Liberalism in South Korea
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Liberalism in South Korea

This article gives an overview of liberalism in South Korea. It is limited to liberal parties with substantial support, mainly proven by having had a representation in parliament.

Introduction

Note: the word liberal in South Korea is often used in its traditional sense. In South Korea, conservatives also call themselves "liberal" and "liberal democracy"(Korean) in a similar sense to anti-communism.[1] Liberals in the general sense often refer to themselves as "democratic camps"(Korean?).[2] Liberals in the American sense of the term tend to label themselves as "rightist social democratic" or "progressive" instead.[3] (South Korea's "liberal" is a political force that distinguishes itself from "progressive.")

There has been a tradition of liberal parties since 1955, often organized around persons. Presently the Democratic Party of Korea is the main successor of the liberal parties' tradition.

South Korean liberals mainly criticize mainstream conservatives, clear their heritage during military dictatorship, insist on political reform, supports the policy of appeasing North Korea, form a liberal-nationalist camp hostile to Japan, and they are distinguished from progressives and cultural liberals. Therefore, South Korean liberals tend to be social conservative in LGBT rights, Disability rights, abortion and minority rights issues.

Liberal parties

In South Korea, South Korean's unique liberal and korean nationalist parties are often referred to as Minjudangkye parties. (Korean? ; Hanja; lit. Democratic-line political parties)[4][5][6]

The political party that once were ruling party are in bold.

Mainstream parties

Minor parties

Liberal presidents in South Korea

Major liberal parties election results of South Korea

Presidential elections

Election Candidate Total votes Share of votes Outcome Party Name
1952 Yi Si-yeong 764,715 10.9% Defeated Red XN Democratic National Party
1956 Shin Ik-hee 0 0.0% died before election Democratic Party (1955)
March 1960 Chough Pyung-ok 0 (electoral vote) 0.0% died before election Democratic Party (1955)
August 1960 Yun Bo-seon 208 (electoral vote) 82.2% Elected Green tickY Democratic Party (1955)
1963 Yun Bo-seon 4,546,614 45.1% Defeated Red XN Civil Rule Party
1967 Yun Bo-seon 4,526,541 40.9% Defeated Red XN New Democratic Party
1971 Kim Dae-jung 5,395,900 45.3% Defeated Red XN New Democratic Party
1981 Yu Chi-song 404 7.7% Defeated Red XN Democratic Korea Party
1987 Kim Dae-jung 6,113,375 27.0% Defeated Red XN Party for Peace and Democracy
1992 Kim Dae-jung 8,041,284 33.8% Defeated Red XN Democratic Party (1991)
1997 Kim Dae-jung 10,326,275 40.3% Elected Green tickY National Congress for New Politics
2002 Roh Moo-hyun 12,014,277 48.9% Elected Green tickY Millennium Democratic Party
2007 Chung Dong-young 6,174,681 26.1% Defeated Red XN United New Democratic Party
2012 Moon Jae-in 14,692,632 48.0% Defeated Red XN Democratic United Party
2017 Moon Jae-in 13,423,800 41.1% Elected Green tickY Democratic Party of Korea
Ahn Cheol-soo 6,998,342 21.41% Defeated Red XN People's Party

Legislative elections

Election Total seats won Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Status Election leader Party Name
1948
916,322 13.5% new 29 seats; Minority in opposition Kim Seong-su Korea Democratic Party
1950
683,910 9.8% new 24 seats; Minority in opposition Shin Ik-hee Democratic National Party
1954
593,499 7.9% Decrease9 seats; Minority in opposition Shin Ik-hee Democratic National Party
1958
2,914,049 34.0% new 79 seats; Minority in opposition Chough Pyung-ok Democratic Party (1955)
1960
3,786,401 41.7% Increase96 seats; Majority in government Chough Pyung-ok Democratic Party (1955)
1963
1,870,976 20.1% new 41 seats; Minority in opposition Yun Bo-seon Civil Rule Party
1,264,285 13.6% new 14 seats; Minority in opposition Park Soon-cheon Democratic Party (1963)
1967
3,554,224 32.7% new 45 seats; Minority in opposition Yu Jin-o New Democratic Party
1971
4,969,050 44.4% Increase44 seats; Minority in opposition Kim Hong-il New Democratic Party
1973
3,577,300 32.5% Decrease37 seats; Minority in opposition Yu Chin-san New Democratic Party
1978
4,861,204 32.8% Increase9 seats; Minority in opposition Yi Cheol-seung New Democratic Party
1981
3,495,829 21.6% new 81 seats; Minority in opposition Yu Chi-song Democratic Korea Party
1985
5,843,827 29.3% new 67 seats; Minority in opposition Lee Min-woo New Korea and Democratic Party
3,930,966 19.7% Decrease46 seats; Minority in opposition Yu Chi-song Democratic Korea Party
3,930,966 19.7% new 1 seats; Minority in opposition Gap-jong Yu New Democratic Party
1988
4,680,175 23.8% new 59 seats; in Coalition (PPD-DRP-NDRP) in opposition Kim Myeong-yun Reunification Democratic Party
3,783,279 19.3% new 70 seats; in Coalition (PPD-DRP-NDRP) in opposition Park Yeong-suk Peace Democratic Party
1992
6,004,577 29.2% new 97 seats; Minority in opposition Kim Dae-jung Democratic Party (1991)
1996
4,971,961 25.3% new 79 seats; in Coalition (NCNP-ULD-Democrats) in opposition (1996-1998) Kim Dae-jung National Congress for New Politics
in government (1998-2000)
2,207,695 11.2% new 15 seats; Minority in opposition Chang Eul-byung United Democratic Party
2000
6,780,625 35.9% new 115 seats; in Coalition (MDP-ULD-DPP) in government Kim Dae-jung Millennium Democratic Party
2004
8,145,824 38.3% new 152 seats; Majority in government Chung Dong-young Uri Party
1,510,178 7.1% Decrease53 seats; Minority in government Choug Soon-hyung Millennium Democratic Party
2008
4,313,111 25.1% new 81 seats; Minority in opposition Son Hak-gyu United Democratic Party
651,993 3.8% new 3 seats; Minority in opposition Moon Kook-hyun Creative Korea Party
2012
7,777,123 36.5% new 127 seats; Minority in opposition Han Myeong-sook Democratic United Party
2016
6,069,744 25.5% new 123 seats; Plurality in opposition (2016-2017) Kim Chong-in Democratic Party
in government (2017-2020)
6,355,572 26.7% new 38 seats; Minority in opposition Ahn Cheol-soo People's Party
2020
14,345,425 (Constituency)
9,307,112 (Party-list PR)
49.9% (Constituency)
33.4% (Party-list PR)
Increase52 seats; Majority in government Lee Hae-chan Democratic Party (Constituency)
Platform Party (Party-list PR)
1,896,719 (Party-list PR) 6.8% (Party-list PR) new 3 seats; Minority in opposition Ahn Cheol-soo People Party
1,512,763 (Party-list PR) 5.4% (Party-list PR) new 3 seats; Minority in opposition Lee Keun-shik Open Democratic Party

Local elections

Election Metropolitan mayor/Governor Provincial legislature Municipal mayor Municipal legislature Party Name
1995
Democratic Party (1991)
1998
National Congress for New Politics
New People Party
2002
Millennium Democratic Party
2006
Uri Party
Democratic Party (2005)
2010
Democratic Party (2008)
2014
New Politics Alliance for Democracy
2018
Democratic Party of Korea

See also

References

  1. ^ Lee, Hyunchool (2018). "Silver Generation's Counter-Movement in the Information Age: Korea's Pro-Park Rallies". Korea Observer (in Korean). 49 (3): 465-491. doi:10.29152/KOIKS.2018.49.3.465. ISSN 0023-3919.
  2. ^ " "? ? ? "". Newsis. 10 September 2020. Retrieved 2021.
  3. ^ Jesús Velasco (4 July 2019). American Presidential Elections in a Comparative Perspective: The World Is Watching. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 154. ISBN 1498557589.
  4. ^ "[?20? ? ] () ". The Chosun Ilbo. 2016-03-23. Retrieved .
  5. ^ "? " "". JoongAng Ilbo. 2017-08-18. Retrieved .
  6. ^ "? 6 ? ?". The Hankyoreh. 2020-05-06. Retrieved .

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