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King of Macedon
Macedonia (also known as Macedon) was an Ancient Greek kingdom centered on the present-day region of Macedonia and in northern Greece, inhabited by the Ancient Macedonians. At various points in its history the kingdom proper encompassed most of Northern Greece and parts of the present-day Republic of North Macedonia, Albania, Bulgaria and Turkish Thrace. It emerged as the dominant power in Greece during the 4th century BC, when King Philip II successfully united the Greek city-states, such as Athens and Thebes, into the Corinthian League. Philip's son, Alexander the Great, conquered the Persian Empire a few years later. The Greek Kingdom of Macedonia itself soon lost direct control of Alexander's vast Asian territories during the Wars of the Diadochi, but it broadly retained its rule over Greece itself until defeated by the Roman Republic in the Macedonian Wars (215-148 BC).
After Perseus's defeat at the Battle of Pydna in 167 BC, Macedon was divided into four republics under Roman domination. In 150 BC, a man named Andriscus claimed to be the son of Perseus, and claimed the throne of Macedon as Philip VI. This led to the Fourth Macedonian War, in which Andriscus was defeated by the Romans, and Macedon was annexed as a Roman province in 148 BC.
- ^ As part of the compromise in Babylon after Alexander the Great's death, it was agreed that Philip would be joint king with Roxanne's unborn child, should it prove to be male. Hence Philip was sole king for several months until Alexander IV was born, and Alexander too was sole king from Philip's murder in 317 BC to his own death. Neither had any effective power during this period; Philip was mentally infirm and Alexander was under age.
- ^ Perdiccas (And his immediate Regency successors) did not take the title of Regent, (Epitropos) but instead styled himself 'Manager' (Epimelêtês), however his position was that of Regent in all but name.
- ^ Demetrius was proclaimed King in 306 BC with his father, but his reign in Macedonia only became effective after he ousted the Antipatrids in 294, and his power there ended after he was in turn expelled by Pyrrhus and Lysimachus in 286. His death in 283 is often given as marking the end of his reign.
- ^ Antigonus claimed the kingship upon his father's death in 283, but it was only effective after 276.
- List of ancient Macedonians
- Duane A. March, "The Kings of Makedon: 399-369 BC," Historia (Franz Steiner Verlag) vol. 44, No. 3 (1995), 257-282.