. Retrieved 2021.
  2. ^ Williamson, Martin. "A brief history of Formula One". ESPN. Archived from the original on 4 January 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  3. ^ Hughes & Tremayne 2002, pp. 82-83
  4. ^ Budzinski, Oliver; Feddersen, Arne (March 2019). "Measuring Competitive Balance in Formula One Racing" (PDF). Ilmenau Economics Discussion Papers. 25 (121): 5, 7. ISSN 0949-3859. Retrieved 2021 – via EconStor.
  5. ^ "F1 Stats Zone - Results by Team". Sky Sports. Retrieved 2021.
  6. ^ "All-Time Calendar". ChicaneF1. Archived from the original on 17 September 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  7. ^ a b c d e "Formula One - Sporting Regulations - 2018".
  8. ^ Dodgins, Tony (14 November 2020). "2020 Turkish Grand Prix qualifying: Stroll skates to pole in Istanbul". Motor Sport. Archived from the original on 27 November 2020. Retrieved 2021.
  9. ^ Verlin, Kurt (10 October 2017). "Quick Guide to Formula One Constructors". The News Wheel. Retrieved 2020.
  10. ^ FIA international sporting regulations para 112
  11. ^ "1978 United States Grand Prix Entry list". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  12. ^ "1979 United States Grand Prix Entry list". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  13. ^ "1973 Austrian Grand Prix Entry list". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  14. ^ "1975 Belgian Grand Prix Entry list". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  15. ^ "1975 United States Grand Prix Entry list". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  16. ^ "1998 Belgian Grand Prix podium ceremony". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  17. ^ "2009 Chinese Grand Prix podium ceremony". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  18. ^ Roberts, James (30 June 2019). "Aston Martin Red Bull Racing claim their 60th Formula One win". Red Bull. Retrieved 2021.
  19. ^ "Phoenix from the flames, part 2: AFM". 8W. Forix. 22 March 2002. Retrieved 2021.
  20. ^ Mansell 2001, pp. 572-583
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External links


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