Latin Declension
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Latin Declension

Latin declension is the set of patterns according to which Latin words are declined, or have their endings altered to show grammatical case, number and gender. Nouns, pronouns, and adjectives are declined (verbs are conjugated), and a given pattern is called a declension. There are five declensions, which are numbered and grouped by ending and grammatical gender. Each noun follows one of the five declensions, but some irregular nouns have exceptions.

Adjectives are of two kinds: those like bonus, bona, bonum 'good' use first-declension endings for the feminine, and second-declension for masculine and neuter. Other adjectives such as celer, celeris, celere belong to the third declension. There are no fourth- or fifth-declension adjectives.

Pronouns are also of two kinds, the personal pronouns such as ego 'I' and t? 'you (sg.)', which have their own irregular declension, and the third-person pronouns such as hic 'this' and ille 'that' which can generally be used either as pronouns or adjectivally. These latter decline in a similar way to the first and second noun declensions, but there are differences; for example the genitive singular ends in -?us or -ius instead of -? or -ae.

The cardinal numbers ?nus 'one', duo 'two', and tr?s 'three' also have their own declensions (?nus has genitive -?us like a pronoun), and there are also numeral adjectives such as b?n? 'a pair, two each', which decline like ordinary adjectives.

Grammatical cases

A complete Latin noun declension consists of up to 7 grammatical cases: nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative and locative. However, the locative is limited to few nouns: generally names of cities, small islands and a few other words.

The case names are often abbreviated to the first three letters.

Order of cases

The grammarian Aelius Donatus (4th century AD), whose work was used as standard throughout the Middle Ages, placed the cases in this order:

casus sunt sex: nominativus, genetivus, dativus, accusativus, vocativus, ablativus.[1]
"There are six cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative and ablative."

This order was based on the order used by earlier Greek grammarians, with the addition of the ablative, which does not exist in Greek. The names of the cases also were mostly translated from the Greek terms, such as accusativus from the Greek .

The traditional order was formerly used in England, for example in The School and University Eton Latin Grammar (1861).[2] and it is also still used in Germany and most European countries. Gildersleeve and Lodge's Latin Grammar of 1895, also follows this order. More recent American grammars, such as Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar (1903) and Wheelock's Latin (first published in 1956), use this order but with the vocative at the end.

However, in Britain and countries influenced by Britain, the Latin cases are usually given in the following order: nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative. This order was first introduced in Benjamin Hall Kennedy's Latin Primer (1866), with the aim of making tables of declensions easier to recite and memorise. It is also used in France[3] and Belgium.[4]

Syncretism

Syncretism, where one form in a paradigm shares the ending of another form in the paradigm, is common in Latin. The following are the most notable patterns of syncretism:

Gender-specific

  • For pure Latin neuter nouns, the nominative singular, vocative singular, and accusative singular are identical; and the nominative plural, vocative plural, and accusative plural all end in -a. (Both of these features are inherited from Proto-Indo-European, and so no actual syncretism is known to have happened in the historical sense, since these cases of these nouns are not known to have ever been different in the first place.)

Case-specific

  • The vocative form is always the same as the nominative in the plural, and usually the same as the nominative in the singular except for second-declension masculine nouns ending in -us and a few nouns of Greek origin. For example, the vocative of the first-declension Aens is Aen.
  • The genitive singular is the same as the nominative plural in first-, second-, and fourth-declension masculine and feminine pure Latin nouns.
  • The dative singular is the same as the genitive singular in first- and fifth-declension pure Latin nouns.
  • The dative is always the same as the ablative in the singular in the second declension, the third-declension full i-stems (i.e. neuter i-stems, adjectives), and fourth-declension neuters.
  • The dative, ablative, and locative are always identical in the plural.
  • The locative is identical to the ablative in the fourth and fifth declensions.

History of cases

Old Latin had essentially two patterns of endings. One pattern was shared by the first and second declensions, which derived from the Proto-Indo-European thematic declension. The other pattern was used by the third, fourth and fifth declensions, and derived from the athematic PIE declension.

Nouns

There are two principal parts for Latin nouns: the nominative singular and the genitive singular. Each declension can be unequivocally identified by the ending of the genitive singular (-ae, -i, -is, -?s, -ei). The stem of the noun can be identified by the form of the genitive singular as well.

There are five declensions for Latin nouns:

First declension (a stems)

Nouns of this declension usually end in -a in the nominative singular and are mostly feminine, e.g. via, viae f. ('road') and aqua, aquae f. ('water'). There is a small class of masculine exceptions generally referring to occupations, e.g. po?ta, po?tae m. ('poet'), agricola, agricolae m. ('farmer') and nauta, nautae m. ('sailor').

The predominant letter in the ending forms of this declension is a. The nominative singular form consists of the stem and the ending -a, and the genitive singular form is the stem plus -ae.

First declension paradigm
Singular Plural
Nominative -a -ae
Vocative
Accusative -am -?s
Genitive -ae -?rum
Dative -?s
Ablative -?
mensa, mensae
table (f.)
po?ta, po?tae
poet (m.)
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative mensa mensae po?ta po?tae
Vocative
Accusative mensam mens?s po?tam po?t?s
Genitive mensae[i] mens?rum po?tae po?t?rum
Dative mens?s po?t?s
Ablative mens? po?t?
  1. ^ The archaic genitive ending in -ai (as in aquai) occurs occasionally in Virgil and Lucretius, to evoke the style of older writers. Plus, the archaic genitive ending in -?s is used in expressions like pater famili?s (also possible in conjunction with m?ter, f?lius and f?lia).

The locative endings for the first declension are -ae (singular) and -?s (plural), similar to the genitive singular and ablative plural, as in m?litiae 'in war' and Ath?n?s 'at Athens'.[5]

First declension Greek nouns

The first declension also includes three types of Greek loanwords, derived from Ancient Greek's alpha declension. They are declined irregularly in the singular, but sometimes treated as native Latin nouns, e.g. nominative athl?ta ('athlete') instead of the original athl?t?s. Archaic (Homeric) first declension Greek nouns and adjectives had been formed in exactly the same way as in Latin: nephel?geréta Zeus ('Zeus the cloud-gatherer') had in classical Greek become nephel?gerét?s.

For full paradigm tables and more detailed information, see the Wiktionary appendix First declension.

Second declension (o stems)

The second declension is a large group of nouns consisting of mostly masculine nouns like equus, equ? ('horse') and puer, puer? ('boy') and neuter nouns like castellum, castell? ('fort'). There are several small groups of feminine exceptions, including names of gemstones, plants, trees, and some towns and cities.

In the nominative singular, most masculine nouns consist of the stem and the ending -us, although some end in -er, which is not necessarily attached to the complete stem. Neuter nouns generally have a nominative singular consisting of the stem and the ending -um. However, every second-declension noun has the ending -? attached as a suffix to the root of the noun in the genitive singular form. The predominant letter in the ending forms of this declension is o.

Second declension paradigm
Singular Plural
Masculine Neuter Masculine Neuter
Nominative -us -um -? -a
Vocative -e
Accusative -um -?s
Genitive -? -?rum
Dative -? -?s
Ablative
Masculine
dominus, domin?
master m.
Singular Plural
Nominative dominus domin?
Vocative domine
Accusative dominum domin?s
Genitive domin? domin?rum
Dative domin? domin?s
Ablative
Neuter
bellum, bell?
war n.
Singular Plural
Nominative bellum bella
Accusative
Genitive bell? bell?rum
Dative bell? bell?s
Ablative

The locative endings for the second declension are -? (singular) and -?s (plural); Corinth? "at Corinth", Mediol?n? "at Milan", and Philipp?s "at Philippi".[6]

Second-declension -ius and -ium nouns

Nouns ending in -ius and -ium have a genitive singular in -? in earlier Latin, which was regularized to -i? in the later language. Masculine nouns in -ius have a vocative singular in -? at all stages. These forms in -? are stressed on the same syllable as the nominative singular, sometimes in violation of the usual Latin stress rule. For example, the genitive and vocative singular Vergil? (from Vergilius) is pronounced Vergíl?, with stress on the penult, even though it is short.[7] In Old Latin, however, the vocative was declined regularly, using -ie instead, e.g. f?lie "[O] son", archaic vocative of f?lius.

There is no contraction of -i?(s) in plural forms and in the locative.

f?lius, fili?
son m.
auxilium, auxili?
aid, help n.
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative f?lius f?li? auxilium auxilia
Vocative f?l?
Accusative f?lium f?li?s
Genitive f?li? f?li?rum auxili? auxili?rum
Dative f?li? f?li?s auxili? auxili?s
Ablative

In the older language, nouns ending with -vus, -quus and -vum take o rather than u in the nominative and accusative singular. For example, servus, serv? ('slave') could be servos, accusative servom.

Second-declension -r nouns

Some masculine nouns of the second declension end in -er or -ir in the nominative singular. The declension of these nouns is identical to that of the regular second declension, except for the lack of suffix in the nominative and vocative singular.

Some (but not all) nouns in -er drop the e genitive and other cases. For example, socer, socer? ('father-in-law') keeps its e. However, the noun magister, magistr? ('(school)master') drops its e in the genitive singular.

For declension tables of second-declension nouns, see the corresponding Wiktionary appendix.

puer, puer?
boy m.
ager, agr?
field m.
vir, vir?
man m.
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative puer puer? ager agr? vir vir?
Vocative
Accusative puerum puer?s agrum agr?s virum vir?s
Genitive puer? puer?rum agr? agr?rum vir? vir?rum
(virum)
Dative puer? puer?s agr? agr?s vir? vir?s
Ablative

The vocative puere is found but only in Plautus.[8] The genitive plural virum is found in poetry.[9]

Second-declension Greek nouns

The second declension contains two types of masculine Greek nouns and one form of neuter Greek noun. These nouns are irregular only in the singular, as are their first-declension counterparts. Greek nouns in the second declension are derived from the Omicron declension.

Some Greek nouns may also be declined as normal Latin nouns. For example, the?tron can appear as the?trum.

Irregular forms

Deus

The inflection of deus, de? ('god') is irregular. The vocative singular of deus is not attested in Classical Latin. In Ecclesiastical Latin the vocative of Deus ('God') is Deus.

In poetry, -um may substitute -?rum as the genitive plural ending.

deus, de?
god m.
Singular Plural
Nominative deus de?
di?
d?
Accusative deum de?s
Genitive de? de?rum
deum
Dative de? de?s
di?s
d?s
Ablative
Virus

The Latin word v?rus (the ? indicates a long i) means "1. slimy liquid, slime; 2. poison, venom", denoting the venom of a snake. This Latin word is probably related to the Greek ? (ios) meaning "venom" or "rust" and the Sanskrit word vi?a meaning "toxic, poison".[10]

Since v?rus in antiquity denoted something uncountable, it was a mass noun. Mass nouns pluralize only under special circumstances, hence the non-existence of plural forms in the texts.[11]

In Neo-Latin, a plural form is necessary in order to express the modern concept of 'viruses', which leads to the following declension:[12][13][14]

v?rus, v?r?
poison, venom, virus n.
Singular Plural
Nominative v?rus v?ra
Accusative
Genitive v?r?[i] v?r?rum
Dative v?r? v?r?s
Ablative
  1. ^ antique, heteroclitic: v?rus

Third declension

The third declension is the largest group of nouns. The nominative singular of these nouns may end in -a, -e, -?, -?, -y, -c, -l, -n, -r, -s, -t, or -x. This group of nouns includes masculine, neuter, and feminine nouns.

Consonant stems

The stem of a consonant-stem noun may be found from the genitive case by removing the ending -is. For example, the stem of p?x, p?cis f. 'peace' is p?c-, the stem of fl?men, fl?minis n. 'river' is fl?min-, and the stem of fl?s, fl?ris m. 'flower' is fl?r-.

Masculine, feminine and neuter nouns often have their own special nominative singular endings. For instance, many masculine nouns end in -or (amor, am?ris, 'love'). Many feminine nouns end in -?x (phoen?x, phoen?cis, 'phoenix'), and many neuter nouns end in -us with an r stem in the oblique cases (onus, oneris 'burden'; tempus, temporis 'time').

Third declension paradigm
(consonant stems)
Masculine &
feminine
Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative (-s) -?s --[i] -a
Accusative -em
Genitive -is -um -is -um
Dative -? -ibus -? -ibus
Ablative -e -e
  1. ^ The nominative and accusative of neuter nouns are always identical.
dux, ducis
leader m.
virt?s, virt?tis
virtue f.
n?men, n?minis
name n.
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative dux duc?s virt?s virt?t?s n?men n?mina
Accusative ducem virt?tem
Genitive ducis ducum virt?tis virt?tum n?minis n?minum
Dative duc? ducibus virt?t? virt?tibus n?min? n?minibus
Ablative duce virt?te n?mine

The locative endings for the third declension are -? or -e (singular) and -ibus (plural), as in r?r? 'in the country' and Trallibus 'at Tralles'.[15]

Third declension i-stem and mixed nouns

The third declension also has a set of nouns that are declined differently. They are called i-stems. i-stems are broken into two subcategories: pure and mixed. Pure i-stems are indicated by special neuter endings. Mixed i-stems are indicated by the double consonant rule. Stems indicated by the parisyllabic rule are usually mixed, occasionally pure.

Masculine and feminine
Parisyllabic rule: Some masculine and feminine third-declension i-stem nouns have the same number of syllables in the genitive as they do in the nominative. For example: n?vis, n?vis ('ship'); n?b?s, n?bis ('cloud'). The nominative ends in -is or -?s.
Double consonant rule: The rest of the masculine and feminine third-declension i-stem nouns have two consonants before the -is in the genitive singular. For example: pars, partis ('part').
Neuter
Special neuter ending: Neuter third-declension i-stems have no rule. However, all of them end in -al, -ar or -e. For example: animal, anim?lis ('animal'); cochlear, cochle?ris ('spoon'); mare, maris ('sea').

The mixed declension is distinguished from the consonant type only by having -ium in the genitive plural (and occasionally -?s in the accusative plural). The pure declension is characterized by having -? in the ablative singular, -ium in the genitive plural, -ia in the nominative and accusative plural neuter, and -im in the accusative singular masculine and feminine (however, adjectives have -em).

The accusative plural ending -?s is found in early Latin up to Virgil, but from the early empire onwards it was replaced by -?s.[16]

The accusative singular ending -im is found only in a few words: always in tussis 'cough', sitis 'thirst', Tiberis 'River Tiber'; usually in sec?ris 'axe', turris 'tower'; occasionally in n?vis 'ship'. Most nouns, however, have accusative singular -em.[17]

The ablative singular -? is found in nouns which have -im, and also, optionally, in some other nouns, e.g. in ign? or in igne 'in the fire'.

There are two mixed-declension neuter nouns: cor, cordis ('heart') and os, ossis ('bone'). Also, the mixed declension is used in the plural-only adjective pl?r?s, pl?ra ('most').

Third declension paradigm
(i-stem nouns)
Masculine &
Feminine
Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative -- -?s -- -ia
Accusative -em
-im
-?s
-?s
Genitive -is -ium -is -ium
Dative -? -ibus -? -ibus
Ablative -e
-?
Third declension paradigm
(mixed nouns)
Masculine &
Feminine
Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative -- -?s -- -a
Accusative -em -?s
-?s
Genitive -is -ium -is -ium
Dative -? -ibus -? -ibus
Ablative -e -e
turris, turris
tower f. (pure)
pars, partis
part, piece f. (mixed)
animal, anim?lis
animal, living being n. (pure)
Parisyllabic rule Double consonant rule Special neuter ending
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative turris turr?s pars part?s animal anim?lia
Accusative turrem
turrim
turr?s
turr?s
partem part?s
part?s
Genitive turris turrium partis partium anim?lis anim?lium
Dative turr? turribus part? partibus anim?l? anim?libus
Ablative turre
turr?
parte
(part?)

The rules for determining i-stems from non-i-stems and mixed i-stems are guidelines rather than rules: many words that might be expected to be i-stems according to the parisyllabic rule actually are not, such as canis ('dog') or iuvenis ('youth'), which have genitive plural canum 'of dogs' and iuvenum 'of young men'. Likewise, pater ('father'), m?ter ('mother'), fr?ter ('brother'), and par?ns ('parent') violate the double-consonant rule. This fluidity even in Roman times resulted in much more uncertainty in Medieval Latin.

Some nouns in -t?t-, such as c?vit?s, c?vit?tis 'city, community' can have either consonant-stem or i-stem genitive plural: c?vit?tum or c?vit?tium 'of the cities'.[16]

Peculiarities

In the third declension, there are four irregular nouns.

Case v?s, v?s
force, power f.
s?s, suis
swine, pig, hog m.f.
b?s, bovis
ox, bullock m.f.
Iuppiter, Iovis
Jupiter m.
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular
Nominative v?s v?r?s s?s su?s b?s[i] bov?s Iuppiter
I?piter[i]
Accusative vim v?r?s
v?r?s
suem bovem Iovem
Genitive v?s[ii] v?rium suis suum bovis boum
bovum
Iovis
Dative v?[ii] v?ribus su? suibus
s?bus
bov? b?bus
b?bus[i]
Iov?
Ablative sue bove Iove
  1. ^ a b c Here ? or ? come from Old Latin ou. Thus b?-/b?- and I?- before consonant endings are alternate developments of the bov- and Iov- before vowel endings. -- The double pp in the preferred form Iu-ppiter "Father Jove" is an alternate way of marking the length of the u in the etymological form I?-piter (see footnote in Jupiter (mythology)). i is weakened from a in pater (Allen and Greenough, sect. 79 b).
  2. ^ a b Genitive and dative cases are seldom used.

Fourth declension (u stems)

The fourth declension is a group of nouns consisting of mostly masculine words such as fluctus, fluct?s m. ('wave') and portus, port?s m. ('port') with a few feminine exceptions, including manus, man?s f. ('hand'). The fourth declension also includes several neuter nouns including gen?, gen?s n. ('knee'). Each noun has the ending -?s as a suffix attached to the root of the noun in the genitive singular form. The predominant letter in the ending forms of this declension is u, but the declension is otherwise very similar to the third-declension i stems.

Fourth declension paradigm
-us ending nouns -? ending nouns
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative -us -?s -? -ua
Accusative -um
Genitive -?s -uum -?s
-?
-uum
Dative -u? -ibus -u?
-?
-ibus
Ablative -? -?
portus, port?s
port, haven, harbor m.
corn?, corn?s
horn n.
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative portus port?s corn? cornua
Accusative portum
Genitive port?s portuum corn?s
corn?
cornuum
Dative portu? portibus cornu?
corn?
cornibus
Ablative port? corn?

In the dative and ablative plural, -ibus is sometimes replaced with -ubus. This is so for only a few nouns, such as art?s pl., ('limbs').

The locative endings for the fourth declension are -? (singular), and probably -? (singular) as well; sen?t? "at [the] senate", dom? "at home".

Domus ('house, dwelling, building, home, native place, family, household, race') is an irregular noun, mixing fourth and second declension nouns at the same time (especially in literature). However, in practice, it is generally declined as a regular -us stem fourth declension noun (except by the ablative singular and accusative plural, using -? and -?s instead).[18]

domus, dom?s/dom? f.
All possible declensions
Singular Plural
Nominative domus dom?s
Accusative domum dom?s
dom?s
Genitive dom?s
dom?
domuum
dom?rum
Dative domu?
dom?
dom?
domibus
Ablative dom?
dom?
domus, dom?s f.
Most common paradigm
Singular Plural
Nominative domus dom?s
Accusative domum dom?s
Genitive dom?s domuum
Dative domu? domibus
Ablative dom?

Fifth declension (e stems)

The fifth declension is a small group of nouns consisting of mostly feminine nouns like r?s, re? f. ('affair, matter, thing') and di?s, di m. ('day'; but f. in names of days). Each noun has either the ending - or -e? as a suffix attached to the root of the noun in the genitive singular form.

Fifth declension paradigm
-i?s ending nouns -?s ending nouns
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative -i?s -i?s -?s -?s
Accusative -iem -em
Genitive -i -i?rum -e? -?rum
Dative -i?bus -?bus
Ablative -i? -?
di?s, di
day m., f.
r?s, re?
thing f.
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative di?s di?s r?s r?s
Accusative diem rem
Genitive di di?rum re? r?rum
Dative di?bus r?bus
Ablative di? r?

Nouns ending in -i?s have long in the dative and genitive, while nouns ending in a consonant + -?s have short e? in these cases.

The locative ending of the fifth declension was -? (singular only), identical to the ablative singular, as in hodi? ('today').

Pronouns

Personal pronouns

The first and second persons are irregular, and both pronouns are indeclinable for gender; and the third person reflexive pronoun s?, su? always refers back to the subject, regardless of whether the subject is singular or plural.

First Person Second Person Third Person
ego, n?s
I, we
t?, v?s
you
s?, su?
himself, herself, itself,
oneself,
themselves
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative ego
eg?
n?s t? v?s --
Accusative m? t? s?
s?s?
Genitive me? nostr?,
nostrum
tu? vestr?,
vestrum
su?
Dative mihi
mih?
n?b?s tibi
tib?
v?b?s sibi
sib?
Ablative m? t? s?
s?s?

The genitive forms me?, tu?, nostr?, vestr?, su? are used as complements in certain grammatical constructions, whereas nostrum, vestrum are used with a partitive meaning ('[one] of us', '[one] of you'). To express possession, the possessive pronouns (essentially adjectives) meus, tuus, noster, vester are used, declined in the first and second declensions to agree in number and case with the thing possessed, e.g. pater meus 'my father', m?ter mea 'my mother'. The vocative singular masculine of meus is m?: m? Attice 'my dear Atticus'.[19]

Possessive pronouns' declensions

meus, mea, meum
my, mine
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative meus mea meum me? meae mea
Vocative m?
Accusative meum meam me?s me?s
Genitive me? meae me? me?rum me?rum me?rum
Dative me? me? me?s
Ablative me?
tuus, tua, tuum
your, yours (for singular possessor)
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative tuus tua tuum tu? tuae tua
Accusative tuum tuam tu?s tu?s
Genitive tu? tuae tu? tu?rum tu?rum tu?rum
Dative tu? tu? tu?s
Ablative tu?
suus, sua, suum
his, her, its, theirs (reflexive)
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative suus sua suum su? suae sua
Accusative suum suam su?s su?s
Genitive su? suae su? su?rum su?rum su?rum
Dative su? su? su?s
Ablative su?
noster, nostra, nostrum
our, ours
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative noster nostra nostrum nostr? nostrae nostra
Accusative nostrum nostram nostr?s nostr?s
Genitive nostr? nostrae nostr? nostr?rum nostr?rum nostr?rum
Dative nostr? nostr? nostr?s
Ablative nostr?

The possessive adjective vester has an archaic variant, voster; similar to noster.

vester, vestra, vestrum
voster, vostra, vostrum
your, yours (for plural possessor)
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative vester
voster
vestra
vostra
vestrum
vostrum
vestr?
vostr?
vestrae
vostrae
vestra
vostra
Accusative vestrum
vostrum
vestram
vostram
vestr?s
vostr?s
vestr?s
vostr?s
Genitive vestr?
vostr?
vestrae
vostrae
vestr?
vostr?
vestr?rum
vostr?rum
vestr?rum
vostr?rum
vestr?rum
vostr?rum
Dative vestr?
vostr?
vestr?
vostr?
vestr?s
vostr?s
Ablative vestr?
vostr?

Usually, to show the ablative of accompaniment, cum would be added to the ablative form. However, with personal pronouns (first and second person), the reflexive and the interrogative, -cum is added onto the end of the ablative form. That is: m?cum 'with me', n?b?scum 'with us', t?cum 'with you', v?b?scum, s?cum and qu?cum (sometimes qu?cum).

Pronouns have also an emphatic form bi using the suffix -met (egomet, t?te/t?temet, nosmet, vosmet), used in all cases, except by the genitive plural forms.

In accusative case, the forms m?m? and t?t? exist as emphatic, but they are not widely used.

S?, su? has a possessive adjective: suus, sua, suum, meaning 'his/her/its/their own':

Patrem suum numquam v?derat. (Cicero)[20]
"He had never seen his [own] father."

When 'his' or 'her' refers to someone else, not the subject, the genitive pronoun eius (as well as e?rum and e?rum) 'of him' is used instead of suus:

Fit obviam Clodi? ante fundum eius. (Cicero)[21]
"He met Clodius in front of the latter's farm."

When one sentence is embedded inside another with a different subject, s? and suus can refer to either subject:

Patr?s conscr?pt? ... l?g?t?s in B?th?niam miserunt qu? ab r?ge peterent, n? inim?cissimum suum secum haberet sibique d?deret. (Nepos)[22]
"The senators ... sent ambassadors to Bithynia, who were to ask the king not to keep their greatest enemy with him but hand him over to them."

For the third-person pronoun is 'he', see below.

Demonstrative pronouns and adjectives

Relative, demonstrative and indefinite pronouns are generally declined like first and second declension adjectives, with the following differences:

  • the nominatives are often irregular
  • the genitive singular ends in -?us rather than -ae or -?.
  • the dative singular ends in -?: rather than -ae or -?.

These differences characterize the pronominal declension, and a few special adjectives (t?tus 'whole', s?lus 'alone', ?nus 'one', n?llus 'no', alius 'another', alter 'another [of two]', etc.) are also declined according to this pattern.

All demonstrative, relative, and indefinite pronouns in Latin can also be used adjectivally, with some small differences; for example in the interrogative pronoun, quis 'who?' and quid 'what?' are usually used for the pronominal form, qu? and quod 'which?' for the adjectival form.

Third person pronoun

The weak demonstrative pronoun is, ea, id 'that' also serves as the third person pronoun 'he, she, it':

Third person
is, ea, id
he, she, it
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative is ea id e?
i?
eae ea
Accusative eum eam e?s e?s
Genitive eius e?rum e?rum e?rum
Dative e? e?s
i?s
Ablative e? e? e?

This pronoun is also often used adjectivally, e.g. is homo 'that man', ea pecunia 'that money'. It has no possessive adjective; the genitive is used instead: pater eius 'his/her father'; pater e?rum 'their father'.

Declension of ?dem

The pronoun or pronominal adjective ?dem, eadem, idem means 'the same'. It is derived from is with the suffix -dem. However, some forms have been assimilated.

?dem, eadem, idem
the same, same as
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative ?dem eadem idem e?dem
?dem
i?dem
eaedem eadem
Accusative eundem eandem e?sdem e?sdem
Genitive eiusdem e?rundem e?rundem e?rundem
Dative e?dem e?sdem
?sdem
i?sdem
Ablative e?dem e?dem e?dem

Other demonstrative pronouns

hic, haec, hoc
this, this one (proximal)
ille, illa, illud
that, that one (distal)
iste, ista, istud
that of yours (medial)
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative hic haec hoc h? hae haec ille illa illud ill? illae illa iste ista istud ist? istae ista
Accusative hunc hanc h?s h?s illum illam ill?s ill?s istum istam ist?s ist?s
Genitive huius[i] h?rum h?rum h?rum ill?us ill?rum ill?rum ill?rum ist?us ist?rum ist?rum ist?rum
Dative huic h?s ill? ill?s ist? ist?s
Ablative h?c h?c h?c ill? ill? ill? ist? ist? ist?
  1. ^ Sometimes spelled h?ius. Here, the macron indicates that the syllable is long or heavy, because the consonantal i between vowels is pronounced double, like *huiius, and the doubled consonant makes the first syllable heavy.[]

Similar in declension is alius, alia, aliud 'another'.

Intensive pronoun

ipse, ipsa, ipsum
himself, herself, itself
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative ipse ipsa ipsum ipsi ipsae ipsa
Accusative ipsum ipsam ips?s ips?s
Genitive ips?us ips?rum ips?rum ips?rum
Dative ips? ips?s
Ablative ips? ips? ips?

Interrogative pronouns

The interrogative pronouns are used strictly for asking questions. They are distinct from the relative pronoun and the interrogative adjective (which is declined like the relative pronoun). Interrogative pronouns rarely occur in the plural. The plural interrogative pronouns are the same as the plural relative pronouns.

Singular
quis? quid?
who?, what?
Masculine &
Feminine
Neuter
Nominative quis? quid?
Accusative quem?
Genitive cuius?[i]
Dative cu
Ablative qu

Relative pronouns

qu?, quae, quod
who, which, that
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative qu? quae quod qu? quae quae
Accusative quem quam qu?s qu?s
Genitive cuius[i] qu?rum qu?rum qu?rum
Dative cu? quibus
Ablative qu? qu? qu?
  1. ^ a b Sometimes spelled c?ius. Here, the macron indicates that the syllable is long or heavy, because the consonantal i between vowels is pronounced double, like *cuiius, and the doubled consonant makes the first syllable heavy.[]

Adjectives

First- and second-declension adjectives

First- and second-declension adjectives are inflected in the masculine, the feminine and the neuter; the masculine form typically ends in -us (although some end in -er, see below), the feminine form ends in -a, and the neuter form ends in -um. Therefore, some adjectives are given like altus, alta, altum.

Adjectives ending -ius use the vocative -ie (?brie, "[O] drunk man", vocative of ?brius), just as in Old Latin all -ius nouns did (f?lie, "[O] son", archaic vocative of f?lius).

altus, alta, altum
high, long, tall
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative altus alta altum alt? altae alta
Vocative alte
Accusative altum altam alt?s alt?s
Genitive alt? altae alt? alt?rum alt?rum alt?rum
Dative alt? alt? alt?s
Ablative alt?

First- and second-declension -r adjectives

Some first- and second-declension adjectives' masculine forms end in -er. As with second-declension -r nouns, some adjectives retain the e throughout inflection, and some omit it. Sacer, sacra, sacrum omits its e while miser, misera, miserum keeps it.

miser, misera, miserum
sad, poor, unhappy
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative miser misera miserum miser? miserae misera
Accusative miserum miseram miser?s miser?s
Genitive miser? miserae miser? miser?rum miser?rum miser?rum
Dative miser? miser? miser?s
Ablative miser?
sacer, sacra, sacrum
sacred, holy
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative sacer sacra sacrum sacr? sacrae sacra
Accusative sacrum sacram sacr?s sacr?s
Genitive sacr? sacrae sacr? sacr?rum sacr?rum sacr?rum
Dative sacr? sacr? sacr?s
Ablative sacr?

First and second declension pronominal adjectives

Nine first and second declension pronominal adjectives are irregular in the genitive and the dative in all genders. They can be remembered by using the mnemonic acronym ?nus nauta. They are:

?llus, ?lla, ?llum
any
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative ?llus ?lla ?llum ?ll? ?llae ?lla
Accusative ?llum ?llam ?ll?s ?ll?s
Genitive ?ll?us ?ll?rum ?ll?rum ?ll?rum
Dative ?ll? ?ll?s
Ablative ?ll? ?ll? ?ll?

Third-declension adjectives

Third-declension adjectives are normally declined like third-declension i-stem nouns, except for the fact they usually have -? rather than -e in the ablative singular (unlike i-stem nouns, in which only pure i-stems have -?). Some adjectives, however, like the one-ending vetus, veteris ('old, aged'), have -e in the ablative singular, -um in the genitive plural, and -a in the nominative and accusative neuter plural.

Third-declension adjectives with one ending

These have a single nominative ending for all genders, although as usual the endings for the other cases vary. As with nouns, a genitive is given for the purpose of showing the inflection.

atr?x, atr?x
terrible, mean, cruel
Singular Plural
Masculine &
Feminine
Neuter Masculine &
Feminine
Neuter
Nominative atr?x atr?x atr?c?s atr?cia
Accusative atr?cem atr?c?s
atr?c?s
Genitive atr?cis atr?cium
Dative
Ablative
atr?c? atr?cibus
Non-i-stem variant
vetus, vetus
old, aged
Singular Plural
Masculine &
Feminine
Neuter Masculine &
Feminine
Neuter
Nominative vetus vetus veter?s vetera
Accusative veterem
Genitive veteris veterum
Dative veter? veteribus
Ablative vetere

Third-declension adjectives with two endings

Third-declension adjectives that have two endings have one form for the masculine and feminine, and a separate form for the neuter. The ending for the masculine and feminine is -is, and the ending for the neuter is -e. It is not necessary to give the genitive, as it is the same as the nominative masculine singular.

agilis, agile
nimble, swift
Singular Plural
Masculine &
Feminine
Neuter Masculine &
Feminine
Neuter
Nominative agilis agile agil?s agilia
Accusative agilem agil?s
agil?s
Genitive agilis agilium
Dative
Ablative
agil? agilibus

Third-declension adjectives with three endings

Third-declension adjectives with three endings have three separate nominative forms for all three genders. Like third and second declension -r nouns, the masculine ends in -er. The feminine ends in -ris, and the neuter ends in -re. The genitive is the same as the nominative feminine singular.

celer, celeris, celere
swift, rapid, brash
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine &
Feminine
Neuter
Nominative celer celeris celere celer?s celeria
Accusative celerem celerem
Genitive celeris celerium
Dative
Ablative
celer? celeribus
alacer, alacris, alacre
lively, jovial, animated
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine &
Feminine
Neuter
Nominative alacer alacris alacre alacr?s alacria
Accusative alacrem alacrem alacr?s
alacr?s
Genitive alacris alacrium
Dative
Ablative
alacr? alacribus

Comparative and superlative forms of adjectives

As in English, adjectives have superlative and comparative forms. For regular first and second declension and third declension adjectives with one or two endings, the comparative is formed by adding -ior for the masculine and feminine, and -ius for the neuter to the stem. The genitives for both are formed by adding -i?ris. Therefore, they are declined in the third declension, but they are not declined as i-stems. Superlatives are formed by adding -issimus, -issima, -issimum to the stem and are thus declined like first and second declension adjectives.

General pattern for comparatives

altior, altius
higher, deeper (comparative of altus)
Singular Plural
Masculine &
Feminine
Neuter Masculine &
Feminine
Neuter
Nominative altior altius alti?r?s alti?ra
Accusative alti?rem
Genitive alti?ris alti?rum
Dative alti?r? alti?ribus
Ablative alti?re
altissimus, altissima, altissimum
highest, deepest (superlative of altus)
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative altissimus altissima altissimum altissim? altissimae altissima
Vocative altissime
Accusative altissimum altissimam altissim?s altissim?s
Genitive altissim? altissimae altissim? altissim?rum altissim?rum altissim?rum
Dative altissim? altissim? altissim?s
Ablative altissim?

Comparatives and superlatives with normal endings

Comparatives and superlatives of -er adjectives

Adjectives (in the first and second as well as third declensions) that have masculine nominative singular forms ending in -er are slightly different. As with normal adjectives, the comparative is formed by adding -ior to the stem, but for the superlative, -rimus is added to the nominative masculine singular.

Comparatives and superlatives of -lis adjectives

Some third declension adjectives with two endings in -lis in the masculine-feminine nominative singular have irregular superlative forms. The following are the only adjectives that do.

Comparatives and superlatives of -eus/-ius adjectives

First and second declension adjectives that end in -eus or -ius are unusual in that they do not form the comparative and superlative by taking endings at all. Instead, magis ('more') and maxim? ('most'), the comparative and superlative degrees of magnoper? ('much, greatly'), respectively, are used.

Many adjectives in -uus, except those in -quus or -guus, also follow this rule.

Positive Comparative Superlative
id?neus, id?nea, id?neum ('suitable, fitting, proper') magis id?neus maxim? id?neus
s?lit?rius, s?lit?ria, s?lit?rium ('solitary, lonely') magis s?lit?rius maxim? s?lit?rius
ebrius, ebria, ebrium ('drunk') magis ebrius maxim? ebrius
merit?rius, merit?ria, merit?rium ('meritorious') magis merit?rius maxim? merit?rius
gr?mineus, gr?minea, gr?mineum ('grassy') magis gr?mineus maxim? gr?mineus
bell?t?rius, bell?t?ria, bell?t?rium ('warlike, bellicose') magis bell?t?rius maxim? bell?t?rius
arduus, ardua, arduum ('lofty, steep') magis arduus maxim? arduus

Irregular comparatives and superlatives

As in most languages, Latin has adjectives that have irregular comparatives and superlatives.

Positive Comparative Superlative
bonus, bona, bonum ('good') melior, melius ('better') optimus, optima, optimum ('best')
malus, mala, malum ('bad, evil') p?ior, p?ius ('worse') pessimus, pessima, pessimum ('worst')
magnus, magna, magnum ('great, large') m?ior, m?ius ('greater') maximus, maxima, maximum ('greatest')
parvus, parva, parvum ('small, slight') minor, minus ('lesser') minimus, minima, minimum ('least')
multus, multa, multum ('much, many') pl?s[i] ('more') pl?rimus, pl?rima, pl?rimum ('most')
propinquus, propinqua, propinquum ('near, close') propior, propius ('nearer') proximus, proxima, proximum ('nearest, next')
m?t?rus, m?t?ra, m?t?rum ('ripe, mature') m?t?rior, m?t?rius ('riper') m?t?rrimus, m?t?rrima, m?t?rrimum[ii] ('ripest')
n?quam[iii] ('worthless') n?quior, n?quius ('more worthless') n?quissimus, n?quissima, n?quissimum ('most worthless')
posterus, postera, posterum ('next, future') posterior, posterius ('later') postr?mus, postr?ma, postr?mum ('last, latest')
postumus, postuma, postumum
superus, supera, superum ('above') superior, superius ('upper') supr?mus, supr?ma, supr?mum ('uppermost')
summus, summa, summum
exterus, extera, exterum ('outward') exterior, exterius ('outer') extr?mus, extr?ma, extr?mum ('outermost')
extimus, extima, extimum
?nferus, ?nfera, ?nferum ('below') ?nferior, ?nferius ('lower') ?nfimus, ?nfima, ?nfimum ('lowest')
?mus, ?ma, ?mum
senex, senis ('old, aged') senior, senius ('older, elder') senissimus, senissima, senissimum ('oldest, eldest')
iuvenis, iuvenis ('young, youthful') iuvenior, iuvenius ('younger')
i?nior, i?nius
iuvenissimus, iuvenissima, iuvenissimum ('youngest')
i?nissimus, i?nissima, i?nissimum [24][25]
  1. ^ Noun used with genitive to express more of something in the singular; in the plural used as an adjective: pl?r?s, pl?ra, genitive pl?rium.
  2. ^ Often replaced by the regular form m?t?rissimus, m?t?rissima, m?t?rissimum.
  3. ^ Indeclinable.

Declension of numerals

There are several different kinds of numeral words in Latin: the two most common are cardinal numerals and ordinal numerals. There are also several more rare numerals, e.g., distributive numerals and adverbial numerals.

Cardinal numerals

All cardinal numerals are indeclinable, except ?nus ('one'), duo ('two'), tr?s ('three'), plural hundreds ducent? ('two hundred'), trecent? ('three hundred') etc., and m?lle ('thousand'), which have cases and genders like adjectives. ?nus, ?na, ?num is declined like a first- and second-declension pronoun with -?us or -ius in the genitive, and -? in the dative. Duo is declined irregularly, tr?s is declined like a third-declension plural adjective, -cent? ('hundred') numerals decline like first- and second-declension adjectives, and m?lle is invariable in the singular and declined like a third-declension i-stem neuter noun in the plural:

The plural endings for ?nus are used with pl?r?lia tantum nouns, e. g. ?na castra (one [military] camp), ?nae sc?lae (one ladder).

?nus, ?na, ?num
one
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative ?nus ?na ?num ?n? ?nae ?na
Vocative ?ne
Accusative ?num ?nam ?n?s ?n?s
Genitive ?n?us / ?nius ?n?rum ?n?rum ?n?rum
Dative ?n? ?n?s
Ablative ?n? ?n? ?n?

The word amb? ('both'), is declined like duo except that its o is long. Both declensions derive from the Indo-European dual number, otherwise defunct in Latin, rather than the plural.

duo, duae, duo
two
Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative duo duae duo
Accusative du?s
duo
du?s
Genitive du?rum du?rum du?rum
Dative
Ablative
du?bus du?bus du?bus
amb?, ambae, amb?
both
Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative amb? ambae amb?
Accusative amb?s
amb?
amb?s
Genitive amb?rum amb?rum amb?rum
Dative
Ablative
amb?bus amb?bus amb?bus
tr?s, tria
three
Plural
Masculine &
Feminine
Neuter
Nominative tr?s tria
Accusative tr?s / tr?s
Genitive trium
Dative
Ablative
tribus

The numeral centum ('one hundred') is indeclinable, but all the other hundred numerals are declinable.

ducent?, ducentae, ducenta
two hundred
Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative ducent? ducentae ducenta
Accusative ducent?s ducent?s
Genitive ducent?rum ducent?rum ducent?rum
Dative
Ablative
ducent?s

The word m?lle 'thousand' is a singular indeclinable adjective. However, its plural, m?lia, is a plural third-declension i-stem neuter noun. To write the phrase "four thousand horses" in Latin, the genitive is used: quattuor m?lia equ?rum, literally, "four thousands of horses".

m?lle
(one) thousand
m?lia, m?lium
x thousand,
thousands
Nominative m?lle m?lia
m?llia
-ia
Accusative
Genitive m?lium
m?llium
-ium
Dative
Ablative
m?libus
m?llibus
-ibus

The rest of the numbers are indeclinable whether used as adjectives or as nouns.

For further information on the different sets of Latin numerals, see Latin numerals (linguistics).

Adverbs and their comparatives and superlatives

Adverbs are not declined. However, adverbs must be formed if one wants to make an adjective into an adverb.

Adverbs from first- and second-declension adjectives

First and second declension adjectives' adverbs are formed by adding -? onto their stems.

Adjective Adverb
cl?rus, cl?ra, cl?rum ('clear, famous') cl?r? ('clearly, famously')
validus, valida, validum ('strong, robust') valid? ('strongly, robustly')
?nf?rmus, ?nf?rma, ?nf?rmum ('weak') ?nf?rm? ('weakly')
solidus, solida, solidum ('complete, firm') solid? ('completely, firmly')
integer, integra, integrum ('whole, fresh') integr? ('wholly, freshly')
l?ber, l?bera, l?berum ('free') l?ber? ('freely')

Adverbs from third declension adjectives

Typically, third declension adjectives' adverbs are formed by adding -iter to the stem. However, most third declension adjectives with one ending simply add -er to the stem.

Adjective Adverb
pr?d?ns, pr?d?ns (pr?dentis) ('prudent') pr?denter ('prudently')
aud?x, aud?x (aud?cis) ('bold') aud?cter ('boldly')
vir?lis, vir?le ('courageous, spirited') vir?liter ('courageously, spiritedly')
sal?bris, sal?bre ('wholesome') sal?briter ('wholesomely')

Comparative and superlative of adverbs

Adverbs' comparative forms are identical to the nominative neuter singular of the corresponding comparative adjective. Adverbs' superlative forms are simply formed by attaching the regular ending -? to the corresponding superlative adjective. As with their corresponding adjectival forms, first and second declensions adjectives ending in -eus or -ius use magis and maxim? as opposed to distinct endings.

Positive Comparative Superlative
cl?r? ('clearly, famously') cl?rius cl?rissim?
solid? ('completely, firmly') solidius solidissim?
id?ne? ('suitably, properly') magis id?ne? maxim? id?ne?
prudenter ('prudently') prudentius prudentissim?
sal?briter ('wholesomely') sal?brius sal?brissim?

Irregular adverbs and their comparative and superlative forms

As with adjectives, there are irregular adverbs with peculiar comparative and superlative forms.

Positive Comparative Superlative
bene ('well') melius ('better') optim? ('best')
male ('badly, ill') peius ('worse') pessim? ('worst')
magnopere ('greatly') magis ('more') maxim? ('most')
multum ('much, a lot') pl?s ('more') pl?rimum ('most')
parvum ('little') minus ('less') minim? ('least')
n?quiter ('worthlessly') n?quius ('more worthlessly') n?quissim? ('most worthlessly')
saepe ('often') saepius ('more often') saepissim? ('most often')
m?t?r? ('seasonably, betimes') m?t?rius ('more seasonably') m?turrim? ('most seasonably')
prope ('near') propius ('nearer') proxim? ('nearest, next')
n?per ('recently') -- n?perrim? ('most recently, previously')
potis ('possible') potius ('rather') potissim? ('especially')
-- prius ('before, previously') pr?m? ('first')
secus ('otherwise') s?tius
sequius ('less')
--

Peculiarities within declension

Irregularity in number

Some nouns are only used in the singular (singulare tantum) such as:

  • materials, such as aurum 'gold'

Some nouns are only used in the plural (plurale tantum), or when plural have a singular meaning such as:

Indeclinable nouns

Indeclinable nouns are nouns which only have one form in all cases (of the singular).

Heterogeneous nouns

Heterogeneous nouns are nouns which vary in respect to gender.

  • A few nouns in the second declension occur in both the neuter and masculine. However, their meanings remain the same.
  • Some nouns are one gender in the singular, but become another gender in the plural. They may also change in meaning.
Singular Plural
balneum n. ('bath') balneae f. or balnea n. ('bathhouse')
epulum n. ('feast, banquet') epulae f. ('feast, banquet')
fr?num n. ('bridle, curb') fr?n? m. bridle, curb
iocus m. ('joke, jest') ioca n. or ioci m. ('jokes, fun')
locus m. ('place, location') loca n. ('region'); loc? m. ('places in books, arguments')
r?strum n. ('hoe, rake') r?str? m. ('hoes, rakes')

Plurals with alternative meanings

Singular Plural
aed?s, aedis f. ('building, temple') aed?s, aedium ('rooms, house')
auxilium, auxili? n. ('help, aid') auxilia, auxili?rum ('auxiliary troops')
carcer, carceris m. ('prison, cell') carcer?s, carcerum ('starting traps')
castrum, castr? n. ('fort, castle, fortress') castra, castr?rum ('military camp, encampment')
c?pia, copiae f. ('plenty, much, abundance') c?piae, copi?rum ('troops')
fort?na, fort?nae f. ('luck, chance') fort?nae, fort?n?rum ('wealth, fortune')
gr?tia, gr?tiae f. ('charm, favor') gr?tiae, gr?ti?rum ('thanks')
imped?mentum, imped?ment? m. ('impediment, hindrance') imped?menta, imped?ment?rum ('baggage, baggage train')
littera, litterae f. ('letter [alphabet]') litterae, litter?rum ('letter [message], epistle, scholarship, literature')
m?s, m?ris m. ('habit, inclination') m?r?s, m?rum m. ('morals, character')
opera, operae f. ('trouble, pains') operae, oper?rum m. ('workmen')
*ops, opis f.[i] ('help') op?s, opium ('resources, wealth')
pars, partis f. ('part, piece') part?s, partium ('office, function')
  1. ^ Nominative and dative are not attested except as the name of the goddess Ops.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Aelius Donatus, Ars Major, 2.8.
  2. ^ Mongan, James Roscoe (1861). The School and University Eton Latin Grammar, Explanatory and Critical. London 1861.
  3. ^ Paul Crouzet (1902), Grammaire Latine, simple et complète, p. 7.
  4. ^ Rosa (1962), a song by the Belgian singer Jacques Brel, with the declension of rosa, rosa, rosam following the British order of cases.
  5. ^ Allen and Greenough. §43 c.
  6. ^ Allen and Greenough. §49 a.
  7. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge §15, Allen & Greenough §12, §49c
  8. ^ Perseus database.
  9. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge, Latin Grammar 3rd ed., p. 17.
  10. ^ Chambers's Etymological Dictionary Enlarged Edition 1931
  11. ^ June 1999 issue of ASM News by the American Society for Microbiology
  12. ^ Nuntii Latini: Finnish Broadcasting Company (Radiophonia Finnica Generalis). Archiv I. 19.5.2000 - 6.12.2002: "NOVUM VIRUS COMPUTATORIUM
    Novum viri computatorii genus nomine Code Red in praesenti in Interreti grassatur, ut nuntiavit institutum SANS, cuius est securitati retis informatici providere. Code Red II, quod per cursum electronicum diffunditur, priore viro acerbius est et, postquam in servitoria penetravit, in systema lacunam facit. Ita fieri potest, ut alia vira eaque etiam periculosiora in machinas computatorias irrepant. Iam vermis Code Red I molestissimus fuit, cum biduo in trecenta milia computatrorum in omni orbe terrarum invasit."
  13. ^ Pons: virus
  14. ^ William T. Stearn: Botanical Latin. History, Grammar, Syntax, Terminology and Vocabulary. David & Charles, third edition, 1983. Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. v?rorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)."
  15. ^ Allen and Greenough. §80.
  16. ^ a b Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 18.
  17. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 27.
  18. ^ http://www.popflock.com/video?id=33n1qYq9Liw
  19. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum 6.1.20 etc.
  20. ^ Cicero, Pro Rabirio Postumo 4
  21. ^ Cicero, Pro Milone 29
  22. ^ Cornelius Nepos, Hannibal 12.2
  23. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1903), Gildersleeve's Latin Grammar, p. 39.
  24. ^ Plinius Caecilius Secundus, Gaius (1518). "C. Plinii Secvndi Novocomensis Epistolarum libri X.: Eiusdem Panegyricus Traiano Principi dictus. Eiusdem de Viris illustrib. In re militari, [et] in administranda rep. Suetonij Tranquilli de Claris Grammaticis, [et] Rhetoribus. Iulij Obsequentis Prodigiorum liber. Indices duo, quorum altero nomina referuntur eorum, ad quos Plinius scribit, altero quicquid memoratu dignum toto opere continetur. Latina interpretatio dictionum, [et] sententiarum, quibus Plinius utitur".
  25. ^ Patin, Guy; Reveillé-Parise, Joseph-Henri (1846). Lettres de Gui Patin. Chez J.-B. Baillière. p. 155. iunissimum.

References


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