LDMOS
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LDMOS

LDMOS (laterally-diffused metal-oxide semiconductor)[1] is a planar double-diffused MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor) used in amplifiers, including microwave power amplifiers, RF power amplifiers and audio power amplifiers. These transistors are often fabricated on p/p+ silicon epitaxial layers. The fabrication of LDMOS devices mostly involves various ion-implantation and subsequent annealing cycles.[1] As an example, The drift region of this power MOSFET is fabricated using up to three ion implantation sequences in order to achieve the appropriate doping profile needed to withstand high electric fields.

The silicon-based RF LDMOS (radio-frequency LDMOS) is the most widely used RF power amplifier in mobile networks,[2][3][4] enabling the majority of the world's cellular voice and data traffic.[5] LDMOS devices are widely used in RF power amplifiers for base-stations as the requirement is for high output power with a corresponding drain to source breakdown voltage usually above 60 volts.[6] Compared to other devices such as GaAs FETs they show a lower maximum power gain frequency.

Manufacturers of LDMOS devices and foundries offering LDMOS technologies include TSMC, LFoundry, Tower Semiconductor, GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Vanguard International Semiconductor Corporation, STMicroelectronics, Infineon Technologies, RFMD, NXP Semiconductors (including former Freescale Semiconductor), SMIC, MK Semiconductors, Polyfet and Ampleon.

History

DMOS (double-diffused MOSFET) was reported in the 1960s.[7] DMOS is a MOSFET made using a double diffusion proces. Laterally-double diffused MOSFET (LDMOS) was reported in 1969 by Tarui et al of the Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL).[8][9]

Hitachi was the only LDMOS manufacturer between 1977 and 1983, during which time LDMOS was used in audio power amplifiers from manufacturers such as HH Electronics (V-series) and Ashly Audio, and were used for music, high-fidelity (hi-fi) equipment and public address systems.[10]

RF LDMOS

LDMOS for RF applications was introduced in the early 1970s by Cauge et al.[11][12][13] In the early 1990s, RF LDMOS (radio-frequency LDMOS) eventually displaced RF bipolar transistors as RF power amplifiers for cellular network infrastructure because RF LDMOS provided superior linearity, efficiency and gain along with lower costs.[14][4] With the introduction of the 2G digital mobile network, LDMOS became the most widely used RF power amplifier technology in 2G and then 3G mobile networks.[2] By the late 1990s, the RF LDMOS had become the dominant RF power amplifier in markets such as cellular base stations, broadcasting, radar, and Industrial, Scientific and Medical band applications.[15] LDMOS has since enabled the majority of the world's cellular voice and data traffic.[5]

In the mid-2000s, RF power amplifiers based on single LDMOS devices suffered from relatively low efficiency when used in 3G and 4G (LTE) networks, due to the higher peak-to-average power of the modulation schemes and CDMA and OFDMA access techniques used in these communication systems. In 2006, the efficiency of LDMOS power amplifiers was boosted using typical efficiency enhancement techniques, such as Doherty topologies or envelope tracking.[16]

As of 2011, RF LDMOS is the dominant device technology used in high-power RF power amplifier applications for frequencies ranging from 1MHz to over 3.5GHz, and is the dominant RF power device technology for cellular infrastructure.[14] As of 2012, RF LDMOS is the leading technology for a wide range of RF power applications.[4] As of 2018, LDMOS is the de facto standard for power amplifiers in mobile networks such as 4G and 5G.[3][5]

Applications

Common applications of LDMOS technology include the following.

RF LDMOS

Common applications of RF LDMOS technology include the following.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b A. Elhami Khorasani, IEEE Electron Dev. Lett., vol. 35, pp. 1079-1081, 2014
  2. ^ a b c d e f Baliga, Bantval Jayant (2005). Silicon RF Power MOSFETS. World Scientific. pp. 1-2. ISBN 9789812561213.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Asif, Saad (2018). 5G Mobile Communications: Concepts and Technologies. CRC Press. p. 134. ISBN 9780429881343.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Theeuwen, S. J. C. H.; Qureshi, J. H. (June 2012). "LDMOS Technology for RF Power Amplifiers" (PDF). IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. 60 (6): 1755-1763. Bibcode:2012ITMTT..60.1755T. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2012.2193141. ISSN 1557-9670. S2CID 7695809.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "LDMOS Products and Solutions". NXP Semiconductors. Retrieved 2019.
  6. ^ van Rijs, F. (2008). "Status and trends of silicon LDMOS base station PA technologies to go beyond 2.5 GHz applications". Radio and Wireless Symposium, 2008 IEEE. Orlando, FL. pp. 69-72. doi:10.1109/RWS.2008.4463430.
  7. ^ RE Harris (1967). "Double Diffused MOS Transistor". International Electron Devices Meeting, IEEE: 40.
  8. ^ Tarui, Y.; Hayashi, Y.; Sekigawa, Toshihiro (September 1969). "Diffusion Self-Aligned MOST; A New Approach for High Speed Device". Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Solid State Devices. doi:10.7567/SSDM.1969.4-1. S2CID 184290914.
  9. ^ McLintock, G. A.; Thomas, R. E. (December 1972). "Modelling of the double-diffused MOST's with self-aligned gates". 1972 International Electron Devices Meeting: 24-26. doi:10.1109/IEDM.1972.249241.
  10. ^ a b c Duncan, Ben (1996). High Performance Audio Power Amplifiers. Elsevier. pp. 177-8, 406. ISBN 9780080508047.
  11. ^ T.P. Cauge;J. Kocsis (1970). "A double-diffused MOS transistor with microwave gain and subnanosecond switching speeds". IEEE Int. Electron Devices Meeting.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  12. ^ T.P. Cauge; J. Kocsis; H.J Sigg; G.D Vendelin (1971). "Double-diffused MOS transistor achieves microwave gain (MOS transistors for high digital logic speed and microwave performance, discussing fabrication by double diffusion". Electronics. 44: 99-104.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  13. ^ H.J Sigg; G.D. Vendelin; T.P. Cauge; J. Kocsis (1972). "D-MOS transistor for microwave applications". IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices. 19 (1): 45-53. Bibcode:1972ITED...19...45S. doi:10.1109/T-ED.1972.17370.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  14. ^ a b c "White Paper - 50V RF LDMOS: An ideal RF power technology for ISM, broadcast and commercial aerospace applications" (PDF). NXP Semiconductors. Freescale Semiconductor. September 2011. Retrieved 2019.
  15. ^ Baliga, Bantval Jayant (2005). Silicon RF Power MOSFETS. World Scientific. p. 71. ISBN 9789812561213.
  16. ^ Draxler, P.; Lanfranco, S.; Kimball, D.; Hsia, C.; Jeong, J.; De Sluis, J.; Asbeck, P. (2006). "High Efficiency Envelope Tracking LDMOS Power Amplifier for W-CDMA". 2006 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest. pp. 1534-1537. doi:10.1109/MWSYM.2006.249605. ISBN 978-0-7803-9541-1. S2CID 15083357.
  17. ^ a b c "L-Band Radar". NXP Semiconductors. Retrieved 2019.
  18. ^ a b c d "Avionics". NXP Semiconductors. Retrieved 2019.
  19. ^ a b c "RF Aerospace and Defense". NXP Semiconductors. Retrieved 2019.
  20. ^ a b "Communications and Electronic Warfare". NXP Semiconductors. Retrieved 2019.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h "Mobile & Wideband Comms". ST Microelectronics. Retrieved 2019.
  22. ^ a b c d e f "470-860 MHz - UHF Broadcast". NXP Semiconductors. Retrieved 2019.
  23. ^ a b c d e f "RF LDMOS Transistors". ST Microelectronics. Retrieved 2019.
  24. ^ a b "28/32V LDMOS: IDDE technology boost efficiency & robustness" (PDF). ST Microelectronics. Retrieved 2019.
  25. ^ a b c d e f "AN2048: Application note - PD54008L-E: 8 W - 7 V LDMOS in PowerFLAT packages for wireless meter reading applications" (PDF). ST Microelectronics. Retrieved 2019.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "ISM & Broadcast". ST Microelectronics. Retrieved 2019.
  27. ^ a b c d "700-1300 MHz - ISM". NXP Semiconductors. Retrieved 2019.
  28. ^ a b "2450 MHz - ISM". NXP Semiconductors. Retrieved 2019.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h "1-600 MHz - Broadcast and ISM". NXP Semiconductors. Retrieved 2019.
  30. ^ a b "28/32 V LDMOS: New IDCH technology boosts RF power performance up to 4 GHz" (PDF). ST Microelectronics. Retrieved 2019.
  31. ^ a b "S-Band Radar". NXP Semiconductors. Retrieved 2019.
  32. ^ "RF Cellular Infrastructure". NXP Semiconductors. Retrieved 2019.
  33. ^ a b c d "RF Mobile Radio". NXP Semiconductors. Retrieved 2019.
  34. ^ "UM0890: User manual - 2-stage RF power amplifier with LPF based on the PD85006L-E and STAP85050 RF power transistors" (PDF). ST Microelectronics. Retrieved 2019.
  35. ^ a b "915 MHz RF Cooking". NXP Semiconductors. Retrieved 2019.
  36. ^ a b c Torres, Victor (21 June 2018). "Why LDMOS is the best technology for RF energy". Microwave Engineering Europe. Ampleon. Retrieved 2019.
  37. ^ a b c "RF Defrosting". NXP Semiconductors. Retrieved 2019.
  38. ^ a b "RF Cellular Infrastructure". NXP Semiconductors. Retrieved 2019.
  39. ^ "450 - 1000 MHz". NXP Semiconductors. Retrieved 2019.
  40. ^ "3400 - 4100 MHz". NXP Semiconductors. Retrieved 2019.
  41. ^ "HF, VHF and UHF Radar". NXP Semiconductors. Retrieved 2019.

External links


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LDMOS
 



 



 
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