Lesser Poland Voivodeship
3 cities, 19 land counties *
|o Voivode||?ukasz Kmita (PiS)|
|o Marshal||Witold Koz?owski (PiS)|
|o Total||15,108 km2 (5,833 sq mi)|
|o Density||230/km2 (580/sq mi)|
|ISO 3166 code||PL-12|
very high · 2nd
Lesser Poland Voivodeship or Lesser Poland Province (in Polish: województwo ma?opolskie [v?j?'vut?stf? maw?'p?lsk]), also known as Ma?opolska, is a voivodeship (province), in southern Poland. It has an area of 15,108 square kilometres (5,833 sq mi), and a population of 3,404,863 (2019).
It was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Kraków, Tarnów, Nowy S?cz and parts of Bielsko-Bia?a, Katowice, Kielce and Krosno Voivodeships, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. The province's name recalls the traditional name of a historic Polish region, Lesser Poland, or in Polish: Ma?opolska. Current Lesser Poland Voivodeship, however, covers only a small part of the broader ancient Ma?opolska region which, together with Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) and Silesia (?l?sk), formed the early medieval Polish state. Historic Lesser Poland is much larger than the current province. It stretches far north, to Radom, and Siedlce, also including such cities, as Stalowa Wola, Lublin, Kielce, Cz?stochowa, and Sosnowiec.
The province is bounded on the north by the ?wi?tokrzyskie Mountains (Góry ?wi?tokrzyskie), on the west by Jura Krakowsko-Cz?stochowska (a broad range of hills stretching from Kraków to Cz?stochowa), and on the south by the Tatra, Pieniny and Beskidy Mountains. Politically it is bordered by Silesian Voivodeship to the west, ?wi?tokrzyskie Voivodeship to the north, Subcarpathian Voivodeship to the east, and Slovakia (Pre?ov Region and ?ilina Regions) to the south.
Almost all of Lesser Poland lies in the Vistula River catchment area. The city of Kraków was one of the European Cities of Culture in 2000. Kraków has railway and road connections with Katowice (expressway), Warsaw, Wroc?aw and Rzeszów. It lies at the crossroads of major international routes linking Dresden with Kiev, and Gda?sk with Budapest. Located here is the second largest international airport in Poland (after Warsaw's), the John Paul II International Airport.
The Gross domestic product (GDP) of the province was 40.4 billion EUR in 2018, accounting for 8.1% of the Polish economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 19,700 EUR or 65% of the EU27 average in the same year. The GDP per employee was 72% of the EU average.
The region's economy includes high technology, banking, chemical and metallurgical industries, coal, ore, food processing, and spirit and tobacco industries. The most industrialized city of the voivodeship is Kraków. The largest regional enterprise operates here, the Tadeusz Sendzimir Steelworks in Nowa Huta, employing 17,500 people. Another major industrial center is located in the west, in the neighborhood of Chrzanów (chiefly the production of railway engines) and O?wi?cim (chemical works). Kraków Park Technologiczny, a Special Economic Zone, has been established within the voivodeship. There are almost 210,000 registered economic entities operating in the voivodeship, mostly small and medium-sized, of which 234 belong to the state-owned sector. Foreign investment, growing in the region, reached approximately US$18.3 billion by the end of 2006.
130,000 students attend fifteen Kraków institutions of higher learning. The Jagiellonian University, the largest university in the city (44,200 students), was founded in 1364 as Cracow Academy. Nicolaus Copernicus and Karol Wojty?a (Pope John Paul II) graduated from it. The AGH University of Science and Technology (29,800 students) is considered to be the best technical university in Poland. The Academy of Economics, the Pedagogical University, the Kraków University of Technology and the Agricultural Academy are also very highly regarded. There are also the Fine Arts Academy, the State Theatre University and the Musical Academy. Nowy S?cz has become a major educational center in the region thanks to its Higher School of Business and Administration, with an American curriculum, founded in 1992. The school has 4,500 students. There are also two private higher schools in Tarnów.
Located in Southern Poland, Lesser Poland is the warmest place in Poland with average summer temperatures between 23 °C (73 °F) and 30 °C (86 °F) during the day, often reaching 32 °C (90 °F) to 38 °C (100 °F) in July and August, the two warmest months of the year. The city of Tarnów, which is located in Lesser Poland, is the hottest place in Poland all year round, average temperatures being around 25 °C (77 °F) during the day in the three summer months and 3 °C (37 °F) during the day in the three winter months. In the winter the weather patterns alter each year; usually winters are mildly cold with temperatures ranging from -7 °C (19 °F) to 4 °C (39 °F), but the winter season changes often to a more humid and warmer winter, or more continental and cold, depending on the many various wind patterns that affect Poland from different regions of the world. Bdów Desert, the only desert in Poland, is located in Lesser Poland, where temperatures can often reach 38 °C (100 °F) in the summer.
Four national parks and numerous reserves have been established in the voivodeship to protect the environment of Lesser Poland. The region has areas for tourism and recreation, including Zakopane (Poland's most popular winter resort) and the Tatra, Pieniny and Beskidy Mountains. The natural landscape features many historic sites. The salt mine at Wieliczka, the pilgrimage town of Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, and Kraków's Old Town are ranked by UNESCO among the most precious sites of world heritage. At Wadowice, birthplace of John Paul II (50 kilometers southwest of Kraków) is a museum dedicated to the late Pope's childhood. The area of O?wi?cim, with the former Nazi concentration camps Auschwitz-I and Auschwitz-II-Birkenau, is visited annually by a million people. Another tourist destination is the town of Bochnia with its salt mine, Europe's oldest.
The voivodeship contains 62 cities and towns. These are listed below in descending order of population (according to official figures for 2019):
The counties are listed in the following table (ordering within categories is by decreasing population).
|1,230||278,219||Kraków *||Skawina, Krzeszowice, S?omniki, Ska?a, ?wi?tniki Górne||17|
|Nowy S?cz County
|1,550||216,429||Nowy S?cz *||Krynica-Zdrój, Stary S?cz, Grybów, Piwniczna-Zdrój, Muszyna||16|
|1,413||201,509||Tarnów *||Tuchów, ?abno, Wojnicz, Rad?ów, Ryglice, Cikowice, Zakliczyn||16|
|Nowy Targ County
|1,475||191,669||Nowy Targ||Rabka-Zdrój, Szczawnica||14|
|646||160,080||Wadowice||Andrychów, Kalwaria Zebrzydowska||10|
|406||153,632||O?wi?cim||K?ty, Brzeszcze, Che?mek, Zator||9|
|371||124,937||Chrzanów||Trzebinia, Libi, Alwernia||5|
|686||84,160||Sucha Beskidzka||Maków Podhala?ski, Jordanów||9|
|415||43,367||Proszowice||Nowe Brzesko, Koszyce||6|
|* seat not part of the county|
Lesser Poland Voivodeship's symbols can be blazoned as follows:
Coat of arms: A traditional Iberian shield gules, an eagle argent displayed armed, legged, beaked, langued and crowned Or.
Flag: Per fess argent and gules, a narrow fess Or.
The Lesser Poland Voivodeships has partnerships with the following regions:
In February 2020, the French region of Centre-Val de Loire suspended its partnership with the Lesser Poland Voivodeship as a response to the anti-LGBT resolution passed by the voivodeship's authorities.