Latin declension is the set of patterns according to which Latin words are declined, or have their endings altered to show grammatical case, number and gender. Nouns, pronouns, and adjectives are declined (verbs are conjugated), and a given pattern is called a declension. There are five declensions, which are numbered and grouped by ending and grammatical gender. Each noun follows one of the five declensions, but some irregular nouns have exceptions.
Adjectives are of two kinds: those like bonus, bona, bonum 'good' use first-declension endings for the feminine, and second-declension for masculine and neuter. Other adjectives such as celer, celeris, celere belong to the third declension. There are no fourth- or fifth-declension adjectives.
Pronouns are also of two kinds, the personal pronouns such as ego 'I' and t? 'you (sg.)', which have their own irregular declension, and the third-person pronouns such as hic 'this' and ille 'that' which can generally be used either as pronouns or adjectivally. These latter decline in a similar way to the first and second noun declensions, but there are differences; for example the genitive singular ends in -?us or -ius instead of -? or -ae.
The cardinal numbers ?nus 'one', duo 'two', and tr?s 'three' also have their own declensions (?nus has genitive -?us like a pronoun), and there are also numeral adjectives such as b?n? 'a pair, two each', which decline like ordinary adjectives.
A complete Latin noun declension consists of up to 7 grammatical cases: nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative and locative. However, the locative is limited to few nouns: generally names of cities, small islands and a few other words.
The case names are often abbreviated to the first three letters.
The grammarian Aelius Donatus (4th century AD), whose work was used as standard throughout the Middle Ages, placed the cases in this order:
This order was based on the order used by earlier Greek grammarians, with the addition of the ablative, which does not exist in Greek. The names of the cases also were mostly translated from the Greek terms, such as accusativus from the Greek .
The traditional order was formerly used in England, for example in The School and University Eton Latin Grammar (1861). and it is also still used in Germany and most European countries. Gildersleeve and Lodge's Latin Grammar of 1895, also follows this order. More recent American grammars, such as Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar (1903) and Wheelock's Latin (first published in 1956), use this order but with the vocative at the end.
However, in Britain and countries influenced by Britain, the Latin cases are usually given in the following order: nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative. This order was first introduced in Benjamin Hall Kennedy's Latin Primer (1866), with the aim of making tables of declensions easier to recite and memorise. It is also used in France and Belgium.
Syncretism, where one form in a paradigm shares the ending of another form in the paradigm, is common in Latin. The following are the most notable patterns of syncretism:
Old Latin had essentially two patterns of endings. One pattern was shared by the first and second declensions, which derived from the Proto-Indo-European thematic declension. The other pattern was used by the third, fourth and fifth declensions, and derived from the athematic PIE declension.
There are two principal parts for Latin nouns: the nominative singular and the genitive singular. Each declension can be unequivocally identified by the ending of the genitive singular (-ae, -i, -is, -?s, -ei). The stem of the noun can be identified by the form of the genitive singular as well.
There are five declensions for Latin nouns:
Nouns of this declension usually end in -a in the nominative singular and are mostly feminine, e.g. via, viae f. ('road') and aqua, aquae f. ('water'). There is a small class of masculine exceptions generally referring to occupations, e.g. po?ta, po?tae m. ('poet'), agricola, agricolae m. ('farmer') and nauta, nautae m. ('sailor').
|First declension paradigm|
The first declension also includes three types of Greek loanwords, derived from Ancient Greek's alpha declension. They are declined irregularly in the singular, but sometimes treated as native Latin nouns, e.g. nominative athl?ta ('athlete') instead of the original athl?t?s. Archaic (Homeric) first declension Greek nouns and adjectives had been formed in exactly the same way as in Latin: nephel?geréta Zeus ('Zeus the cloud-gatherer') had in classical Greek become nephel?gerét?s.
For full paradigm tables and more detailed information, see the Wiktionary appendix First declension.
The second declension is a large group of nouns consisting of mostly masculine nouns like equus, equ? ('horse') and puer, puer? ('boy') and neuter nouns like castellum, castell? ('fort'). There are several small groups of feminine exceptions, including names of gemstones, plants, trees, and some towns and cities.
In the nominative singular, most masculine nouns consist of the stem and the ending -us, although some end in -er, which is not necessarily attached to the complete stem. Neuter nouns generally have a nominative singular consisting of the stem and the ending -um. However, every second-declension noun has the ending -? attached as a suffix to the root of the noun in the genitive singular form. The predominant letter in the ending forms of this declension is o.
|Second declension paradigm|
Nouns ending in -ius and -ium have a genitive singular in -? in earlier Latin, which was regularized to -i? in the later language. Masculine nouns in -ius have a vocative singular in -? at all stages. These forms in -? are stressed on the same syllable as the nominative singular, sometimes in violation of the usual Latin stress rule. For example, the genitive and vocative singular Vergil? (from Vergilius) is pronounced Vergíl?, with stress on the penult, even though it is short. In Old Latin, however, the vocative was declined regularly, using -ie instead, e.g. f?lie "[O] son", archaic vocative of f?lius.
There is no contraction of -i?(s) in plural forms and in the locative.
aid, help n.
In the older language, nouns ending with -vus, -quus and -vum take o rather than u in the nominative and accusative singular. For example, servus, serv? ('slave') could be servos, accusative servom.
Some masculine nouns of the second declension end in -er or -ir in the nominative singular. The declension of these nouns is identical to that of the regular second declension, except for the lack of suffix in the nominative and vocative singular.
Some (but not all) nouns in -er drop the e genitive and other cases. For example, socer, socer? ('father-in-law') keeps its e. However, the noun magister, magistr? ('(school)master') drops its e in the genitive singular.
For declension tables of second-declension nouns, see the corresponding Wiktionary appendix.
The second declension contains two types of masculine Greek nouns and one form of neuter Greek noun. These nouns are irregular only in the singular, as are their first-declension counterparts. Greek nouns in the second declension are derived from the Omicron declension.
Some Greek nouns may also be declined as normal Latin nouns. For example, the?tron can appear as the?trum.
In poetry, -um may substitute -?rum as the genitive plural ending.
The Latin word v?rus (the ? indicates a long i) means "1. slimy liquid, slime; 2. poison, venom", denoting the venom of a snake. This Latin word is probably related to the Greek ? (ios) meaning "venom" or "rust" and the Sanskrit word vi?a meaning "toxic, poison".
poison, venom, virus n.
The third declension is the largest group of nouns. The nominative singular of these nouns may end in -a, -e, -?, -?, -y, -c, -l, -n, -r, -s, -t, or -x. This group of nouns includes masculine, neuter, and feminine nouns.
The stem of a consonant-stem noun may be found from the genitive case by removing the ending -is. For example, the stem of p?x, p?cis f. 'peace' is p?c-, the stem of fl?men, fl?minis n. 'river' is fl?min-, and the stem of fl?s, fl?ris m. 'flower' is fl?r-.
Masculine, feminine and neuter nouns often have their own special nominative singular endings. For instance, many masculine nouns end in -or (amor, am?ris, 'love'). Many feminine nouns end in -?x (phoen?x, phoen?cis, 'phoenix'), and many neuter nouns end in -us with an r stem in the oblique cases (onus, oneris 'burden'; tempus, temporis 'time').
|Third declension paradigm|
The third declension also has a set of nouns that are declined differently. They are called i-stems. i-stems are broken into two subcategories: pure and mixed. Pure i-stems are indicated by special neuter endings. Mixed i-stems are indicated by the double consonant rule. Stems indicated by the parisyllabic rule are usually mixed, occasionally pure.
The mixed declension is distinguished from the consonant type only by having -ium in the genitive plural (and occasionally -?s in the accusative plural). The pure declension is characterized by having -? in the ablative singular, -ium in the genitive plural, -ia in the nominative and accusative plural neuter, and -im in the accusative singular masculine and feminine (however, adjectives have -em).
The accusative singular ending -im is found only in a few words: always in tussis 'cough', sitis 'thirst', Tiberis 'River Tiber'; usually in sec?ris 'axe', turris 'tower'; occasionally in n?vis 'ship'. Most nouns, however, have accusative singular -em.
The ablative singular -? is found in nouns which have -im, and also, optionally, in some other nouns, e.g. in ign? or in igne 'in the fire'.
|Third declension paradigm|
|Third declension paradigm|
tower f. (pure)
part, piece f. (mixed)
animal, living being n. (pure)
|Parisyllabic rule||Double consonant rule||Special neuter ending|
The rules for determining i-stems from non-i-stems and mixed i-stems are guidelines rather than rules: many words that might be expected to be i-stems according to the parisyllabic rule actually are not, such as canis ('dog') or iuvenis ('youth'), which have genitive plural canum 'of dogs' and iuvenum 'of young men'. Likewise, pater ('father'), m?ter ('mother'), fr?ter ('brother'), and par?ns ('parent') violate the double-consonant rule. This fluidity even in Roman times resulted in much more uncertainty in Medieval Latin.
In the third declension, there are four irregular nouns.
force, power f.
swine, pig, hog m.f.
ox, bullock m.f.
|Iuppiter, Iovis |
The fourth declension is a group of nouns consisting of mostly masculine words such as fluctus, fluct?s m. ('wave') and portus, port?s m. ('port') with a few feminine exceptions, including manus, man?s f. ('hand'). The fourth declension also includes several neuter nouns including gen?, gen?s n. ('knee'). Each noun has the ending -?s as a suffix attached to the root of the noun in the genitive singular form. The predominant letter in the ending forms of this declension is u, but the declension is otherwise very similar to the third-declension i stems.
|Fourth declension paradigm|
|-us ending nouns||-? ending nouns|
port, haven, harbor m.
In the dative and ablative plural, -ibus is sometimes replaced with -ubus. This is so for only a few nouns, such as art?s pl., ('limbs').
Domus ('house, dwelling, building, home, native place, family, household, race') is an irregular noun, mixing fourth and second declension nouns at the same time (especially in literature). However, in practice, it is generally declined as a regular -us stem fourth declension noun (except by the ablative singular and accusative plural, using -? and -?s instead).
|domus, dom?s/dom? f.|
|All possible declensions|
|domus, dom?s f.|
|Most common paradigm|
The fifth declension is a small group of nouns consisting of mostly feminine nouns like r?s, re? f. ('affair, matter, thing') and di?s, di m. ('day'; but f. in names of days). Each noun has either the ending - or -e? as a suffix attached to the root of the noun in the genitive singular form.
|Fifth declension paradigm|
|-i?s ending nouns||-?s ending nouns|
day m., f.
Nouns ending in -i?s have long in the dative and genitive, while nouns ending in a consonant + -?s have short e? in these cases.
The locative ending of the fifth declension was -? (singular only), identical to the ablative singular, as in hodi? ('today').
The first and second persons are irregular, and both pronouns are indeclinable for gender; and the third person reflexive pronoun s?, su? always refers back to the subject, regardless of whether the subject is singular or plural.
|First Person||Second Person||Third Person|
himself, herself, itself,
The genitive forms me?, tu?, nostr?, vestr?, su? are used as complements in certain grammatical constructions, whereas nostrum, vestrum are used with a partitive meaning ('[one] of us', '[one] of you'). To express possession, the possessive pronouns (essentially adjectives) meus, tuus, noster, vester are used, declined in the first and second declensions to agree in number and case with the thing possessed, e.g. pater meus 'my father', m?ter mea 'my mother'. The vocative singular masculine of meus is m?: m? Attice 'my dear Atticus'.
|meus, mea, meum|
|tuus, tua, tuum|
your, yours (for singular possessor)
|suus, sua, suum|
his, her, its, theirs (reflexive)
|noster, nostra, nostrum|
The possessive adjective vester has an archaic variant, voster; similar to noster.
|vester, vestra, vestrum|
voster, vostra, vostrum
your, yours (for plural possessor)
Usually, to show the ablative of accompaniment, cum would be added to the ablative form. However, with personal pronouns (first and second person), the reflexive and the interrogative, -cum is added onto the end of the ablative form. That is: m?cum 'with me', n?b?scum 'with us', t?cum 'with you', v?b?scum, s?cum and qu?cum (sometimes qu?cum).
In accusative case, the forms m?m? and t?t? exist as emphatic, but they are not widely used.
When 'his' or 'her' refers to someone else, not the subject, the genitive pronoun eius (as well as e?rum and e?rum) 'of him' is used instead of suus:
When one sentence is embedded inside another with a different subject, s? and suus can refer to either subject:
For the third-person pronoun is 'he', see below.
Relative, demonstrative and indefinite pronouns are generally declined like first and second declension adjectives, with the following differences:
These differences characterize the pronominal declension, and a few special adjectives (t?tus 'whole', s?lus 'alone', ?nus 'one', n?llus 'no', alius 'another', alter 'another [of two]', etc.) are also declined according to this pattern.
All demonstrative, relative, and indefinite pronouns in Latin can also be used adjectivally, with some small differences; for example in the interrogative pronoun, quis 'who?' and quid 'what?' are usually used for the pronominal form, qu? and quod 'which?' for the adjectival form.
|is, ea, id|
he, she, it
This pronoun is also often used adjectivally, e.g. is homo 'that man', ea pecunia 'that money'. It has no possessive adjective; the genitive is used instead: pater eius 'his/her father'; pater e?rum 'their father'.
|?dem, eadem, idem|
the same, same as
|hic, haec, hoc
this, this one (proximal)
|ille, illa, illud
that, that one (distal)
|iste, ista, istud|
that of yours (medial)
Similar in declension is alius, alia, aliud 'another'.
|ipse, ipsa, ipsum|
himself, herself, itself
The interrogative pronouns are used strictly for asking questions. They are distinct from the relative pronoun and the interrogative adjective (which is declined like the relative pronoun). Interrogative pronouns rarely occur in the plural. The plural interrogative pronouns are the same as the plural relative pronouns.
|qu?, quae, quod|
who, which, that
First- and second-declension adjectives are inflected in the masculine, the feminine and the neuter; the masculine form typically ends in -us (although some end in -er, see below), the feminine form ends in -a, and the neuter form ends in -um. Therefore, some adjectives are given like altus, alta, altum.
Adjectives ending -ius use the vocative -ie (?brie, "[O] drunk man", vocative of ?brius), just as in Old Latin all -ius nouns did (f?lie, "[O] son", archaic vocative of f?lius).
|altus, alta, altum|
high, long, tall
Some first- and second-declension adjectives' masculine forms end in -er. As with second-declension -r nouns, some adjectives retain the e throughout inflection, and some omit it. Sacer, sacra, sacrum omits its e while miser, misera, miserum keeps it.
|miser, misera, miserum|
sad, poor, unhappy
|sacer, sacra, sacrum|
Nine first and second declension pronominal adjectives are irregular in the genitive and the dative in all genders. They can be remembered by using the mnemonic acronym ?nus nauta. They are:
|?llus, ?lla, ?llum|
Third-declension adjectives are normally declined like third-declension i-stem nouns, except for the fact they usually have -? rather than -e in the ablative singular (unlike i-stem nouns, in which only pure i-stems have -?). Some adjectives, however, like the one-ending vetus, veteris ('old, aged'), have -e in the ablative singular, -um in the genitive plural, and -a in the nominative and accusative neuter plural.
These have a single nominative ending for all genders, although as usual the endings for the other cases vary. As with nouns, a genitive is given for the purpose of showing the inflection.
terrible, mean, cruel
Third-declension adjectives that have two endings have one form for the masculine and feminine, and a separate form for the neuter. The ending for the masculine and feminine is -is, and the ending for the neuter is -e. It is not necessary to give the genitive, as it is the same as the nominative masculine singular.
Third-declension adjectives with three endings have three separate nominative forms for all three genders. Like third and second declension -r nouns, the masculine ends in -er. The feminine ends in -ris, and the neuter ends in -re. The genitive is the same as the nominative feminine singular.
|celer, celeris, celere|
swift, rapid, brash
|alacer, alacris, alacre|
lively, jovial, animated
As in English, adjectives have superlative and comparative forms. For regular first and second declension and third declension adjectives with one or two endings, the comparative is formed by adding -ior for the masculine and feminine, and -ius for the neuter to the stem. The genitives for both are formed by adding -i?ris. Therefore, they are declined in the third declension, but they are not declined as i-stems. Superlatives are formed by adding -issimus, -issima, -issimum to the stem and are thus declined like first and second declension adjectives.
higher, deeper (comparative of altus)
|altissimus, altissima, altissimum|
highest, deepest (superlative of altus)
|cl?rus, cl?ra, cl?rum ('clear, bright, famous')||cl?rior, cl?rius||cl?rissimus, cl?rissima, cl?rissimum|
|fr?gidus, fr?gida, fr?gidum ('cold, chilly')||fr?gidior, fr?gidius||fr?gidissimus, fr?gidissima, fr?gidissimum|
|pugn?x, pugn?x (pugn?cis) ('pugnacious')||pugn?cior, pugn?cius||pugn?cissimus, pugn?cissima, pugn?cissimum|
|benevol?ns, benevol?ns (benevolentis) ('kind, benevolent')||benevolentior, benevolentius||benevolentissimus, benevolentissima, benevolentissium|
|fortis, forte ('strong, robust')||fortior, fortius||fortissimus, fortissima, fortissimum|
|aequ?lis, aequ?le ('equal, even')||aequ?lior, aequ?lius||aequ?lissimus, aequ?lissima, aequ?lissimum|
Adjectives (in the first and second as well as third declensions) that have masculine nominative singular forms ending in -er are slightly different. As with normal adjectives, the comparative is formed by adding -ior to the stem, but for the superlative, -rimus is added to the nominative masculine singular.
|pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum ('pretty, beautiful')||pulchrior, pulchrius||pulcherrimus, pulcherrima, pulcherrimum|
|sacer, sacra, sacrum ('sacred, holy')||sacrior, sacrius||sacerrimus, sacerrima, sacerrimum|
|tener, tenera, tenerum ('delicate, tender')||tenerior, tenerius||tenerrimus, tenerrima, tenerrimum|
|?cer, ?cris, ?cre ('valliant, fierce')||?crior, ?crius||?cerrimus, ?cerrima, ?cerrimum|
|celeber, celebris, celebre ('celebrated, famous')||celebrior, celebrius||celeberrimus, celeberrima, celeberrimum|
|celer, celeris, celere ('quick, fast')||celerior, celerius||celerrimus, celerrima, celerrimum|
Some third declension adjectives with two endings in -lis in the masculine-feminine nominative singular have irregular superlative forms. The following are the only adjectives that do.
|facilis, facile ('easy')||facilior, facilius||facillimus, facillima, facillimum|
|difficilis, difficile ('hard, difficult')||difficilior, difficilius||difficillimus, difficillima, difficillimum|
|similis, simile ('similar, like)||similior, similius||simillimus, simillima, simillimum|
|dissimilis, dissimile ('unlike, dissimilar')||dissimilior, dissimilius||dissimillimus, dissimillima, dissimillimum|
|gracilis, gracile ('slender, slim')||gracilior, gracilius||gracillimus, gracillima, gracillimum|
|humilis, humile ('low, humble')||humilior, humilius||humillimus, humillima, humillimum|
First and second declension adjectives that end in -eus or -ius are unusual in that they do not form the comparative and superlative by taking endings at all. Instead, magis ('more') and maxim? ('most'), the comparative and superlative degrees of magnoper? ('much, greatly'), respectively, are used.
Many adjectives in -uus, except those in -quus or -guus, also follow this rule.
|id?neus, id?nea, id?neum ('suitable, fitting, proper')||magis id?neus||maxim? id?neus|
|s?lit?rius, s?lit?ria, s?lit?rium ('solitary, lonely')||magis s?lit?rius||maxim? s?lit?rius|
|ebrius, ebria, ebrium ('drunk')||magis ebrius||maxim? ebrius|
|merit?rius, merit?ria, merit?rium ('meritorious')||magis merit?rius||maxim? merit?rius|
|gr?mineus, gr?minea, gr?mineum ('grassy')||magis gr?mineus||maxim? gr?mineus|
|bell?t?rius, bell?t?ria, bell?t?rium ('warlike, bellicose')||magis bell?t?rius||maxim? bell?t?rius|
|arduus, ardua, arduum ('lofty, steep')||magis arduus||maxim? arduus|
As in most languages, Latin has adjectives that have irregular comparatives and superlatives.
|bonus, bona, bonum ('good')||melior, melius ('better')||optimus, optima, optimum ('best')|
|malus, mala, malum ('bad, evil')||p?ior, p?ius ('worse')||pessimus, pessima, pessimum ('worst')|
|magnus, magna, magnum ('great, large')||m?ior, m?ius ('greater')||maximus, maxima, maximum ('greatest')|
|parvus, parva, parvum ('small, slight')||minor, minus ('lesser')||minimus, minima, minimum ('least')|
|multus, multa, multum ('much, many')||pl?s[i] ('more')||pl?rimus, pl?rima, pl?rimum ('most')|
|propinquus, propinqua, propinquum ('near, close')||propior, propius ('nearer')||proximus, proxima, proximum ('nearest, next')|
|m?t?rus, m?t?ra, m?t?rum ('ripe, mature')||m?t?rior, m?t?rius ('riper')||m?t?rrimus, m?t?rrima, m?t?rrimum[ii] ('ripest')|
|n?quam[iii] ('worthless')||n?quior, n?quius ('more worthless')||n?quissimus, n?quissima, n?quissimum ('most worthless')|
|posterus, postera, posterum ('next, future')||posterior, posterius ('later')||postr?mus, postr?ma, postr?mum ('last, latest')|
postumus, postuma, postumum
|superus, supera, superum ('above')||superior, superius ('upper')||supr?mus, supr?ma, supr?mum ('uppermost') |
summus, summa, summum
|exterus, extera, exterum ('outward')||exterior, exterius ('outer')||extr?mus, extr?ma, extr?mum ('outermost') |
extimus, extima, extimum
|?nferus, ?nfera, ?nferum ('below')||?nferior, ?nferius ('lower')||?nfimus, ?nfima, ?nfimum ('lowest') |
?mus, ?ma, ?mum
|senex, senis ('old, aged')||senior, senius ('older, elder')||senissimus, senissima, senissimum ('oldest, eldest')|
|iuvenis, iuvenis ('young, youthful')||iuvenior, iuvenius ('younger')
|iuvenissimus, iuvenissima, iuvenissimum ('youngest') |
i?nissimus, i?nissima, i?nissimum 
There are several different kinds of numeral words in Latin: the two most common are cardinal numerals and ordinal numerals. There are also several more rare numerals, e.g., distributive numerals and adverbial numerals.
All cardinal numerals are indeclinable, except ?nus ('one'), duo ('two'), tr?s ('three'), plural hundreds ducent? ('two hundred'), trecent? ('three hundred') etc., and m?lle ('thousand'), which have cases and genders like adjectives. ?nus, ?na, ?num is declined like a first- and second-declension pronoun with -?us or -ius in the genitive, and -? in the dative. Duo is declined irregularly, tr?s is declined like a third-declension plural adjective, -cent? ('hundred') numerals decline like first- and second-declension adjectives, and m?lle is invariable in the singular and declined like a third-declension i-stem neuter noun in the plural:
The plural endings for ?nus are used with pl?r?lia tantum nouns, e. g. ?na castra (one [military] camp), ?nae sc?lae (one ladder).
|?nus, ?na, ?num|
|Genitive||?n?us / ?nius||?n?rum||?n?rum||?n?rum|
|duo, duae, duo|
|amb?, ambae, amb?|
|Accusative||tr?s / tr?s|
The numeral centum ('one hundred') is indeclinable, but all the other hundred numerals are declinable.
|ducent?, ducentae, ducenta|
The word m?lle 'thousand' is a singular indeclinable adjective. However, its plural, m?lia, is a plural third-declension i-stem neuter noun. To write the phrase "four thousand horses" in Latin, the genitive is used: quattuor m?lia equ?rum, literally, "four thousands of horses".
The rest of the numbers are indeclinable whether used as adjectives or as nouns.
For further information on the different sets of Latin numerals, see Latin numerals (linguistics).
Adverbs are not declined. However, adverbs must be formed if one wants to make an adjective into an adverb.
First and second declension adjectives' adverbs are formed by adding -? onto their stems.
|cl?rus, cl?ra, cl?rum ('clear, famous')||cl?r? ('clearly, famously')|
|validus, valida, validum ('strong, robust')||valid? ('strongly, robustly')|
|?nf?rmus, ?nf?rma, ?nf?rmum ('weak')||?nf?rm? ('weakly')|
|solidus, solida, solidum ('complete, firm')||solid? ('completely, firmly')|
|integer, integra, integrum ('whole, fresh')||integr? ('wholly, freshly')|
|l?ber, l?bera, l?berum ('free')||l?ber? ('freely')|
Typically, third declension adjectives' adverbs are formed by adding -iter to the stem. However, most third declension adjectives with one ending simply add -er to the stem.
|pr?d?ns, pr?d?ns (pr?dentis) ('prudent')||pr?denter ('prudently')|
|aud?x, aud?x (aud?cis) ('bold')||aud?cter ('boldly')|
|vir?lis, vir?le ('courageous, spirited')||vir?liter ('courageously, spiritedly')|
|sal?bris, sal?bre ('wholesome')||sal?briter ('wholesomely')|
Adverbs' comparative forms are identical to the nominative neuter singular of the corresponding comparative adjective. Adverbs' superlative forms are simply formed by attaching the regular ending -? to the corresponding superlative adjective. As with their corresponding adjectival forms, first and second declensions adjectives ending in -eus or -ius use magis and maxim? as opposed to distinct endings.
|cl?r? ('clearly, famously')||cl?rius||cl?rissim?|
|solid? ('completely, firmly')||solidius||solidissim?|
|id?ne? ('suitably, properly')||magis id?ne?||maxim? id?ne?|
As with adjectives, there are irregular adverbs with peculiar comparative and superlative forms.
|bene ('well')||melius ('better')||optim? ('best')|
|male ('badly, ill')||peius ('worse')||pessim? ('worst')|
|magnopere ('greatly')||magis ('more')||maxim? ('most')|
|multum ('much, a lot')||pl?s ('more')||pl?rimum ('most')|
|parvum ('little')||minus ('less')||minim? ('least')|
|n?quiter ('worthlessly')||n?quius ('more worthlessly')||n?quissim? ('most worthlessly')|
|saepe ('often')||saepius ('more often')||saepissim? ('most often')|
|m?t?r? ('seasonably, betimes')||m?t?rius ('more seasonably')||m?turrim? ('most seasonably')|
|prope ('near')||propius ('nearer')||proxim? ('nearest, next')|
|n?per ('recently')||--||n?perrim? ('most recently, previously')|
|potis ('possible')||potius ('rather')||potissim? ('especially')|
|--||prius ('before, previously')||pr?m? ('first')|
Some nouns are only used in the singular (singulare tantum) such as:
Some nouns are only used in the plural (plurale tantum), or when plural have a singular meaning such as:
Indeclinable nouns are nouns which only have one form in all cases (of the singular).
Heterogeneous nouns are nouns which vary in respect to gender.
|balneum n. ('bath')||balneae f. or balnea n. ('bathhouse')|
|epulum n. ('feast, banquet')||epulae f. ('feast, banquet')|
|fr?num n. ('bridle, curb')||fr?n? m. bridle, curb|
|iocus m. ('joke, jest')||ioca n. or ioci m. ('jokes, fun')|
|locus m. ('place, location')||loca n. ('region'); loc? m. ('places in books, arguments')|
|r?strum n. ('hoe, rake')||r?str? m. ('hoes, rakes')|
|aed?s, aedis f. ('building, temple')||aed?s, aedium ('rooms, house')|
|auxilium, auxili? n. ('help, aid')||auxilia, auxili?rum ('auxiliary troops')|
|carcer, carceris m. ('prison, cell')||carcer?s, carcerum ('starting traps')|
|castrum, castr? n. ('fort, castle, fortress')||castra, castr?rum ('military camp, encampment')|
|c?pia, copiae f. ('plenty, much, abundance')||c?piae, copi?rum ('troops')|
|fort?na, fort?nae f. ('luck, chance')||fort?nae, fort?n?rum ('wealth, fortune')|
|gr?tia, gr?tiae f. ('charm, favor')||gr?tiae, gr?ti?rum ('thanks')|
|imped?mentum, imped?ment? m. ('impediment, hindrance')||imped?menta, imped?ment?rum ('baggage, baggage train')|
|littera, litterae f. ('letter [alphabet]')||litterae, litter?rum ('letter [message], epistle, scholarship, literature')|
|m?s, m?ris m. ('habit, inclination')||m?r?s, m?rum m. ('morals, character')|
|opera, operae f. ('trouble, pains')||operae, oper?rum m. ('workmen')|
|*ops, opis f.[i] ('help')||op?s, opium ('resources, wealth')|
|pars, partis f. ('part, piece')||part?s, partium ('office, function')|