List of Chinese Monarchs
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List of Chinese Monarchs

This list of Chinese monarchs includes rulers of China with various titles prior to the establishment of the Republic in 1912. From the Zhou dynasty until the Qin dynasty, rulers usually held the title "king" (Chinese: ?; pinyin: wáng). With the separation of China into different Warring States, this title had become so common that the unifier of China, the first Qin Emperor Qin Shihuang created a new title for himself, that of "emperor" (Chinese: ; pinyin: huángdì). The title of Emperor of China continued to be used for the remainder of China's imperial history, right down to the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912.

While many other monarchs existed in and around China throughout its history, this list covers only those with a quasi-legitimate claim to the majority of China, or those who have traditionally been named in king-lists. The following list of Chinese monarchs is in no way comprehensive.

Chinese sovereigns were known by many different names, and how they should be identified is often confusing. Sometimes the same emperor is commonly known by two or three separate names, or the same name is used by emperors of different dynasties. The tables below do not necessarily include all of an emperor's names - for example, posthumous names could run to more than twenty characters and were rarely used in historical writing - but, where possible, the most commonly used name or naming convention has been indicated. Scholars also often use common terms to refer to some monarchs with special circumstances -- "Modi" (; "last emperor"), "Mozhu" (; "last lord"), "Houzhu" (; "last lord"), "Shaodi" (; "young emperor"), "Shaozhu" (; "young lord"), "Feidi" (; "deposed emperor"), etc.; these terms are not temple names, posthumous names or regnal names.

In some cases, the regnal or era name is changed in the same year as the death of the previous sovereign; in other cases, the name change occurs in the subsequent year. Thus, the date given for the beginning of a reign may actually refer to the first full year of the sovereign's reign.

These tables may not necessarily represent the most recently updated information on Chinese monarchs; please check the page for the relevant dynasty for possible additional information.

Follow these links to see how they are related:

Family tree of Chinese monarchs (ancient) -> Family tree of Chinese monarchs (Warring States period) -> Chinese emperors family tree (early) -> Chinese emperors family tree (middle) -> Chinese emperors family tree (late)

Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (?) (2852-2070 BC)

Although it is ingrained in Chinese mythology that the earliest mythological rulers of China included three huáng (?, generally translated "sovereign" or "august one") and five (?, generally translated "emperor"), both terms denoting demigod status, their identities have differed between different sources, with some individuals, such as the Yellow Emperor, being regarded as either sovereign or emperor, depending on the source. The two characters would later be taken together by Qin Shi Huang to form the new title huángdì (, emperor), thus claiming legendary status for himself. They were perceived as admirable and loyal to the individual members that belonged to the emperor.

Note: These figures are considered to be legendary

Title Name by which most commonly known Reign (according to tradition) In Chinese Other names
Huang1,4,5 / Di3 Youchao 3162-2962 BC Y?ucháo -
Huang/ Di3 Suiren 2962-2852 BC Suìrén -
Huang4 / Di3 Fuxi 2852-2737 BC Fúx? -
Huang1 / Di1 Yan Emperor and/or Shennong 2737-2698 BC Yándì Shennong
Huang5 / Di1,2 Yellow Emperor 2698-2598 BC Huángdì Xuanyuan
Di2 Shaohao 2597-2514 BC Sh?ohào Jintian
Di1,2 Zhuanxu 2514-2436 BC Zhu?nx? Gaoyang
Di1 Emperor Ku 2436-2366 BC Dìkù Gaoxin
Di1 Emperor Zhi 2366-2358 BC Dìzhì Qingyang
Di1 Emperor Yao (of Tang) 2356-2255 BC Dìyáo or Táng Yáo / Yiqi, Taotang and Fangxun
Di1 Emperor Shun (of Yu) 2255-2208 BC Dìshùn or Yú Shùn / Yao, Youyu and Chonghua ?
1 -- According to the Records of the Grand Historian.
2 -- According to the Chu Ci.
3 -- According to the Book of Rites.
4 -- According to the Shangshu dazhuan (?) and Baihu tongyi (?).
5 -- According to the Diwang shiji (?)

Xia dynasty () (2070-1600 BC)

Chinese convention: use "Xia" + regnal name

Name by which most commonly known Reign (according to tradition) Regnal name1 Other names
Yu the Great 2150-2106 BC Y? ? -
Qi of Xia 2106-2077 BC Q? ? -
Tai Kang 2077-2048 BC K?ng ? Tài K?ng
Zhong Kang 2048-2036 BC K?ng ? Zhòng K?ng
Xiang of Xia 2036-2008 BC Xi?ng ? -
Interregnum (about 40 years)
Shao Kang 1968-1946 BC K?ng ? Shào K?ng
Zhu of Xia 1946-1929 BC Zhù ? -
Huai of Xia 1929-1885 BC Huái ? -
Mang of Xia 1885-1867 BC Máng ? -
Xie of Xia 1867-1851 BC Xiè ? -
Bu Jiang 1851-1792 BC Jiàng ? -
Jiong of Xia 1792-1771 BC Ji?ng ? -
Jin of Xia 1771-1750 BC J?n ? Yìn Ji?
Kong Jia 1750-1719 BC K?ng Ji? -
Gao of Xia 1719-1708 BC G?o ? -
Fa of Xia 1708-1689 BC F? ? Hou Jin
Jie of Xia 1689-1658 BC Jié ? L? Gu?

Shang dynasty () (1600-1046 BC)

Chinese convention: use "Shang" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign (according to tradition)1 Posthumous name Temple name
Tang of Shang Zi Lü 1658-1629 BC Ti?n Y? Tàizu
Wai Bing Zi Shèng 1629-1627 BC Wài B?ng -
Zhong Ren Zi Y?ng 1627-1623 BC Zh?ng Rén -
Tai Jia Zi Zhì 1623-1611 BC Tài Ji? Tàiz?ng
Wo Ding Zi Xuàn 1611-1592 BC Wò D?ng -
Tai Geng Zi Biàn 1592-1567 BC Tài G?ng -
Xiao Jia Zi G?o 1567-1550 BC Xi?o Ji? -
Yong Ji Zi Zhòu 1550-1538 BC Y?ng J? -
Tai Wu Zi Mì 1538-1463 BC Tài Wù -
Zhong Ding Zi Zhu?ng 1463-1452 BC Zhòng D?ng -
Wai Ren Zi F? 1452-1437 BC Wài Rén -
He Dan Jia Zi Zh?ng 1437-1428 BC Hé D?n Ji? -
Zu Ji Zi Téng 1428-1409 BC Z? J? Zh?ngz?ng
Zu Xin Zi Dàn 1409-1393 BC Z? X?n -
Wo Jia Zi Yú 1393-1368 BC Wò Ji? -
Zu Ding Zi X?n 1368-1336 BC Z? D?ng -
Nan Geng Zi G?ng 1336-1307 BC Nán G?ng -
Yang Jia Zi Hé 1307-1290 BC Yáng Ji? -
Pan Geng Zi Xún 1290-1262 BC Pán G?ng -
Xiao Xin Zi Sòng 1262-1259 BC Xi?o X?n -
Xiao Yi Zi Li?n 1259-1250 BC Xi?o Y? -
Wu Ding Zi Zh?o 1250-1192 BC W? D?ng G?oz?ng
Zu Geng Zi Yuè 1192-1185 BC Z? G?ng -
Zu Jia Zi Zài 1185-1158 BC Z? Ji? -
Lin Xin Zi Xi?n 1158-1152 BC L?n X?n -
Geng Ding Zi Xi?o 1152-1147 BC G?ng D?ng -
Wu Yi Zi Qú 1147-1112 BC W? Y? -
Wen Wu Ding Zi Tu? 1112-1102 BC Wénw? D?ng/ Wén D?ng / -
Di Yi Zi Xiàn 1101-1076 BC Dì Y? -
King Zhou of Shang Zi Shòu 1075-1046 BC X?n (Zhou) ?(?) -
1 -- The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.

Zhou dynasty () (1046-256 BC)

Chinese convention: use "Zhou" + posthumous name ("Wang" is the chinese term for "King")

Note: The first generally accepted date in Chinese history is 841 BC, the beginning of the Gonghe regency. All dates prior to this are the subject of often vigorous dispute.

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign1 Posthumous name
Western Zhou () (1046-771 BC)
King Wen of Zhou J? Ch?ng 1100-1050 BC1 King Wén
King Wu of Zhou J? F? 1046-1043 BC1 King W?
King Cheng of Zhou J? Sòng 1042-1021 BC1 King Chéng
King Kang of Zhou J? Zh?o 1020-996 BC1 King K?ng
King Zhao of Zhou J? Xiá 995-977 BC1 King Zh?o
King Mu of Zhou J? M?n 976-922 BC1 King Mù
King Gong of Zhou J? Y?hù 922-900 BC1 King G?ng
King Yi of Zhou (Jian) J? Ji?n 899-892 BC1 King Yì
King Xiao of Zhou J? Bìf?ng 891-886 BC1 King Xiào
King Yi of Zhou (Xie) J? Xiè 885-878 BC1 King Yí
King Li of Zhou J? Hú 877-841 BC1 King Lì
Gonghe Regency () (841-827 BC)
King Xuan of Zhou J? Jìng 827-782 BC King Xu?n
King You of Zhou J? G?ngsh?ng 781-771 BC King Y?u
Eastern Zhou () (770-256 BC)
Spring and Autumn period (?) (770-476 BC)
King Ping of Zhou J? Yijiu 770-720 BC King Ping
King Huan of Zhou J? Lin 719-697 BC King Huan
King Zhuang of Zhou J? Tuo 696-682 BC King Zhuang
King Xi of Zhou J? Huqi 681-677 BC King Xi
King Hui of Zhou J? Lang 676-652 BC King Hui
King Xiang of Zhou J? Zheng 651-619 BC King Xiang
King Qing of Zhou J? Renchen 618-613 BC King Qing
King Kuang of Zhou J? Ban 612-607 BC King Kuang
King Ding of Zhou J? Yu 606-586 BC King Ding
King Jian of Zhou J? Yi 585-572 BC King Jian
King Ling of Zhou J? Xiexin 571-545 BC King Ling
King Jing of Zhou (Gui) J? Gui 544-521 BC King Jing
King Dao of Zhou J? Meng 520 BC King Dao
King Jing of Zhou (Gai) J? Gai 519-476 BC King Jing
Warring States period (?) (475-221 BC)
King Yuan of Zhou J? Ren 475-469 BC King Yuan
King Zhending of Zhou J? Jie 468-442 BC King Zhending
King Ai of Zhou J? Quji 441 BC King Ai
King Si of Zhou J? Shu 441 BC King Si
King Kao of Zhou J? Wei 440-426 BC King Kao
King Weilie of Zhou J? Wu 425-402 BC King Weilie
King An of Zhou J? Jiao 401-376 BC King An
King Lie of Zhou J? Xi 375-369 BC King Lie
King Xian of Zhou J? Bian 368-321 BC King Xian
King Shenjing of Zhou J? Ding 320-315 BC King Shenjing
King Nan of Zhou J? Yan 314-256 BC King Nan
1 -- The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.

After King Nan was deposed by Qin, Ji Jie (), Duke Wen of the vassal duchy of Eastern Zhou was proclaimed the new king of Zhou and claimed the title until his death in 249 BC. However, the King of Qin had taken possession of the Nine Tripod Cauldrons (), and Ji Jie's reign was not widely recognized. Historians generally considered the title of Son of Heaven to be vacant from 256 to 221 BC.

Qin dynasty () (221-207 BC)

Chinese convention: use regnal name

Note: The State of Qin was founded in the 9th century BCE as a vassal of the Zhou dynasty. In 325 BC, the Duke of Qing, Ying Si (), declared himself king and was given the regnal name King Huiwen of Qin (?). In 256 BC, King Zhaoxiang of Qin ended the Zhou dynasty, and in 221 BC, Ying Zheng completed the conquest of the other states (kingdoms) and declared himself Qin Shi Huang, or "First Emperor of Qin." The unification of China under the Qin dynasty in 221 BC is usually considered to be the beginning of Imperial China.

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Regnal name
(King Zhaoxiang of Qin)1 Yíng Zé (Yíng Jì) () (306)1 (255-251 BC) Zhaoxiang of Qin ?
(King Xiaowen of Qin)1 Yíng Zhù (250 BC) Xiaowen of Qin ?
(King Zhuangxiang of Qin)1 Yíng Z?ch? (249-247 BC) Zhuangxiang of Qin ?
Qin Shi Huang1,2 Yíng Zhèng (246)2 221-210 BC Qin Shi Huang
Qin Er Shi Yíng Húhài 209-207 BC Qin Er Shi
Ziying3 Yíng Z?y?ng 207 BC Qin San Shi
1 -- Zhaoxiang's reign as king of the State of Qin began in 306 BC before the fall of Zhou. Subsequently, in the absence of a Son of Heaven, historians conventionally used Qin regnal dates to refer to the years 255 to 222 BC.

2 -- Qin Shi Huang began his reign as king of Qin 246 BC, but did not unite China and proclaim himself "Emperor" until 221 BC.

3 -- Ziying is often referred to by his personal name and as king, rather than emperor, of Qin (?).

Han dynasty () (202 BC-9 AD, 25-220 AD)

Chinese convention: use "Han" + posthumous name (apart from Liu Bang, who is known as "Han Gaozu")
Note that the posthumous names of many Han monarchs bear the character "xiao" (?; "filial"), but this character is usually omitted by scholars when they are used (i.e. "Emperor Xiaowu" is normally known as "Emperor Wu")

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Western Han () (202 BC-9 AD)
Emperor Gaozu of Han Liu Bang 202-195 BC - Emperor Gao Taizu
Emperor Hui of Han Liu Ying 195-188 BC (Empress Lü regency)1 Emperor Xiaohui ? -
Emperor Qianshao of Han1 Liu Gong 188-184 BC (Empress Lü regency)1 - -
Emperor Houshao of Han1 Liu Hong 184-180 BC (Empress Lü regency)1 - -
Emperor Wen of Han Liu Heng 179-157 BC Hòuyuán 163-156 BC Emperor Xiaowen ? Taizong
Emperor Jing of Han Liu Qi 156-141 BC Zh?ngyuán 149-143 BC Emperor Xiaojing ? -
Hòuyuán 143-141 BC
Emperor Wu of Han Liu Che 140-87 BC Jiànyuán 140-135 BC Emperor Xiaowu ? Shizong
Yuángu?ng 134-129 BC
Yuánshuò 128-123 BC
Yuánshòu 122-117 BC
Yuánd?ng 116-111 BC
Yuánf?ng 110-105 BC
Tàich? 104-101 BC
Ti?nhàn 100-97 BC
Tàish? 96-93 BC
Zh?nghé 92-89 BC
Hòuyuán 88-87 BC
Emperor Zhao of Han Liu Fuling 86-74 BC Sh?yuán 86-80 BC Emperor Xiaozhao ?
Yuánfèng 80-75 BC
Yuánpíng 74 BC
Marquis of Haihun Liu He 74 BC - -
Emperor Xuan of Han Liu Xun 73-49 BC B?nsh? 73-70 BC Emperor Xiaoxuan ? Zhongzong
Dìjié 69-66 BC
Yuánk?ng 65-61 BC
Shénjué 61-58 BC
W?fèng 57-54 BC
G?nlù 53-50 BC
Huánglóng 49 BC
Emperor Yuan of Han Liu Shi 48-33 BC Ch?yuán 48-44 BCE Emperor Xiaoyuan ? Gaozong3 3
Y?nggu?ng 43-39 BC
Jiànzh?o 38-34 BC
Jìngníng 33 BC
Emperor Cheng of Han Liu Ao 32-7 BC Jiànsh? 32-28 BC Emperor Xiaocheng ? Tongzong3 3
Hépíng 28-25 BC
Yángshuò 24-21 BC
Hóngji? 20-17 BC
Y?ngsh? 16-13 BC
Yuányán 12-9 BC
Su?hé 8-7 BC
Emperor Ai of Han Liu Xin 6-1 BC Jiànpíng 6-3 BC Emperor Xiao'ai ? -
Yuánshòu 2-1 BC
Emperor Ping of Han Liu Kan 1 BC - 5 AD Yuánsh? 1 BC - 5 AD Emperor Xiaoping ? Yuanzong3 3
Ruzi Ying2 Liu Ying 6-8 Jùshè 6 AD - Oct. 8 AD - -
Ch?sh? Nov. 8 AD - Dec. 8 AD
Interregnum (9 AD - 23 AD)
Gengshi Emperor Liu Xuan 23-25 AD G?ngsh? 23-25 AD - -
Eastern Han () (25-220 AD)
Emperor Guangwu of Han Liu Xiu 25-57 AD Jiànw? 25-56 AD Emperor Guangwu ? Shizu
Jiànw?zh?ngyuán ? 56-57 AD
Emperor Ming of Han Liu Zhuang 58-75 AD Y?ngpíng 58-75 AD Emperor Xiaoming ? Xianzong
Emperor Zhang of Han Liu Da 76-88 AD Jiànch? 76-84 AD Emperor Xiaozhang ? Suzong
Yuánhé 84-87 AD
Zh?nghé 87-88 AD
Emperor He of Han Liu Zhao 89-105 AD Y?ngyuán 89-105 AD Emperor Xiaohe ? Muzong3 3
Yuánx?ng 105 AD
Emperor Shang of Han Liu Long 106 AD Yánpíng 9 months in 106 AD Emperor Xiaoshang ? -
Emperor An of Han Liu Hu 106-125 AD Y?ngch? 107-113 AD Emperor Xiao'an ? Gongzong3 3
Yuánch? 114-120 AD
Y?ngníng 120-121 AD
Jiàngu?ng 121-122 AD
Yángu?ng 122-125 AD
Marquess of Beixiang Liu Yi 125 AD - -
Emperor Shun of Han Liu Bao 125-144 AD Y?ngjiàn 126-132 AD Emperor Xiaoshun ? Jingzong3 3
Yángji? 132-135 AD
Y?nghé 136-141 AD
Hàn'?n 142-144 AD
Jiànk?ng 144 AD
Emperor Chong of Han Liu Bing 144-145 AD Y?ngx? 145 AD Emperor Xiaochong ? -
Emperor Zhi of Han Liu Zuan 145-146 AD B?nch? 146 AD Emperor Xiaozhi ? -
Emperor Huan of Han Liu Zhi 146-168 AD Jiànhé 147-149 AD Emperor Xiaohuan ? Weizong3 3
Hépíng 150 AD
Yuánji? 151-153 AD
Y?ngx?ng 153-154 AD
Y?ngshòu 155-158 AD
Yánx? 158-167 AD
Y?ngk?ng 167 AD
Emperor Ling of Han Liu Hong 168-189 AD Jiànníng 168-172 AD Emperor Xiaoling ? -
X?píng 172-178 AD
Gu?nghé 178-184 AD
Zh?ngpíng 184-189 AD
Prince of Hongnong Liu Bian 189 AD Gu?ngx? 189 AD - -
Zhàoníng 189 AD
Emperor Xian of Han Liu Xie 189-220 AD Y?nghàn 189 AD Emperor Xiaoxian ? -
Ch?píng 190-193 AD
X?ngpíng 194-195 AD
Jiàn'?n 196-220 AD
Yánk?ng 220 AD
1 -- Emperors Qianshao and Houshao reigned as children and were subsequently deposed. Their reigns were completely dominated by Empress Dowager Lü (, personal name: Lü Zhi, ), who is often listed in their place on lists of Han rulers and Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian.

2 -- Ruzi was prince, rather than emperor of Han. Officially, the throne of emperor of Han was vacant during 6AD to 9AD.

3 -- Temple name was subsequently withdrew.

Xin dynasty () (9-23 AD)

Chinese convention: use personal name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Wang Mang Wang Mang 9-23 AD Sh?jiànguó 9-13 AD - -
Ti?nf?ng 14-19 AD
Dìhuáng 20-23 AD

Three Kingdoms () (220-280 AD)

Chinese convention: use personal name

Cao Wei () (220-266 AD)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Courtesy name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name
Cao Pi Cáo P? Zihuan 220-226 AD Huángch? 220-226 AD Emperor Wen
Cao Rui Cáo Ruì Yuanzhong 226-239 AD Tàihé 227-233 AD Emperor Ming
Q?nglóng 233-237 AD
J?ngch? 237-239 AD
Cao Fang Cáo F?ng Lanqing 239-254 AD Zhèngsh? 240-249 AD Duke Li
Ji?píng 249-254 AD
Cao Mao Cáo Máo Yanshi 254-260 AD Zhèngyuán 254-256 AD -
G?nlù 256-260 AD
Cao Huan Cáo Huàn Jingming 260-266 AD J?ngyuán 260-264 AD Emperor Yuan
Xiánx? 264-266 AD

Shu Han () (221-263 AD)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Courtesy name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name
Liu Bei Liú Bèi Xuande 221-223 AD Zh?ngw? 221-223 AD Emperor Zhaolie ?
Liu Shan Liú Shàn Gongsi 223-263 AD Jiànx?ng 223-237 AD Emperor Xiaohuai ?
Yánx? 238-257 AD
J?ngyào 258-263 AD
Yánx?ng 263 AD

Eastern Wu () (222-280 AD)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Courtesy name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name
Sun Quan S?n Quán Zhongmou 222-252 AD Huángw? 222-229 Emperor Da
Huánglóng 229-231 AD
Ji?hé 232-238 AD
Chìw? 238-251 AD
Tàiyuán 251-252 AD
Shénfèng 252 AD
Sun Liang S?n Liàng Ziming 252-258 Jiànx?ng 252-253 AD -
W?fèng 254-256 AD
Tàipíng 256-258 AD
Sun Xiu S?n Xi? Zilie 258-264 AD Y?ng?n 258-264 AD Emperor Jing
Sun Hao S?n Hào Yuanzong 264-280 AD Yuánx?ng 264-265 AD -
G?nlù 265-266 AD
B?od?ng 266-269 AD
Jiànhéng 269-271 AD
Fènghuáng 272-274 AD
Ti?ncè 275-276 AD
Ti?nx? 276 AD
Ti?njì 277-280 AD

Jin dynasty () (266-420 AD)

Chinese convention: Use "Jin" + posthumous name

Note that the posthumous names of some Jin monarchs bore the character "xiao" (?; "filial"), but this character is usually omitted by scholars when referencing these monarchs by their posthumous names (i.e. "Emperor Xiaohui" is normally known as "Emperor Hui")

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names
and their corresponding range of years
Posthumous name
(Shi Hao )
Temple name
Western Jin () (266-316 AD)
Emperor Wu of Jin S?m? Yán 266-290 AD Tàish? 266-274 AD Emperor Wu Shizu
Xiánníng 275-280 AD
Tàik?ng 280-289 AD
Tàix? 290 AD
Emperor Hui of Jin S?m? Zh?ng 290-306 AD Y?ngx? 290 AD Emperor Xiaohui ? -
Y?ngp?ng 291 AD
Yuánk?ng 291-299 AD
Y?ngk?ng 300-301 AD
Y?ngníng 301-302 AD
Tài?n 302-303 AD
Y?ng?n 304 AD
Jiànw? 304 AD
Y?ng?n 304 AD
Y?ngx?ng 304-306 AD
Gu?ngx? 306 AD
Emperor Huai of Jin S?m? Chì 307-313 AD Y?ngji? 307-313 AD Emperor Xiaohuai ? -
Emperor Min of Jin S?m? Yè 313-317 AD Jiànx?ng 313-317 AD Emperor Xiaomin ? -
Eastern Jin () (317-420 AD)
Emperor Yuan of Jin S?m? Ruì 317-322 AD Jiànw? 317-318 AD Emperor Yuan Zh?ngz?ng
Dàx?ng 318-321 AD
Y?ngch?ng 321-322 AD
Emperor Míng of Jin S?m? Shào 322-325 AD Y?ngch?ng 322-323 AD Emperor Ming Suzu
Tàiníng 323-325 AD
Emperor Cheng of Jin S?m? Y?n 325-342 AD Tàiníng 325 AD Emperor Cheng Xianzong
Xiánhé 326-334 AD
Xiánk?ng 335-342 AD
Emperor Kang of Jin S?m? Yuè 342-344 AD Jiànyuán 343-344 AD Emperor Kang -
Emperor Mu of Jin Sima D?n 345-361 AD Y?nghé 345-356 AD Emperor Mu Xianzong
Sh?ngpíng 357-361 AD
Emperor Ai of Jin S?m? P? 361-365 AD Lónghé 362-363 AD Emperor Ai -
X?ngníng 363-365 AD
Emperor Fei of Jin S?m? Yì 365-371 AD Tàihé 365-371 AD - -
Emperor Jianwen of Jin S?m? Yù 371-372 AD Xián?n 371-372 AD Emperor Jianwen ? Taizong
Emperor Xiaowu of Jin S?m? Yào 372-396 AD Níngk?ng 373-375 AD Emperor Xiaowu ? Lièz?ng
Tàiyuán 376-396 AD
Emperor An of Jin S?m? Déz?ng ? 396-418 AD Lóng?n 397-401 AD Emperor An -
Yuánx?ng 402-404 AD
Yìx? 405-418 AD
Emperor Gong of Jin S?m? Déwén ? 419-420 AD Yuánx? 419-420 AD Emperor Gong -

Sixteen Kingdoms () (304-439 AD)

Chinese convention: use personal name

Han Zhao () (304-329 AD)

Note: addressed separately in traditional texts as Han (?) and Qian (Former) Zhao ()

Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Northern Han () (304-318 AD)
Liu Yuan 304-310 AD Jiànx?ng 304-307 AD Emperor Guangwen ? Gao Zu
Y?ngfèng 308 AD
Héruì 309 AD
Gu?ngx?ng 310
Liu He 7 days in 310 AD - -
Liu Cong 310-318 AD Emperor Zhaowu ? Lie Zong
Ji?píng 311-315 AD
Jiànyuán 316 AD
Línji? 317-318 AD
Liu Can a month and some days in 318 AD Hànch?ng (until renaming as Former Zhao) 318 AD Emperor Yin -
Former Zhao () (318-329 AD)
Liu Yao 318-329 AD Gu?ngch? (until conquest by Later Zhao) 318-329 AD - -

Cheng Han () (304-347 AD)

Note: addressed separately in traditional texts as Cheng (?) and Han (?)

Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Cheng (?) (304-338 AD)
Li Te 303 AD Jiànch?

or

J?ngch?

or

303 AD Emperor Jing Sh?zu
or
Shìzu

or

Li Liu several months in 303 AD Prince Wen of Qin -
Li Xiong 303-334 AD Emperor Wu Taizong
Jiànx?ng 304-305 AD
Yànp?ng 306-310 AD
Yùhéng 311-334 AD
Li Ban 7 months in 334 AD Emperor Ai -
Li Qi 334-338 AD Hànx?ng 337-338 AD Duke You -
Han (?) (338-347 AD)
Li Shou 338-343 AD Hànx?ng () 338-343 AD (continuation) 338-343 AD (continuation) Emperor Zhaowen ? Zhongzong
Li Shi 343-347 Tàihé 344-345 AD - -
Ji?níng 346-347 AD (until conquest by Eastern Jin)

Later Zhao () (319-351 AD)

Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Shi Le 319-333 AD Prince Zhao 319-327 Emperor Ming Gaozu
Tàihé 328-329 AD
Jiànpíng 330-332 AD
Yánx? 333 AD
Shi Hong 333-334 AD Yánx? 333 AD - -
Jiànw? 334 AD
Shi Hu 334-349 Jiànw? 335-348 AD Emperor Wu Taizu
Taìníng 349 AD
Shi Shi 73 days in 349 AD - -
Shi Zun 183 days in 349 AD - -
Shi Jian 103 days within 349-350 AD Q?nglóng (changed mid-year) - -
Shi Zhi 350-351 AD Y?ngníng 350-351 AD (until Ran Min's coup) - -

Former Liang () (320-376 AD)

Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Zhang Mao 320-324 AD Jianxing 320-354 AD Prince Cheng -
Zhang Jun 324-346 AD Prince Wen -
Zhang Chonghua 346-353 AD Prince Huan -
Zhang Yaoling 3 months (the ninth to the twelfth month) in 353 AD Duke Ai -
Zhang Zuo 353-355 AD Prince Wei -
Heping 354-355 AD
Zhang Xuanjing 355-363 AD Jianxing 355-361 Duke Jingdao
or
Prince Chong

or

-
Shengping 361-376 AD
Zhang Tianxi 364-376 AD Duke Dao -

Former Yan () (337-370 AD)

Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Murong Huang 337-348 AD Yànwáng 337-348 AD Emperor Wenming ? Taizu
Murong Jun 348-360 AD Yànyuán 349-351 AD Emperor Jingzhao ? Liezong
Yuánx? 352-357 AD
Sh?ngpíng 357 AD (as vassal of Jin)
Gu?ngshòu 357-359 AD
Murong Wei 360-370 AD Jiànx? 359-365 AD Emperor You -
Jiànyuán 366-370 AD

Former Qin () (351-394 AD)

Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Fu Jian 351-355 AD Huangshi 351-355 AD Emperor Jingming ? Gaozu
Fu Sheng 355-357 AD Shouguang 355-357 AD Prince Li -
Fu Jian 357-385 AD Yongxing 357-359 AD Emperor Xuanzhao ? Shizu
Ganlu 359-364 AD
Jianyuan 365-385 AD
Fu Pi 385-386 AD Taian 385-386 AD Emperor Aiping ? -
Fu Deng 386-394 AD Taichu 385-394 AD Emperor Gao Taizong
Fu Chong several months in 394 AD Yanchu 394 AD - -

Later Yan () (384-409 AD)

Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Murong Chui 384-396 AD Yànwáng 384-385 AD Emperor Chengwu ? Shizu
Jianxing 386-396 AD
Murong Bao 396-398 AD Yongkang 396-398 AD Emperor Huimin ? Liezong
Murong Sheng 398-401 AD Jianping 398 AD Emperor Zhaowu ? Zhongzong
Changle 399-401 AD
Murong Xi 401-407 AD Guangshi 401-406 AD Emperor Zhaowen ? -
Jianshi 407 AD

Later Qin () (384-417 AD)

Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Yao Chang 384-393 AD Baique 384-386 AD Emperor Wuzhao ? Taizu
Jianchu 386-393 AD
Yao Xing 394-416 Huangchu 394-399 AD Emperor Wenhuan ? Gaozu
Hongshi 399-416 AD
Yao Hong 416-417 AD Yonghe 416-417 AD - -

Western Qin () (385-400 AD, 409-431 AD)

Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Qifu Guoren ? 385-388 AD Jianyi 385-388 AD Prince Xuanlie Liezu
Qifu Qiangui ? 388-400 AD Taichu 388-400 AD Prince Wuyuan Gaozu
409-412 AD Gengshi 409-412 AD
Qifu Chipan ? 412-428 AD Yongkang 412-419 AD Prince Wenzhao Taizu
Jianhong 420-428 AD
Qifu Mumo ? 428-431 AD Yonghong 428-431 AD - -

Later Liang () (386-403 AD)

Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Lü Guang 386-399 AD Taian 386-389 AD Emperor Yiwu ? Taizu
Linjia 389-396 AD
Longfei 396-399 AD
Lü Shao 399 AD Prince Yin -
Lü Zuan 399-401 AD Xianning 399-401 AD Emperor Ling -
Lü Long 401-403 AD Shending 401-403 AD - -

Southern Liang () (397-414 AD)

Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Tufa Wugu ? 397-399 AD Taichu 397-399 AD Prince Wu Liezu
Tufa Lilugu 399-402 AD Jianhe AD 399-402 AD Prince Kang -
Tufa Rutan ? 402-414 AD Hongchang 402-404 AD Prince J?ng -
Jiaping ) 409-414 AD

Northern Liang () (397-439 AD)

Note: The Northern Liang was re-established at Gaochang in 442 AD.

Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Duan Ye 397-401 AD Shenxi 397-399 AD - -
Tianxi 399-401 AD
Juqu Mengxun ? 401-433 AD Yongan 401-412 AD Prince Wuxuan Taizu
Xuanshi 412-428 AD
Chengxuan 428-430 AD
Yihe 430-433 AD
Juqu Mujian ? 433-439 AD Yonghe 433-439 AD Prince Ai -
Juqu Wuhui ? 442-444 AD Chengping 442-443 AD - -
Qianshou 443-444 AD
Juqu Anzhou ? 444-460 AD Chengping 444-460 AD - -

Southern Yan () (398-410 AD)

Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Murong De 398-405 AD Yanwang 398-400 AD Emperor Xianwu ? Shizong
Jianping 400-405 AD
Murong Chao 405-410 AD Taishang 405-410 AD - -

Western Liang () (400-421 AD)

Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Li Gao 400-417 AD Gengzi 400-405 AD Prince Wuzhao Taizu
Jianchu 406-416 AD
Li Xin 417-420 AD Jiaxing 417-420 AD - -
Li Xun 420-421 AD Yongjian 420-421 AD - -

Hu Xia () (407-431 AD)

Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Helian Bobo ? 407-425 AD Longsheng 407-413 AD Emperor Wulie ? Shizu
Fengxiang 413-418 AD
Changwu 418-419 AD
Zhenxing 419-425 AD
Helian Chang 425-428 AD Chengguang 425-428 AD - -
Helian Ding 428-431 AD Shengguang 425-428 AD - -

Northern Yan () (407-436 AD)

Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Gao Yun / 407-409 AD Zhengshi 407-409 AD Emperor Huiyi ? -
Feng Ba 409-430 AD Taiping 409-430 AD Emperor Wencheng ? Taizu
Feng Hong 430-436 AD Daxing 430-436 AD Emperor Zhaocheng ? -

Other sovereignties traditionally not counted among the Sixteen Kingdoms

Convention: use personal name

Ran Wei () (350-352 AD)

Note: addressed as Wei in traditional texts

Personal name Reign Era names (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name
Ran Min 350-352 AD Yongxing 350-352 AD Heavenly King Wudao
or
Emperor Ping
?
or

Western Yan () (384-394 AD)

Personal name Reign Era names (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name
Murong Hong 384 AD Yanxing 384-385 AD Emperor Liewen ?
Murong Chong 384-386 AD
Gengshi 385-386 AD Emperor Wei
Duan Sui 386 AD Changping 386 AD -
Murong Yi 386 AD Jianming 386 AD -
Murong Yao 386 AD Jianping 386 AD -
Murong Zhong 386 AD Jianwu 386 -
Murong Yong 386-394 AD Zhongxing 386-394 AD -

Western Shu () (405-413 AD)

Personal name Reign Era names (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name
Qiao Zong 405-413 AD - -

Tiefu tribe ( ) (mid 3rd century-391 AD)

Personal name Reign Era names (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name
Liu Qubei mid-3rd century - -
Liu Gaoshengyuan ? mid-3rd century - late 3rd century - -
Liu Hu early 4th century (309?) - 341 AD - -
Liu Wuheng 341-356 AD - -
Liu Eloutou ? 356-358 AD - -
Liu Xiwuqi ? 358-359 AD - -
Liu Weichen 359-391 AD - -

Yuwen tribe ( ) (late 3rd century-345 AD)

Personal name Reign Era names (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name
Yuwen Mohuai ? late 3rd century - 293 AD - -
Yuwen Puhui
or
Yuwen Pubo
?

or

?

293 AD - late 3rd century - -
Yuwen Qiubuqin late 3rd century - -
Yuwen Mogui ? late 3rd century (299?) - early 4th century (302?) - -
Yuwen Xiduguan early 3rd century - -
Yuwen Qidegui early 3rd century - 333 AD - -
Yuwen Yidougui 333-345 AD - -

Duan tribe ( ) (303-338 AD)

Personal name Reign Era names (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name
Duan Wuwuchen ? 303 - 310 or 311 AD - -
Duan Jilujuan ? 310 or 311 - 318 AD - -
Duan Shefuchen ? 318 AD - -
Duan Pidi 318-321 AD - -
Duan Mopei 318-325 AD - -
Duan Ya 325 AD - -
Duan Liao 326-338 AD - -

Chouchi () (296-371 AD, 385-443 AD)

Personal name Reign Era names (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name
Former Chouchi () (296-371 AD)
Yang Teng late 2nd century - early 3rd century - -
Yang Ju early 3rd century - -
Yang Qianwan early 3rd century - mid-3rd century - -
Yang Feilong mid-3rd century - late 3rd century - -
Yang Maosou late 3rd century - 317 AD - -
Yang Nandi 317-334 AD - -
Yang Yi 334-337 AD - -
Yang Chu 337-355 AD - -
Yang Guo 355-356 AD - -
Yang Jun 356-360 AD - -
Yang Shi 360-370 AD - -
Yang Cuan 370-371 AD - -
Later Chouchi () (385-473 AD)
Yang Ding 385-394 AD - King W?
Yang Sheng 394-425 AD - King Huìwén
Yang Xuan 425-429 AD - King Xiàozh?o
Yang Baozong 429 and 443 AD - -
Yang Nandang 429-441 AD Jianyi 436-440 AD -
Yang Baochi 442-443 AD - -
Yang Wende 443-454 AD - -
Yang Yuanhe 455-466 AD - -
Yang Sengsi 466-473 AD - -

Wuxing () (473-506 AD, 534-555 AD)

Personal name Reign Era names (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name
Yang Wendu 473-477 AD - -
Yang Wenhong 477-482 AD - -
Yang Houqi 482-486 AD - -
Yang Jishi 482-503 AD - King An
Yang Shaoxian 503-506 AD, 534-535 AD - -
Yang Zhihui1 535-545 AD - -
Yang Bixie1 545-553 AD - -
1 -- Yang Zhihui and Yang Bixie could be the same person.

Yinping () (477 AD-mid-6th century)

Personal name Reign Era names (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name
Yang Guangxiang 477-483? - -
Yang Jiong 483-495 AD - -
Yang Chongzu 495-before 502 AD - -
Yang Mengsun before 502-511 AD - -
Yang Ding 511- ? - -

Tuoba tribe ( ) (219-376 AD) & Dai (?) (310-376 AD)

Personal name Reign Era names (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name
Tuoba Liwei3 ? 219-277 AD - Emperor Shényuán ?
Tuoba Xilu ? 277-286 AD - Emperor Zh?ng
Tuoba Chuo 286-293 AD - Emperor Píng
Tuoba Fu 293-294 AD - Emperor S?
Tuoba Luguan ? 294-307 AD - Emperor Zh?o
Tuoba Yituo ? 295-305 AD - Emperor Huán
Tuoba Yilu ? 295-316 AD - Emperor Mù
Tuoba Liugen ? 316 AD - -
Tuoba Pugen ? 316 AD - -
Tuoba Shisheng ? 316 AD - -
Tuoba Yulü ? 316-321 AD - Emperor Píngwén ?
Tuoba Heru ? 321-325 AD - Emperor Huì
Tuoba Hena ? 325-329 AD and 335-337 AD - Emperor Yáng
Tuoba Yihuai ? 329-335 AD and 337-338 AD - Emperor Liè
Tuoba Shiyijian 338-376 AD Jianguo 338-376 AD Emperor Zh?ochéng ?
1 -- All chieftains were revered as emperors in Weishu and Beishi which they never were. They were denoted here as king (wáng) (?) which was inherited by all successors of Tuoba Yi Lu.

2 -- The Tuoba clan was the ruling family of Northern Wei dynasty, founded by Tuoba Gui. Hence the Table of Northern Wei dynasty will start with him, not as a continuation of this table.

3 -- Tuoba Liwei had the temple name Shizu (). He was the only chieftain before Tuoba Gui revered with a temple name

Northern and Southern Dynasties () (386-589 AD)

Northern dynasties () (386-581 AD)

Chinese convention: use dynasty name + posthumous name

Northern Wei () (386-535 AD)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name
Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei Tuoba Gui 386-409 Dengguo 386-396 Emperor Daowu ?
Huangsh 396-398
Tianxing 398-404
Tianci 404-409
Emperor Mingyuan of Northern Wei Tuoba Si 409-423 Yongxing 409-413 Emperor Mingyuan ?
Shenrui 414-416
Taichang 416-423
Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei Tuoba Tao 424-452 Shiguang 424-428 Emperor Taiwu ?
Shenjia 428-431
Yanhe 432-434
Taiyan 435-440
Taipingzhenjun ? 440-451
Zhengping 451-452
Tuoba Yu Tuoba Yu 452 Chengping 452 Prince Yin
Emperor Wencheng of Northern Wei Tuoba Jun 452-465 Xingan 452-454 Emperor Wencheng ?
Xingguang 454-455
Tai'an 455-459
Heping 460-465
Emperor Xianwen of Northern Wei Tuoba Hong 466-471 Tian'an 466-467 Emperor Xianwen ?
Huangxing 467-471
Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei Yuan1 Hong (Tuoba Hong) () 471-499 Yanxing 471-476 Emperor Xiaowen ?
Chengming 476
Taihe 477-499
Emperor Xuanwu of Northern Wei Yuan Ke 499-515 Jingming 500-503 Emperor Xuanwu ?
Zhengshi 504-508
Yongping 508-512
Yanchang 512-515
Emperor Xiaoming of Northern Wei Yuan Xu 516-528 Xiping 516-518 Emperor Xiaoming ?
Shengui 518-520
Zhengguang 520-525
Xiaochang 525-527
Wutai 528
Yuan Zhao Yuan Zhao 528 - -
Emperor Xiaozhuang of Northern Wei Yuan Ziyou 528-530 Jianyi 528 Emperor Xiaozhuang ?
Yong'an 528-530
Yuan Ye Yuan Ye 530-531 Jianming () 530-531 530-531 -
Emperor Jiemin of Northern Wei Yuan Gong 531-532 Putai () 531-532 531-532 Emperor Jiemin ?
Yuan Lang Yuan Lang 531-532 Zhongxing () 531-532 531-532 -
Emperor Xiaowu of Northern Wei Yuan Xiu 532-535 Taichang 532 Emperor Xiaowu ?
Yongxing 532
Yongxi 532-535
1 - The Tuoba family changed their family name to ? (yuán) during the reign of the Emperor Xiaowen in 496 so that is reflected in the table as well.

Eastern Wei () (534-550 AD)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name
Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei Yuan Shanjian 534-550 Tianping 534-537 Emperor Xiaojing ?
Yuanxiang 538-539
Xinghe 539-542
Wuding 543-550

Western Wei () (535-557 AD)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name
Emperor Wen of Western Wei Yuan Baoju 535-551 Datong 535-551 Emperor Wen
Emperor Fei of Western Wei Yuan Qin 552-554 - -
Emperor Gong of Western Wei Tuoba Kuo 554-557 - Emperor Gong

Northern Qi () (550-577 AD)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reigns Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name
Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi Gao Yang 550-559 Tianbao 550-559 Emperor Wenxuan ?
Emperor Fei of Northern Qi Gao Yin 559-560 Qianming 560 -
Emperor Xiaozhao of Northern Qi Gao Yan 560-561 Huangjian 560-561 Emperor Xiaozhao ?
Emperor Wucheng of Northern Qi Gao Zhan 561-565 Taining 561-562 Emperor Wucheng ?
Heqing 562-565
Gao Wei Gao Wei 565-577 Tiantong 565-569 -
Wuping 570-576
Longhua 576
Gao Heng Gao Heng 577 Chengguang 577 -
Gao Shaoyi Gao Shaoyi 577-579? - -

Northern Zhou () (557-581 AD)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reigns Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name
Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou Yuwen Jue 557 - Emperor Xiaomin ?
Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou Yuwen Yu 557-560 Wucheng 559-560 Emperor Ming
or
Emperor Xiaoming

or

?

Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou Yuwen Yong 561-578 Baoding 560-565 Emperor Wu
Tianhe 566-572
Jiande 572-578
Xuanzheng 578
Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou Yuwen Yun 578-579 Dacheng 579 Emperor Xuan
Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou Yuwen Chan 579-581 Daxiang 579-581 Emperor Jing
Dading 581

Southern dynasties () (420-589 AD)

Chinese convention: use dynasty name + posthumous name

Liu Song () (420-479 AD)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name
Emperor Wu of Liu Song Liu Yu 420-422 Yongchu 420-422 Emperor Wu
Emperor Shao of Liu Song Liu Yifu 423-424 Jingping 423-424 -
Emperor Wen of Liu Song Liu Yilong 424-453 Yuanjia 424-453 Emperor Wen
Emperor Xiaowu of Liu Song Liu Jun 454-464 Xiaojian 454-456 Emperor Xiaowu ?
Daming 457-464
Emperor Qianfei of Liu Song Liu Ziye 465 Yongguang 465 -
Jinghe 465
Emperor Ming of Liu Song Liu Yu 465-472 Taishi 465-471 Emperor Ming
Taiyu 472
Emperor Houfei of Liu Song Liu Yu 473-477 Yuanhui 473-477 Prince Cangwu
Emperor Shun of Liu Song Liu Zhun 477-479 Shengming 477-479 Emperor Shun

Southern Qi () (479-502 AD)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name
Emperor Gao of Southern Qi Xiao Daocheng 479-482 Jianyuan 479-482 Emperor Gao
Emperor Wu of Southern Qi Xiao Ze 482-493 Yongming 483-493 Emperor Wu
Xiao Zhaoye Xiao Zhaoye 493-494 Longchang 494 -
Xiao Zhaowen Xiao Zhaowen 494 Yanxing 494 Prince Gong
Emperor Ming of Southern Qi Xiao Luan 494-498 Jianwu 494-498 Emperor Ming
Yongtai 498
Xiao Baojuan Xiao Baojuan 499-501 Yongyuan 499-501 Marquess Yang
Emperor He of Southern Qi Xiao Baorong 501-502 Zhongxing 501-502 Emperor He

Liang dynasty () (502-557 AD)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name
Emperor Wu of Liang Xiao Yan 502-549 Tianjian 502-519 Emperor Wu
Putong 520-527
Datong 527-529
Zhongdatong 529-534
Datong 535-546
Zhongdatong 546-547
Taiqing 547-549
Emperor Jianwen of Liang Xiao Gang 549-551 Dabao 550-551 Emperor Jianwen ?
Xiao Dong Xiao Dong 551-552 Tianzheng 551-552 -
Emperor Yuan of Liang Xiao Yi 552-555 Chengsheng 552-555 Emperor Xiaoyuan ?
Xiao Yuanming Xiao Yuanming 555 Tiancheng 555 Emperor Min
Emperor Jing of Liang Xiao Fangzhi 555-557 Shaotai 555-556 Emperor Jing
Taiping 556-557
Western Liang () (555-587 AD)
Emperor Xuan of Western Liang Xiao Cha 555-562 Dading 555-562 Emperor Xuan
Emperor Ming of Western Liang Xiao Kui 562-585 Tianbao 562-585 Emperor Xiaoming ?
Emperor Jing of Western Liang Xiao Cong 585-587 Guangyun 562-585 Emperor Xiaojing ?

Chen dynasty () (557-589 AD)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name
Emperor Wu of Chen Chen Baxian 557-559 Yongding 557-559 Emperor Wu
Emperor Wen of Chen Chen Qian 559-566 Tianjia 560-566 Emperor Wen
Tiankang 566
Emperor Fei of Chen Chen Bozong 566-568 Guangda 566-568 -
Emperor Xuan of Chen Chen Xu 569-582 Taijian 569-582 Emperor Xiaoxuan ?
Chen Shubao Chen Shubao 583-589 Zhide 583-586 -
Zhenming 587-589

Sui dynasty () (581-619 AD)

Chinese convention: use "Sui" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (and lifespan) Posthumous name
Emperor Wen of Sui Yáng Ji?n 4 March 581 - 13 August 604 AD K?ihuáng Emperor Wen
Rénshòu 21 July 541 - 13 August 604
Emperor Yang of Sui Yáng Gu?ng 605-617 Dàyè 605-617 Emperor Yang
Yang You1 Yáng Yòu 617-618 Yìníng 617-618 Emperor Gong
Yang Hao2 Yáng Hào 618 Huángtài 618-619 -
Yang Tong3 Yáng Tóng 618-619 Emperor Gong

1 -- Declared emperor by Li Yuan (the later Emperor Gaozu of Tang), implying a retirement for Emperor Yang (whom he "honoured" as Taishang Huang, or retired emperor) at the western capital Daxing (Chang'an), but only the commanderies under Li's control recognized this change; for the other commanderies under Sui control, Emperor Yang was still regarded as emperor, not as retired emperor. Now generally regarded as a legitimate emperor, due to his recognition by Li Yuan.

2 -- Declared emperor by Yuwen Huaji, the general under whose leadership the plot to kill Emperor Yang was carried out, but killed by him later in 618; Yuwen Huaji then declared himself emperor of a brief Xu (?) state. As Yang Hao was completely under Yuwen's control and only "reigned" briefly, he is not usually regarded as a legitimate emperor.

3 -- After news of Emperor Yang's death in 618 reached Daxing and the eastern capital Luoyang, Li Yuan deposed Emperor Gong and took the throne himself, establishing Tang dynasty, but the Sui officials at Luoyang declared Emperor Gong's brother Yang Tong (later also known as Emperor Gong) emperor. The legitimacy of his reign is disputed.

Tang dynasty () (618-690 AD, 705-907 AD)

Chinese convention: use "Tang" + temple name (except for Emperor Shang and Emperor Ai; Emperor Xuanzong () is sometimes referred as Emperor Ming of Tang Dynasty ())

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (and the corresponding range of years) Posthumous name Temple name (Miao Hao )
Emperor Gaozu of Tang L? Yu?n 618-626 Wude 618-626 Emperor Shenyao Dasheng Daguang Xiao Gaozu
Emperor Taizong of Tang L? Shìmín 627-649 Zhenguan 627-649 Emperor Wenwu Dasheng Daguang Xiao Taizong
Emperor Gaozong of Tang L? Zhì 650-683 Yonghui 650-655 Emperor Tianhuang Dasheng Dahong Xiao Gaozong
Xianqing 656-661
Longshuo 661-663
Linde 664-665
Qianfeng 666-668
Zongzhang 668-670
Xianheng 670-674
Shangyuan 674-676
Yifeng 676-679
Tiaolu 679-680
Yonglong 680-681
Kaiyao 681-682
Yongchun 682-683
Hongdao 683
Emperor Zhongzong of China Li Xian

or

Li Zhe

or

684

and

705-710

Sisheng 684 Emperor Dahe Dasheng Dazhao Xiao Zhongzong
Shenlong 705-707
Jinglong 707-710
Emperor Ruizong of Tang Li Dan 684-690

and

710-712

Wenming 684-690 Emperor Xuanzhen Dasheng Daxing Xiao Ruizong
Jingyun 710-711
Taiji 712
Yanhe 712
Interregnum (690-705)
Emperor Shang of Tang Li Chongmao 710 Tanglong 710 Emperor Shang -
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Li Longji 712-756 Xiantian 712-713 Emperor Zhidao Dasheng Daming Xiao Xuanzong
Kaiyuan 713-741
Tianbao 742-756
Emperor Suzong of Tang Li Heng 756-762 Jide 756-758 Emperor Wenming Wude Dasheng Daxuan Xiao Suzong
Qianyuan 758-760
Shangyuan 760-761
Emperor Daizong of Tang Li Yu 762-779 Baoying 762-763 Emperor Ruiwen Xiaowu Daizong
Guangde 763-764
Yongtai 765-766
Dali 766-779
Emperor Dezong of Tang Li Gua 780-805 Jianzhong 780-783 Emperor Shenwu Xiaowen Dezong
Xingyuan 784
Zhenyuan 785-805
Emperor Shunzong of Tang Li Song 805 Yongzhen 805 Emperor Zhide Hongdao Dasheng Da'an Xiao Shunzong
Emperor Xianzong of Tang Li Chun 806-820 Yuanhe 806-820 Emperor Zhaowen Zhangwu Dasheng Zhishen Xiao Xianzong
Emperor Muzong of Tang Li Heng 821-824 Changqing 821-824 Emperor Ruisheng Wenhui Xiao ? Muzong
Emperor Jingzong of Tang Li Zhan 824-826 Baoli 824-826 Emperor Ruiwu Zhaomin Xiao ? Jingzong
Emperor Wenzong of Tang Li Ang 826-840 Emperor Yuansheng Zhaoxian Xiao ? Wenzong
Dahe

or

Taihe

or

827-835
Kaicheng 836-840
Emperor Wuzong of Tang Li Yan 840-846 Huichang 841-846 Emperor Zhidao Zhaosu Xiao ? Wuzong
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Li Chen 846-859 Dachong 847-859 Emperor Yuansheng Zhiming Chengwu Xianwen Ruizhi Zhangren Shencong Yidao Daxiao Xuanzong
Emperor Yizong of Tang Li Cui 859-873 Emperor Zhaosheng Gonghui Xiao ? Yizong
Xiantong 860-874
Emperor Xizong of Tang Li Xuan 873-888 Emperor Huisheng Gongding Xiao ? Xizong
Qianfu 874-879
Guangming 880-881
Zhonghe 881-885
Guangqi 885-888
Wende 888
Emperor Zhaozong of Tang Li Ye 888-904 Longji 889 Emperor Shengmu Jingwen Xiao ? Zhaozong
Dashun 890-891
Jingfu 892-893
Qianning 894-898
Guanghua 898-901
Tianfu 901-904
Tianyou 904
Emperor Ai of Tang Li Zhu 904-907 Tianyou 904-907 Emperor Ai
or
Emperor Zhaoxuan Guanglie Xiao

or
?
Jingzong

Wu Zhou () (690-705 AD)

Name by which most commonly known Personal Name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Regnal name (Zun Hao ) Posthumous name Temple name
Wu Zetian W? Zhào 690-705 Tianshou 690-692 Empress Regnant Tiance Jinlun Shengshen Empress Consort Zetian Shunsheng1 1 -
Ruyi 692
Changshou 692-694
Yanzai 694
Zhengsheng 695
Tiancewansui ? 695-696
Wansuidengfeng ? 696
Wansuitongtian ? 696-697
Shengong 697
Shengli 698-700
Jiushi 700
Dazu 701
Chang'an 701-705
1 -- While Wu Zetian was empress regnant from 690 to 705, she was posthumously honored as empress consort of the Emperor Gaozong of Tang.

Huang Qi () (881-884 AD)

Name by which most commonly known Personal Name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Temple name
Huang Chao Huang Chao 881-884 Wángbà 878-880 -
J?nt?ng 881-884

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (?) (907-979 AD)

Five Dynasties () (907-960 AD)

Chinese convention: name of dynasty + temple name or posthumous name

Later Liang () (907-923 AD)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name Era names and their corresponding range of years Temple name
Zh? W?n 907-912 Emperor Shenwu Yuansheng Xiao ? Ka?píng 907-911 Taizu
Qiánhuà 911-912
Zhu Yougui 912-913 - Qiánhuà 912-913 -
Fengli 913
Zh? Zhèn 913-923 - Qiánhuà 913-915 -
Zh?nmíng 915-921
Lóngdé 921-923

Later Tang () (923-937 AD)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name Era names and their corresponding range of years Temple name
L? Cúnxù 923-926 Emperor Guangsheng Shenmin Xiao ? Tongguang 923-926 Zhuangzong
L? Sìyuán

or

L? D?n

or

926-933 Emperor Shengde Hewu Qinxiao Tiancheng 926-930 Mingzong
Changxing 930-933
L? Cónghòu 933-934 Emperor Min Yingshun 933-934 -
L? Cóngk? 934-937 - Qingtai 934-936 -

Later Jin () (936-947 AD)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name Era names and their corresponding range of years Temple name
Shi Jingtang 936-942 Emperor Shengwen Zhangwu Mingde Xiao Tianfu 936-944 Gaozu
Shi Chonggui 942-947 Emperor Chu -
Kaiyun 944-947

Later Han () (947-951 AD)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name Era names and their corresponding range of years Temple name
Liu Zhiyuan 947-948 Emperor Ruiwen Shengwu Zhaosu Xiao Tianfu 947 Gaozu
Liu Chengyou 948-951 Emperor Yin Qianyou 948-951 -

Later Zhou () (951-960 AD)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name Era names and their corresponding range of years Temple name
Guo Wei 951-954 Emperor Shengshen Gongsu Wenwu Xiao Guangshun 951-954 Taizu
Chai Rong 954-959 Emperor Ruiwu Xiaowen Xiande 954-960 Shizong
Chai Zongxun 959-960 Emperor Gong -

Ten Kingdoms () (907-979 AD)

Chinese convention: use personal names, noted otherwise

Former Shu () (907-925 AD)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name Era names and their corresponding range of years Temple name
Wang Jian 907-918 Emperor Shenwu Shengwen Xiaode Minghui ? Tianfu 907 Gaozu
Wucheng 908-910
Yongping 911-915
Tongzheng 916
Tianhan 917
Guangtian 918
Wang Zongyan 918-925 - Qiande 918-925 -
Xiankang 925

Yang Wu () (907-937 AD)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name Era names and their corresponding range of years Temple name
Yang Xingmi 904-905 Emperor Wu Tianyou 904-919 Taizu
Yang Wo 905-908 Emperor Jing Liezong
Yang Longyan 908-921 Emperor Xuan Gaozu
Wuyi 919-921
Yang Pu 921-937 Emperor Rui Shunyi 921-927 -
Qianzhen 927-929
Dahe 929-935
Tianzuo 935-937

Ma Chu () (907-951 AD)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name Era names and their corresponding range of years Temple name
Ma Yin 897-930 King Wumu - -
Ma Xisheng 930-932 - - -
Ma Xifan 932-947 King Wenzhao - -
Ma Xiguang 947-950 - - -
Ma Xi'e 950 King Gongxiao - -
Ma Xichong 950-951 - - -

Wuyue () (907-978 AD)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name Era names and their corresponding range of years Temple name
Qian Liu 904-932 King Wusu Tianbao 908-923 Taizu
Baoda 923-925
Baozheng 925-932
Qian Yuanguan 932-941 King Wenmu - Shizong
Qian Hongzuo 941-947 King Zhongxian - Chengzong
Qian Hongzong 947 King Zhongxun - -
Qian Chu (Qian Hongchu) () 947-978 King Zhongyi - -

Min (?) (909-945 AD) & Yin (?) (943-945 AD)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name Era names and their corresponding range of years Temple name
Wang Shenzhi 909-925 Emperor Zhaowu Xiao - Taizu
Wang Yanhan 925-926 - - -
Wang Yanjun 926-935 Emperor Qisu Mingxiao Longqi 933-935 Huizong
Yonghe 935
Wang Jipeng 935-939 Emperor Shengshen Yingrui Wenming Guangwu Yingdao Dahong Xiao Tongwen 936-939 Kangzong
Wang Yanxi 939-944 Emperor Ruiwen Guangwu Mingsheng Yuande Longdao Daxiao Yonglong 939-944 Jingzong
Wang Yanzheng 943-945 Prince Gongyi Tiande 943-945 -

Southern Han () (917-971 AD)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name Era names and their corresponding range of years Temple name
Liú Yán
or
Liú Y?n

or

917-925 Emperor Tianhuang Da ? Qiánh?ng 917-925 Gaozu
Báilóng 925-928
Dày?u 928-941
Liú B?n 941-943 Emperor Shang Gu?ngti?n 941-943 -
Liú Shèng 943-958 Emperor Wenwu Guangsheng Mingxiao Yìngqián 943 Zhongzong
Qiánhé 943-958
Liú Ch?ng 958-971 - Dàb?o 958-971 -

Jingnan () (924-963 AD)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name Era names and their corresponding range of years Temple name
Gao Jixing 909-928 King Wuxin - -
Gao Conghui 928-948 King Wenxian - -
Gao Baorong 948-960 King Zhenyi - -
Gao Baoxu 960-962 - - -
Gao Jichong 962-963 - - -

Later Shu () (934-965 AD)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name Era names and their corresponding range of years Temple name
Meng Zhixiang 934 Emperor Wenwu Shengde Yinglie Mingxiao ? Mingde 934-938 Gaozu
Meng Chang 938-965 Prince Gongxiao Guangzheng 938-965 -

Southern Tang () (937-976 AD)

Chinese convention for this dynasty only: Use Nan (Southern) Tang + "Qianzhu" (lit. "first lord"), "Zhongzhu" (lit. "middle lord") or "Houzhu" (lit. "last lord").

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name Era names and their corresponding range of years Temple name
Li Bian 937-943 Emperor Guangwen Suwu Xiaogao Shengyuan 937-943 Liezu
Li Jing 943-961 Emperor Mingdao Chongde Wenxuan Xiao Baoda 943-958 Yuanzong
Jiaotai 958
Zhongxing 958
Li Yu 961-976 - - -

Northern Han () (951-979 AD)

Personal Name Reign Posthumous name Era names and their corresponding range of years Temple name
Liu Min 951-954 Emperor Shenwu ? Qianyou 951-957 Shizu
Liu Chengjun 954-968 Emperor Xiaohe ? Ruizong
Tianhui 957-968
Liu Ji'en 970 - - -
Liu Jiyuan 970-982 Emperor Yingwu ? Guangyun 970-982 -

Independent regimes during Ten Kingdoms

(local independent regimes during Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period traditionally not counted in the Ten Kingdoms)

Qingyuan Jiedushi () (949-978 AD)

Personal name Name of posts Period on post
Liu Congxiao Commander-in-Chief of Quanzhang 945-962
Liu Shaozi Regent of Quanzhang ? 962
Zhang Hansi Military Commissioner of Quanzhang 962-963
Chen Hongjin 963-978

Wuping Jiedushi () (950-963 AD)

Personal name Name of posts Period on post
Liu Yan Military Commissioner of Wuping 950-953
Wang Kui

or

Wang Jinkui

or

953-956
Zhou Xingfeng Military Commissioner of Hunan 956-962
Zhou Baoquan 962-963

Liao dynasty () (916-1125 AD)

Chinese convention: use "Liao" + temple name except Liao Tianzuodi who is referred using "Liao" + regnal name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Posthumous name Era names (and their corresponding range of years) Temple name
Emperor Taizu of Liao Y?l? ?b?oj? 916-926 Emperor Dasheng Daming Shenlie Tian Shence 916-922 Taizu
Tianzan 922-926
Tianxian 926
Emperor Taizong of Liao Y?l? Dégu?ng ? 926-947 Emperor Xiaowu Huiwen Tianxian 927-938 Taizong
Huitong 938-947
Datong 947
Emperor Shizong of Liao Y?l? Ru?n 947-951 Emperor Xiaohe Zhuangxian Tianlu 947-951 Shizong
Emperor Muzong of Liao Y?l? J?ng 951-969 Emperor Xiao'an Jingzheng Yingli 951-969 Muzong
Emperor Jingzong of Liao Y?l? Xián 969-982 Emperor Xiaocheng Kangjing Baoning 969-979 Jingzong
Qianheng 979-982
Emperor Shengzong of Liao Y?l? Lóngxù ? 982-1031 Emperor Wenwu Daxiao Xuan ? Qianheng 982 Shengzong
Tonghe 983-1012
Kaitai 1012-1021
Taiping 1021-1031
Emperor Xingzong Liao Y?l? Z?ngzh?n ? 1031-1055 Emperor Shensheng Xiaozhang Jingfu 1031-1032 Xingzong
Chongxi 1032-1055
Emperor Daozong of Liao Y?l? Hóngj? ? 1055-1101 Emperor Rensheng Daxiao Wen ? Qingning 1055-1064 Daozong
Xianyong 1065-1074
Taikang

or

Dakang

or

1075-1084
Da'an 1085-1094
Shouchang

or

Shoulong

or

1095-1101
Emperor Tianzuo of Liao1 Y?l? Yánx? ? 1101-1125 - Qiantong 1101-1110 -
Tianqing 1111-1120
Baoda 1121-1125
1 -- "Emperor Tianzuo" was the regnal name () of Yelü Yanxi.

Northern Liao () (1122-1123 AD)

Chinese convention: use personal name or "Northern Liao" + temple name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Posthumous name Era names (and their corresponding range of years) Temple name
Yelü Chun Yelü Chun 1122 Emperor Xiaozhang ? Jianfu 1122 Xuanzong
Xiao Puxiannü
(regent)
Xiao Puxiannü ? 1122-1123 - Dexing 1122-1123 -

Western Liao () (1124-1218 AD)

Chinese convention: use personal name or "Western Liao" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Posthumous name Era names (and their corresponding range of years) Temple name
Yelü Dashi Y?l? Dàshí

or

Y?l? Dáshí1

?

or

?

1124-1144 Emperor Tianyou Wulie Yanqing 1124 or 1125-1134 Dezong
Kangguo 1134-1144
Xiao Tabuyan
(regent)
Xi?o T?bùy?n ? 1144-1150 Empress Consort Gantian ? Xianqing 1144-1150 -
Yelü Yilie Y?l? Yíliè ? 1150-1164 - Shaoxing

or

Xuxing2

or

1150-1164 Renzong
Yelü Pusuwan
(regent)
Y?l? P?sùwán 1164-1178 Empress Dowager Chengtian ? Chongfu ( Chóngfú) 1164-1178 1164-1178 -
Yelü Zhilugu Y?l? Zhíl?g? 1178-1211 - Tianxi ( Ti?nx?) 1178-1218 1178-1218 -
Kuchlug Q?ch?l? 1211-1218 - - -
1 -- "Dashi" might be the Chinese title "Taishi", meaning "vizier"; or, it could mean "Stone" in Turkish, as the Chinese transliteration suggests.

2 -- Recently discovered Western Liao coins have the era name "Xuxing", suggesting that the era name "Shaoxing" recorded in Chinese sources may be incorrect.[1]

Dongdan () (926-952 AD)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Posthumous name Era names (and their corresponding range of years) Temple name
Yelü Bei Yelü Bei 926-930 Emperor Wenxian Qinyi Ganlu 926-936 Yizong
Empress Consort Duanshun Lady Xiao
(name unknown)
(regent)
930-940 Empress Consort Duanshun ? -
Emperor Shizong of Liao
(same person as the third Liao emperor)
Yelü Ruan 940-947 Emperor Xiaohe Zhuangxian - -
Yelü Anduan Yelü Anduan ? 947-952 - - -

Song dynasty () (960-1279 AD)

Chinese convention: use "Song" + temple name or posthumous name (except last emperor who was revered as Song Di Bing ( Sòng Dì B?ng))

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Posthumous name Era names and their corresponding range of years Temple name
Northern Song () (960-1127 AD)
Emperor Taizu of Song Zhao Kuangyin 960-976 Emperor Qiyun Liji Yingwu Ruiwen Shende Shenggong Zhiming Daxiao Jianlong 960-963 Taizu
Qiande 963-968
Kaibao 968-976
Emperor Taizong of Song Zhao Kuangyi

or Zhao Guangyi

or

Zhao Jiong

or

or

976-997 Emperor Zhiren Yingdao Shengong Shengde Wenwu Ruilie Daming Guangxiao Taipingxingguo ? 976-984 Taizong
Yongxi 984-987
Duangong 988-989
Chunhua 990-994
Zhidao 995-997
Emperor Zhenzong of Song Zhao Heng 997-1022 Emperor Yingfu Jigu Shengong Rangde Wenming Wuding Zhangsheng Yuanxiao Xianping 998-1003 Zhenzong
Jingde 1004-1007
Dazhongxiangfu ? 1008-1016
Tianxi 1017-1021
Qianxing 1022
Emperor Renzong of Song Zhao Zhen 1022-1063 Emperor Titian Fadao Jigong Quande Shenwen Shengwu Ruizhe Mingxiao Tiansheng 1023-1032 Renzong
Mingdao 1032-1033
Jingyou 1034-1038
Baoyuan 1038-1040
Kangding 1040-1041
Qingli 1041-1048
Huangyou 1049-1054
Zhihe 1054-1056
Jiayou 1056-1063
Emperor Yingzong of Song Zhao Shu 1063-1067 Emperor Tiqian Yingli Longgong Shengde Xianwen Suwu Ruisheng Xuanxiao Zhiping 1064-1067 Yingzong
Emperor Shenzong of Song Zhao Xu 1067-1085 Emperor Tiyuan Xiandao Fagu Lixian Dide Wanggong Yingwen Liewu Qinren Shengxiao ? Xining 1068-1077 Shenzong
Yuanfeng 1078-1085
Emperor Zhezong of Song Zhao Xu 1085-1100 Emperor Xianyuan Jidao Shede Yanggong Qinwen Ruiwu Qisheng Zhaoxiao Yuanyou 1086-1094 Zhezong
Shaosheng 1094-1098
Yuanfu 1098-1100
Emperor Huizong of Song Zhao Ji 1100-1125 Emperor Tishen Hedao Junlie Xungong Shengwen Rende Cixian Xianxiao Jianzhongjingguo ? 1101 Huizong
Chongning 1102-1106
Daguan 1107-1110
Zhenghe 1111-1118
Chonghe 1118-1119
Xuanhe 1119-1125
Emperor Qinzong of Song Zhao Huan 1126-1127 Emperor Gongwen Shunde Renxiao Jingkang 1125-1127 Qinzong
Southern Song () (1127-1279 AD)
Emperor Gaozong of Song Zhao Gou 1127-1162 Emperor Shouming Zhongxing Quangong Zhide Shengshen Wuwen Zhaoren Xianxiao Jianyan 1127-1130 Gaozong
Shaoxing 1131-1162
Emperor Xiaozong of Song Zhao Shen 1162-1189 Emperor Shaotong Tongdao Guande Zhaogong Zhewen Shenwu Mingsheng Chengxiao Longxing 1163-1164 Xiaozong
Qiandao 1165-1173
Chunxi 1174-1189
Emperor Guangzong of Song Zhao Dun 1189-1194 Emperor Xundao Xianren Minggong Maode Wenwen Shunwu Shengzhe Cixiao Shaoxi 1190-1194 Guangzong
Emperor Ningzong of Song Zhao Kuo 1194-1224 Emperor Fatian Beidao Chunde Maogong Renwen Zhewu Shengrui Gongxiao Qingyuan 1195-1200 Ningzong
Jiatai 1201-1204
Kaixi 1205-1207
Jiading 1208-1224
Emperor Lizong of Song Zhao Yun 1224-1264 Emperor Jiandao Beide Dagong Fuxing Liewen Renwu Shengming Anxiao Baoqing 1225-1227 Lizong
Shaoding 1228-1233
Duanping 1234-1236
Jiaxi 1237-1240
Chunyou 1241-1252
Baoyou 1253-1258
Kaiqing 1259
Jingding 1260-1264
Emperor Duzong of Song Zhao Qi 1264-1274 Emperor Duanwen Mingwu Jingxiao Xianchun 1265-1274 Duzong
Emperor Gong of Song Zhao Xian 1274-1276 - Deyou 1275-1276 -
Emperor Duanzong of Song Zhao Shi 1276-1278 Emperor Yuwen Zhaowu Minxiao Jingyan 1276-1278 Duanzong
Zhao Bing Zhao Bing 1278-1279 - Xiangxing 1278-1279 -

Dali Kingdom () (937-1094 AD, 1096-1253 AD)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Posthumous name Era names (and their corresponding range of years) Temple name
Former Dali () (937-1094 AD)
Duan Siping Duan Siping 937-944 Emperor Shengshen Wenwu Wende 938-? Taizu
Shenwu ?-944
Duan Siying Duan Siying 944-945 - Wenjing 945 -
Duan Siliang Duan Siliang 945-952 Emperor Shengci Wenwu Zhizhi 946-951 -
Duan Sicong Duan Sicong 952-968 Emperor Zhidao Guangci Mingde 952-? -
Guangde ?-967
Shunde 968
Duan Sushun Duan Sushun 968-985 Emperor Yingdao ? Mingzheng 969-985 -
Duan Suying Duan Suying 985-1009 Emperor Zhaoming ? Guangming 986-? -
Mingying ?
Mingtong ?
Mingsheng ?
Mingzhi ?
Duan Sulian Duan Sulian 1009-1022 Emperor Xuansu ? Mingqi 1010-1022 -
Duan Sulong Duan Sulong 1022-1026 Emperor Bingyi ? Mingtong 1023-1026 -
Duan Suzhen Duan Suzhen 1026-1041 Emperor Shengde ? Zhengzhi 1027-1041 -
Duan Suxing Duan Suxing 1041-1044 - Shengming 1042-? -
Tianming ?-1044
Duan Silian Duan Silian 1044-1075 Emperor Xiaode ? Bao'an 1045-1052 Xingzong
Zheng'an 1053-?
Zhengde ?
Baode ?-1074
Minghou ?
Duan Lianyi Duan Lianyi 1075-1080 - Shangde 1076 -
Duan Shouhui Duan Shouhui 1080-1081 - Shangming 1081 -
Duan Zhengming Duan Zhengming 1081-1094 Emperor Baoding ? Baoli 1082 -
Jian'an 1083-1091
Tianyou 1091-1094
Later Dali () (1096-1253 AD)
Duan Zhengchun Duan Zhengchun 1096-1108 Emperor Wen'an ? Tianshou 1096 Zhongzong
Mingkai 1097-1103
Tianzheng 1103-1104
Wen'an 1104-1108
Duan Zhengyan Duan Zhengyan 1108-1147 Emperor Xuanren ? Rixin 1109-1110 Xianzong
Wenzhi 1110-?
Yongjia ?-1128
Baotian 1129-1137
Guangyun 1138-1147
Duan Zhengxing Duan Zhengxing 1147-1171 Emperor Zhengkang ? Yongzhen 1148 Jingzong
Dabao 1149-1156
Longxing 1157-1161
Shengming 1162-?
Jiande ?-1171
Duan Zhixing Duan Zhixing 1171-1200 Emperor Gongji ? Lizhen 1172-1174 Xuanzong
Shengde 1176-1180
Jiahui 1181-1184
Yuanheng 1185-1195
Ding'an 1195-1200
Duan Zhilian Duan Zhilian 1200-1204 Emperor Hengtian ? Fengli 1200-? Yingzong
Yuanshou ?-1204
Duan Zhixiang Duan Zhixiang 1204-1238 - Tiankai 1205-1225 Shenzong
Tianfu 1226
Tianshou 1227-1238
Duan Xiangxing Duan Xiangxing 1238-1251 Emperor Xiaoyi ? Daolong 1239-1251 -
Duan Xingzhi Duan Xingzhi 1251-1254 - Tianding 1251-1254 -

Western Xia () (1038-1227 AD)

Chinese convention: use "Western Xia" + temple name (or use personal name)

The Tangut names for about half of the Western Xia eras are known from Tangut texts or monumental inscriptions, or from Western Xia coins.

Name by which most commonly known Personal Name Reign Posthumous name Era names and their corresponding range of years Temple name
Emperor J?ngz?ng of Western Xia L? Yuánhào 1032-1048 Emperor W?liè ? Xi?ndào 1032-1034 J?ngz?ng
K?iyùn 1034
Gu?ngpíng 1035-1036
Dàqìng 1036-1038
Ti?nshòul?f?yánzuò 1038-1048
Emperor Yìz?ng of Western Xia L? Liàngzuò 1048-1067 Emperor Zh?oy?ng ? Yánsìníngguó ? 1048-1049 Yìz?ng
Ti?nyòuchuíshèng ? 1050-1052
Fúshèngchéngdào ? 1053-1056
Du?d? 1057-1063
G?nghuà 1063-1067
Emperor Huìz?ng of Western Xia L? B?ngcháng 1067-1086 Emperor K?ngjìng ? Qiándào 1067-1069 Huìz?ng
Ti?ncìl?shèngguóqìng 1070-1074
Dà'?n
1075-1085
Ti?n'?nl?dìng ?
?
1085-1086
Emperor Chóngz?ng of Western Xia L? Qiánshùn 1086-1139 Emperor Shèngwén ? Ti?nyízhìpíng ? 1086-1089 Chóngz?ng
Ti?nyòumín'?n ?
?
1090-1097
Y?ng'?n 1098-1100
Zh?ngu?n
1101-1113
Y?ngníng
1114-1118
Yuándé
1119-1127
Zhèngdé
1127-1134
Dàdé
1135-1139
Emperor Rénz?ng of Western Xia L? Rénxiào 1139-1193 Emperor Shengde ? Dàqìng
1139-1143 Rénz?ng
Rénqìng
1144-1148
Ti?nshèng
1149-1170
Qiányòu
1170-1193
Emperor Huánz?ng of Western Xia L? Chúnyòu 1193-1206 Emperor Zh?oji?n ? Ti?nqìng
1193-1206 Huánz?ng
Emperor Xi?ngz?ng of Western Xia L? ?nquán 1206-1211 Emperor Jingmu ? Y?ngti?n 1206-1209 Xi?ngz?ng
Huángjiàn
1210-1211
Emperor Shénz?ng of Western Xia L? Z?nx? 1211-1223 Emperor Y?ngwén ? Gu?ngdìng
1211-1223 Shénz?ng
Emperor Xiànz?ng of Western Xia L? Déwàng 1223-1226 Emperor Xiao'ai ? Qiándìng 1223-1226 Xiànz?ng
Emperor Mò of Western Xia L? Xiàn 1226-1227 - B?oyì 1226-1227 -

Jin dynasty () (1115-1234 AD)

Chinese convention: use "Jin" + temple name or posthumous name in Chinese

Jin dynasty 1115-1234
Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Emperor Taizu of Jin ?g?d?
or
Wányán M?n

or
1115-1123 Sh?uguó 1115-1116 Emperor Yingqian Xingyun Zhaode Dinggong Renming Zhuangxiao Dasheng Wuyuan Tàiz?
Ti?nf? 1117-1123
Emperor Taizong of Jin Wúq?m?i
or
Wányán Shèng

or
1123-1134 Ti?nhuì 1123-1134 Emperor Tiyuan Yingyun Shide Zhaogong Zhehui Rensheng Wenlie ? Tàiz?ng
Emperor Xizong of Jin Hélá
or
Wányán D?n

or
1135-1149 Ti?nhuì 1135-1138 Emperor Hongji Zuanwu Zhuangjing Xiaocheng ? X?z?ng
Ti?njuàn 1138-1141
Huángt?ng 1141-1149
Wanyan Liang Díg?n?i
or
Wányán Liàng

or
1149-1161 Ti?ndé 1149-1153 Prince Yáng -
Zhènyuán 1153-1156
Zhènglóng 1156-1161
Emperor Shizong of Jin W?lù
or
Wányán Y?ng

or
1161-1189 Dàdìng 1161-1189 Emperor Guangtian Xingyun Wende Wugong Shengming Renxiao Shìz?ng
Emperor Zhangzong of Jin Mádág?
or
Wányán J?ng

or
1190-1208 Míngch?ng 1190-1196 Emperor Xiantian Guangyun Renwen Yiwu Shensheng Yingxiao Zh?ngz?ng
Chéng'?n 1196-1200
Tàihé 1200-1208
Wanyan Yongji Wányán Y?ngjì ? 1209-1213 Dà'?n 1209-1212 Prince Shào -
Chóngqìng 1212-1213
Zhìníng 1213
Emperor Xuanzong of Jin Wúdúb?
or
Wányán Xú

or
1213-1223 Zh?nyòu 1213-1217 Emperor Jitian Xingtong Shudao Qinren Yingwu Shengxiao Xu?nz?ng
X?ngdìng 1217-1222
Yuángu?ng 1222-1223
Emperor Aizong of Jin Níngji?sù
or
Wányán Sh?uxù

or
?
1224-1234 Zhèngdà 1224-1232 Emperor Zhuang ?iz?ng
K?ix?ng 1232
Ti?nx?ng 1232-1234
Emperor Mo of Jin H?d?n
or
Wányán Chénglín

or
?
1234 - - -

Yuan dynasty () (1271-1368 AD)

Chinese convention: for rulers before Kublai Khan use given name (e.g. Temüjin) or Khan names, use "Yuan" + temple name or posthumous name after

Note:
1) The Mongol Great Khans before Khublai were only declared Yuan emperors after the creation of Yuan dynasty in 1271
2) To non-Chinese readers, usually the khan names are the most familiar names.
3) Timur or Temür means the same Mongolian words but Temür will be used for avoiding confusion with Timur the lame (Tamerlane).

Khan Name Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Regnal name (Zun Hao ) Posthumous name Temple name
Genghis Khan Borjigin Temüjin ? 1206-1227 - - Emperor Fatian Qiyun Shengwu Tàiz?
Tolui Borjigin Tolui 1228 - - Emperor Rensheng Jingxiang Ruìz?ng
Ögedei Khan Borjigin Ögedei ? 1229-1241 - - Emperor Yingwen ? Tàiz?ng
Güyük Khan Borjigin Güyük 1246-1248 - - Emperor Jianping ? Dìngz?ng
Möngke Khan Borjigin Möngke 1251-1259 - - Emperor Huansu ? Xiànz?ng
Kublai Khan Borjigin Kublai ? 1260-1294 Zh?ngt?ng 1260-1264 Emperor Xiantian Shudao Renwen Yiwu Daguang Xiao ? Emperor Shengde Shengong Wenwu Shìz?
Zhìyuán 1264-1294
Temür Khan Borjigin Temür ? 1294-1307 Yuánzh?n 1295-1297 - Emperor Qinming Guangxiao Chéngz?ng
1307-1308 Dàdé 1297-1307
Külüg Khan Borjigin Qayshan 1308-1311 Zhìdà 1308-1311 Emperor Tongtian Jisheng Qinwen Yingwu Dazhang Xiao ? Emperor Renhui Xuanxiao W?z?ng
Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan Borjigin Ayurparibhadra 1311-1320 Huángqìng 1312-1313 - Emperor Shengwen Qinxiao Rénz?ng
1320-1321 Yányòu 1314-1320
Gegeen Khan Borjigin Suddhipala 1321-1323 Zhìzhì 1321-1323 Emperor Jitian Tidao Jingwen Renwu Dazhao Xiao ? Emperor Ruisheng Wenxiao Y?ngz?ng
Yesün Temür1 Borjigin Yesün-Temür 1323-1328 Tàidìng 1324-1328 - - -
Zhìhé 1328
Ragibagh Khan1 Borjigin Arigaba 1328 Ti?nshùn 1328 - - -
Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür Borjigin Toq-Temür 1328-1329 and 1329-1332 Ti?nlì 1328-1330 Emperor Qintian Tongsheng Zhide Chenggong Dawen Xiao ? Emperor Shengming Yuanxiao Wénz?ng
Zhìshùn 1330-1332
Khutughtu Khan Kusala Borjigin Qoshila ? 1329 Emperor Shuntian Lidao Ruiwen Zhiwu Dasheng Xiao ? Emperor Yixian Jingxiao Míngz?ng
Rinchinbal Khan Borjigin Irinchibal 1332 - Emperor Chongsheng Sixiao Níngz?ng
Toghon Temür2 Borjigin Toghan-Temür 1333-1368 1333 - Emperor Xuanren Puxiao
or
Emperor Shun

or
Huìz?ng
Yuánt?ng 1333-1335
Zhìyuán 1335-1340
Zhìzhèng 1341-1368
Zhìyuán 1368-1370

1 -- Chinese convention: for these sovereigns only, use "Yuan" + era name (e.g. ? Yuán Tàidìng Dì).
2 -- Chinese convention: for this sovereign only, use "Yuan" + posthumous name.

Northern Yuan () (1368-1388 AD)

Retreat of the Yuan court to the Mongolian Plateau after being overthrown by the Ming dynasty in China proper in 1368 (1368 - early 15th century)

Convention: use khan names or birth names.

Khan Names Personal Name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Toghon Temür
(same person as the last Yuan emperor)
Borjigin Toghan-Temür 1368-1370 Zhìshùn 1333 Emperor Xuanren Puxiao
or
Emperor Shun

or
Huìz?ng
Yuánt?ng 1333-1335
Zhìyuán 1335-1340
Zhìzhèng 1341-1368
Zhìyuán 1368-1370
Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara Borjigin Ayushiridara ? 1370-1378 Xu?ngu?ng 1371-1378 Emperor Wucheng Hexiao Zh?oz?ng
Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür Borjigin Tögüs Temür ? 1378-1388 Ti?nyuán

or

Ti?ngu?ng1

or

1378-1388 Emperor Yisheng Ningxiao -
1 -- Recently discovered Northern Yuan coins have the era name "Tianguang", suggesting that the era name "Tianyuan" recorded in Chinese sources may be incorrect.[2]

Ming dynasty () (1368-1644 AD)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name1 (Shi Hao ) Temple name1 (Miao Hao )
Hongwu Emperor Zh? Yuánzh?ng 1368-1398 Hóngw? 1368-1398 Emperor Kaitian Xingdao Zhaoji Liji Dasheng Zhishen Renwen Yiwu Junde Chenggong Gao Tàiz?
Jianwen Emperor Zh? Y?nwén 1398-1402 Jiànwén 1398-1402 Emperor Sitian Zhangdao Chengyi Yuangong Guanwen Yangwu Keren Duxiao Rang ? Huizong2
Yongle Emperor Zh? Dì 1402-1424 Y?nglè 1402-1424 Emperor Qitian Hongdao Gaoming Zhaoyun Shengwu Shengong Chunren Zhixiao Wen ? Chéngz? or Tàiz?ng /
Hongxi Emperor Zh? G?ochì 1424-1425 Hóngx? 1424-1425 Emperor Jingtian Tidao Chuncheng Zhide Hongwen Qinwu Zhangsheng Daxiao Zhao ? Rénz?ng
Xuande Emperor Zh? Zh?nj? 1425-1435 Xu?ndé 1425-1435 Emperor Xiantian Chongdao Yingming Shensheng Qintian Zhaowu Kuanren Chunxiao Zhang ? Xu?nz?ng
Emperor Yingzong of Ming Zh? Qízhèn 1435-1449

and

1457-1464³

Zhèngt?ng

and

Ti?nshùn

and

1435-1449

and

1457-1464

Emperor Fatian Lidao Renming Chengjing Zhaowen Xianwu Zhide Guangxiao Rui ? Y?ngz?ng
Jingtai Emperor Zh? Qíyù 1449-1457 J?ngtài 1449-1457 Emperor Futian Jiandao Gongren Kangding Longwen Buwu Xiande Chongxiao Jing ? Dàiz?ng
Chenghua Emperor Zh? Jiànsh?n 1464-1487 Chénghuà 1464-1487 Emperor Jitian Ningdao Chengming Renjing Chongwen Suwu Hongde Shengxiao Chun ? Xiànz?ng
Hongzhi Emperor Zh? Yòuch?ng 1487-1505 Hóngzhì 1487-1505 Emperor Jiantian Mingdao Chengchun Zhongzheng Shengwen Shenwu Zhiren Dade Jing ? Xiàoz?ng
Zhengde Emperor Zh? Hòuzhào 1505-1521 Zhèngdé 1505-1521 Emperor Chengtian Dadao Yingsu Ruizhe Zhaode Xiangong Hongwen Sixiao Yi ? W?z?ng
Jiajing Emperor Zh? Hòuc?ng 1521-1566 Ji?jìng 1521-1566 Emperor Qintian Lüdao Yingyi Shensheng Xuanwen Guangwu Hongren Daxiao Su ? Shìz?ng
Longqing Emperor Zh? Z?ihòu 1566-1572 Lóngqìng 1566-1572 Emperor Qitian Longdao Yuanyi Kuanren Xianwen Guangwu Chunde Hongxiao Zhuang ? Mùz?ng
Wanli Emperor Zh? Yìj?n 1572-1620 Wànlì 1572-1620 Emperor Fantian Hedao Zhesu Dunjian Guangwen Zhangwu Anren Zhixiao Xian ? Shénz?ng
Taichang Emperor Zh? Chángluò 1620 Tàich?ng 1620 Emperor Chongtian Qidao Yingrui Gongchun Xianwen Jingwu Yuanren Yixiao Zhen ? Gu?ngz?ng
Tianqi Emperor Zh? Yóujiào 1620-1627 Ti?nq? 1620-1627 Emperor Datian Chandao Dunxiao Duyou Zhangwen Xiangwu Jingmu Zhuangqin Zhe ? X?z?ng
Chongzhen Emperor Zh? Yóuji?n 1627-1644 Chóngzh?n 1627-1644 Emperor Shaotian Yidao Gangming Kejian Kuiwen Fenwu Dunren Maoxiao Lie ? S?z?ng or Yìz?ng /
1 -- As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Ming, to avoid confusion. For example, the Hongwu emperor is frequently referred to as Ming Taizu.

2 -- The Yongle emperor assumed the throne of his nephew the Jianwen emperor, who was officially said to have died in a palace fire but who was suspected of escaping to live as a recluse. The Yongle emperor wiped out the record of his nephew's reign and no temple name was given him. In 1644 the Prince of Fu (), the new self-proclaimed emperor of the Southern Ming, conferred on Emperor Jianwen the temple name Huizong.

3 -- After listening to the poor advice of his eunuch advisers, the Zhengtong Emperor personally led a campaign in 1449 against the Mongols and was captured. His brother the Jingtai Emperor assumed the throne and as a hostage no longer of any value, the Mongols released the Zhengtong Emperor who returned to live in seclusion. However the Zhengtong Emperor was able to regain his position, choosing the reign name Tianshun.

Shun dynasty () (1644-1645 AD)

The Shun dynasty was an imperial dynasty created in the brief lapse from Ming to Qing rule in China. It was a state set up by the peasants' rebellion, in which they defeated the Ming forces, but former Ming general Wu Sangui led the Qing forces into Beijing and the Qing forces defeated the rebels.

Name most commonly known by Personal name Reign years Era names and their corresponding range of years Alternative title
Li Zicheng Li Zicheng 1644-1645 Yongchang 1644-1645 Chu?ng Wáng (The Dashing King)

Southern Ming () (1644-1662 AD)

The Southern Ming refers to the Ming loyalist regimes that existed in Southern China from 1644 to 1662. The regime was established by the princes of the already destroyed Ming dynasty. All of these monarchs had their regimes crushed by the Qing forces very quickly. Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong) used the Ming dynasty's name and gathered forces before fleeing to Taiwan.

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Zhu Yousong Zh? Yóus?ng 1644-1645 Hónggu?ng 1644-1645 Emperor Fengtian Zundao Kuanhe Jingmu Xiuwen Buwu Wengong Renxiao Jian ? ?nz?ng
Zhu Yujian Zh? Yùjiàn 1645-1646 Lóngw? 1645-1646 Emperor Peitian Zhidao Hongyi Sumu Siwen Liewu Minren Guangxiao Xiang ? Shàoz?ng
Zhu Changfang Zh? Chángf?ng 1645 None given, but sometimes referred to as the "Regency of the Prince of Lu/Luh"
(Lù Wáng Lín Guó)
? 1646 Prince Min -
Zhu Yihai Zh? Y?h?i 1645-1653 - -
Zhu Yuyue Zh? Yùyuè 1646 Shàow? 1646 - -
Zhu Youlang Zh? Yóuláng 1646-1662 Y?nglì 1646-1662 Emperor Yingtian Tuidao Minyi Gongjian Jingwen Weiwu Liren Kexiao Kuang ? Zh?oz?ng

*The two characters are homonyms, both pronounced Lu; to distinguish them, one is usually kept as Lu and the other spelled differently. Luh is from Cambridge History of China; Lou is from A.C. Moule's Rulers of China (1957). When one irregular spelling is used, the other is kept as regular (Lu). The two systems are distinct and not used simultaneously.

Qing dynasty () (1636-1912 AD)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name1 Reign Era names (and Lifespan) Posthumous name2 (Shi Hao ) Temple name2 (Miao Hao )
Later Jin () (1616-1636 AD)
Nurhaci Nurhaci ? 17 February 1616 - 30 September 1636 (20 years, 7 months, and 13 days)3 Ti?nmìng Abkai fulingga 1616-1626 Emperor Chengtian Guangyun Shengde Shengong Zhaoji Liji Renxiao Ruiwu Duanyi Qin'an Hongwen Dingye Gao Tàiz?
Huang Taiji Hong Taiji4 1626-1636 Ti?nc?ng Abkai sure 1627-1636 Emperor Yingtian Xingguo Hongde Zhangwu Kuanwen Rensheng Ruixiao Jingmin Zhaoding Longdao Xiangong Wen ? Tàiz?ng
Qing dynasty () (1636-1912 AD)
Huang Taiji
(same person as the last Later Jin khan)
Hong Taiji4 1636-1643 Chóngdé Wesihun erdemungge 1636-1643 Emperor Yingtian Xingguo Hongde Zhangwu Kuanwen Rensheng Ruixiao Jingmin Zhaoding Longdao Xiangong Wen ? Tàiz?ng
Shunzhi Emperor Fúlín 1643-16615 Shùnzhì Ijish?n dasan 1643-1661 Emperor Titian Longyun Dingtong Jianji Yingrui Qinwen Xianwu Dade Honggong Zhiren Chunxiao Zhang ? Shìz?
Kangxi Emperor Xuányè 1661-1722 K?ngx? Elhe taifin 1661-1722 Emperor Hetian Hongyun Wenwu Ruizhe Gongjian Kuanyu Xiaojing Chengxin Zhonghe Gongde Dacheng Ren ? Shèngz?
Yongzheng Emperor Yìnzh?n 1722-1735 Y?ngzhèng H?waliyasun tob 1722-1735 Emperor Jingtian Changyun Jianzhong Biaozheng Wenwu Yingming Kuanren Xinyi Ruisheng Daxiao Zhicheng Xian ? Shìz?ng
Qianlong Emperor Hónglì 1735-17966 Qiánlóng Abkai wehiyehe 1735-1796 Emperor Fatian Longyun Zhicheng Xianjue Tiyuan Liji Fuwen Fenwu Qinming Xiaoci Shensheng Chun ? G?oz?ng
Jiaqing Emperor Yóngy?n 1796-1820 Ji?qìng Saicungga feng?en 1796-1820 Emperor Shoutian Xingyun Fuhua Suiyou Chongwen Jingwu Guangyu Xiaogong Qinjian Duanmin Yingzhe Rui ? Rénz?ng
Daoguang Emperor Mínníng 1820-1850 Dàogu?ng Doro eldengge 1820-1850 Emperor Xiaotian Fuyun Lizhong Tizheng Zhiwen Shengwu Zhiyong Renci Jianqin Xiaomin Kuanding Cheng ? Xu?nz?ng
Xianfeng Emperor Yìzh? 1850-1861 Xiánf?ng Gubci elgiyengg 1850-1861 Emperor Xietian Yiyun Zhizhong Chuimo Maode Zhenwu Shengxiao Yuangong Duanren Kuanmin Zhuangjian Xian ? Wénz?ng
Tongzhi Emperor Z?ichún 1861-18757 Tóngzhì Yooningga dasan 1861-1875 Emperor Jitian Kaiyun Shouzhong Juzheng Baoda Dinggong Shengzhi Chengxiao Xinmin Gongkuan Mingsu Yi ? Mùz?ng
Guangxu Emperor Z?itián 1875-19087 Gu?ngxù Badarangga doro 1875-1908 Emperor Tongtian Chongyun Dahong Zhizheng Jingwen Weiwu Renxiao Ruizhi Duanjian Kuanqin Jing Déz?ng
Xuantong Emperor P?yí
(also known as Henry)
1908-1912, 191710 Xu?nt?ng Gehungge yoso 1908-1912 Emperor Peitian Tongyun Fagu Shaotong Cuiwen Jingfu Kuanrui Zhengmu Tiren Lixiao Min8, 9 8, 9 G?ngz?ng9 9

1 -- The Qing imperial family name was Aisin Gioro (? aixin jueluo), but it was not common Manchu practice to include the family or clan name in an individual's personal name.

2 -- As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Qing, to avoid confusion. For example, the Qianlong emperor is frequently referred to as Qing Gaozong.

3 -- Nurhaci founded the Jin (?) or Later Jin () dynasty in 1616, but it was his son Hong Taiji who changed the name of the dynasty to Qing in 1636. Nurhaci adopted the reign name Tianming but his Qing titles were all conferred posthumously.

4 -- Hong Taiji is referred to erroneously in some historical literature as Abahai ().

5 -- The Shunzhi emperor was the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper following the occupation of Beijing in 1644.

6 -- The Qianlong emperor officially retired in 1796, taking the title Emperor Emeritus (?). This was an act of filial piety to ensure that he would not reign longer than his illustrious grandfather, the Kangxi emperor. However, he remained the ultimate authority until his death in 1799, at which point his son, the Jiaqing emperor, began to exercise the power that had been his in name only from 1796.

7 -- The Empress Dowager Cixi, concubine of the Xianfeng emperor, mother of the Tongzhi emperor, and adoptive mother of the Guangxu emperor, used her considerable skills of political manipulation to act as the power behind the throne or on the throne from 1861 until her death in 1908. She acted as a regent during the minorities of the two young emperors and confined the Guangxu emperor in the Summer Palace after he attempted to introduce reforms in 1898. The death of the Guangxu emperor was announced the day before her own.

8 -- Xundi ("The Abdicated Emperor") is the common name by which mainland China and Taiwan's history books refer to Puyi.

9 -- In 2004 the descendants of the Qing imperial family have conferred a posthumous name and temple name upon the late Puyi. Posthumous name: Emperor Min (). Temple name: Gongzong (). Both titles are not commonly used in academia to refer to this sovereign.

10 -- The Xinhai Revolution started on October 10, 1911. The last emperor, Puyi, abdicated officially on February 12, 1912. The Qing dynasty was overthrown with his abdication on that day. However, that same day the Chinese Republic granted the "Articles of Favourable Treatment of the Emperor of the Great Qing after his Abdication" () which allowed Puyi to retain his imperial title and stated that he should be treated by the government of the Republic of China with the protocol attached to a foreign monarch. These articles were revised on November 5, 1924, after the coup by General Feng Yuxiang: the revised articles stated that Puyi was losing his imperial title and henceforth becoming a regular citizen of the Republic. Puyi was expelled from the Forbidden City that same day. Thus, Puyi was ruling emperor until February 12, 1912 (and also briefly between July 1 and July 12, 1917 in the Manchu Restoration), and non-ruling emperor between February 12, 1912 and November 5, 1924. Puyi also later became the puppet leader of Japanese-controlled Manchukuo under the reign name Datong () (1932-1934), then the puppet emperor of Manchukuo under the reign name Kangde () (1934-1945).

Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (?) (1851-1864 AD)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era name (Nian Hao )
Hong Xiuquan Hong Xiuquan 11 January 1851 - 1 June 1864 Taiping Tianguo ?
Hong Tianguifu Hong Tianguifu ? 6 June 1864 - 18 November 1864

Empire of China (?) (1915-1916 AD)

A short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai who attempted to establish himself as emperor in 1915, but his rule was universally accepted as inauthentic. After 83 days, his reign ended.

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era name (Nian Hao )
Yuan Shikai Yuan Shikai 22 December 1915 - 22 March 1916 Hóngxiàn

See also

References

  1. ^ Belyaev, V.A.; Nastich, V.N.; Sidorovich, S.V. (2012). "The coinage of Qara Khitay: a new evidence (on the reign title of the Western Liao Emperor Yelü Yilie)". Proceedings of the 3rd Simone Assemani Symposium, September 23-24, 2011, Rome.
  2. ^ "_?_?".

External links


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