Kaluga
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Kaluga
Kaluga

Kaluga city, nowadays (collage).jpg
Flag of Kaluga
Flag
Coat of arms of Kaluga
Coat of arms
Location of Kaluga
Kaluga is located in Russia
Kaluga
Kaluga
Location of Kaluga
Kaluga is located in Kaluga Oblast
Kaluga
Kaluga
Kaluga (Kaluga Oblast)
Coordinates: 54°33?N 36°17?E / 54.550°N 36.283°E / 54.550; 36.283Coordinates: 54°33?N 36°17?E / 54.550°N 36.283°E / 54.550; 36.283
CountryRussia
Federal subjectKaluga Oblast[1]
First mentioned1371[2]
Government
 o BodyCity Duma[3]
 o City Head[5]Dmitry Denisov[4]
Area
 o Total170.5 km2 (65.8 sq mi)
Elevation
190 m (620 ft)
Population
 o Total324,698
 o Estimate 
(2018)[8]
340,851 (+5%)
 o Rank55th in 2010
 o Density1,900/km2 (4,900/sq mi)
 o Subordinated toCity of Kaluga[1]
 o Capital ofKaluga Oblast[1], City of Kaluga[1]
 o Urban okrugKaluga Urban Okrug[9]
 o Capital ofKaluga Urban Okrug[9]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[10])
Postal code(s)[11]
248xxx
Dialing code(s)+7 4842[12]
OKTMO ID29701000001
City DaySecond Saturday of September[13]
Websitewww.kaluga-gov.ru

Kalúga (Russian: ?, IPA: [k?'?u]), a city and the administrative center of Kaluga Oblast in Russia, stands on the Oka River 150 kilometers (93 mi) southwest of Moscow. Population: ;[7] ;[14] .[15]

Kaluga's most famous resident, the space travel pioneer Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, worked there as a school teacher from 1892 to 1935. The Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics in Kaluga is dedicated to his theoretical achievements and to their practical implementations for modern space research, hence the motto on the city's coat of arms? ("The Cradle of Space-Exploration").

History

Kaluga, founded in the mid-14th century as a border fortress on the southwestern borders of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, first appears in the historical record in chronicles in the 14th century as Koluga; the name comes from Old Russian kaluga - "bog, quagmire".[16] During the period of Tartar raids it was the western end of the Oka bank defense line. The Great stand on the Ugra River was fought just to the west. In the Middle Ages Kaluga was a minor settlement owned by the Princes Vorotynsky. The ancestral home of these princes lies southwest of the modern city.

On 19 January 1777 the Kaluga drama theatre opened its first theatrical season, established with the direct participation of the Governor-General M. N. Krechetnikov.

Kaluga is connected to Moscow by a railway line and by the ancient roadway, the Kaluga Road (now partly within Moscow (as Starokaluzhskoye Shosse - the Old Kaluga Highway), partly the A101 road). This road offered Napoleon his favored escape route from the Moscow trap in the fall of 1812. But General Kutuzov repelled Napoleon's advances in this direction and forced the retreating French army onto the old Smolensk road, previously devastated by the French during their invasion of Russia.

On several occasions during the Russian Empire Kaluga was the residence of political exiles and prisoners such as the last Crimean khan ?ahin Giray (1786), the Kyrgyz sultan Arigazi-Abdul-Aziz (1828), the Georgian princess Thecla (1834-1835), and the Avar leader Imam Shamil (1859-1868).

The German army briefly occupied Kaluga during the climactic Battle of Moscow, as part of Operation Barbarossa. The city was under full or partial German occupation from October 12th to December 30, 1941. In 1944, the Soviet Government used its local military buildings to intern hundreds of Polish prisoners of war -- soldiers of the Polish underground Home Army -- whom the advancing Soviet front had arrested in the area around Vilnius.

Administrative and municipal status

Kaluga is the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with seventy-two rural localities, incorporated as the City of Kaluga--an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the City of Kaluga, together with one rural locality in Ferzikovsky District (the selo of Novozhdamirovo), is incorporated as Kaluga Urban Okrug.[9]

Economy

In Kaluga, Kaluga Turbine Plant is located, is part of the company Power Machines; Kaluga Machine Works manufactures track machines for railways, plant a foreign company MACO Door & Window.

In recent years Kaluga has become one center of the Russian automotive industry, with a number of foreign companies opening assembly plants in the area:

On November 28, 2007, Volkswagen Group opened a new assembly plant in Kaluga, which has been further expanded by 2009. The investment has reached more than 500 million Euro. The plant currently[when?] assembles the Volkswagen Passat, ?koda Fabia and ?koda Rapid.[17]

On October 15, 2007, the Volvo Group broke ground on a new truck assembly plant, that was inaugurated on January 19, 2009.[18] The plant has a yearly capacity of 10,000 Volvo and 5,000 Renault trucks.[19]

On December 12, 2007, PSA Peugeot Citroën announced its decision to build a new assembly plant in Kaluga.[20] By March 2010 the plant was operational, building Peugeot 308s for the Russian market and would also produce Citroën and Mitsubishi models.[21]

Transportation

The city is served by the Grabtsevo Airport. Since 1899, there is a railway connection between Kaluga and Moscow.[22]

Public transportation is represented by the trolleybuses, buses, and marshrutkas (routed taxis).

Climate

Kaluga has a humid temperate continental (Köppen climate classification: Dfb), with warm and humid summers; and long, cold and snowy winters. Winter extreme records can be as low as -45 °C (-49 °F), while summer heat may reach up +40 °C (104 °F), but usually it's about between -5 °C (23 °F) and -20 °C (-4 °F) during winter and between 15 °C (59 °F) and 30 °C (86 °F) during summer in Kaluga.

Climate data for Kaluga, Russia (period 1961-1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) -6.6
(20.1)
-5.0
(23.0)
0.4
(32.7)
10.3
(50.5)
18.7
(65.7)
21.5
(70.7)
23.0
(73.4)
21.9
(71.4)
15.7
(60.3)
9.0
(48.2)
0.7
(33.3)
-3.7
(25.3)
7.2
(45.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) -10.1
(13.8)
-9.0
(15.8)
-3.5
(25.7)
5.7
(42.3)
12.7
(54.9)
15.8
(60.4)
17.5
(63.5)
16.3
(61.3)
10.9
(51.6)
5.4
(41.7)
-1.9
(28.6)
-6.6
(20.1)
4.4
(39.9)
Average low °C (°F) -13.5
(7.7)
-12.9
(8.8)
-7.4
(18.7)
1.0
(33.8)
6.7
(44.1)
10.1
(50.2)
12.0
(53.6)
10.7
(51.3)
6.1
(43.0)
1.8
(35.2)
-4.5
(23.9)
-9.5
(14.9)
0.1
(32.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 39
(1.5)
33
(1.3)
35
(1.4)
39
(1.5)
43
(1.7)
77
(3.0)
80
(3.1)
71
(2.8)
55
(2.2)
50
(2.0)
53
(2.1)
55
(2.2)
630
(24.8)
Source: www.meteoinfo.ru

"www.meteoinfo.ru". Retrieved 2012.

Notable people

Kaluga's most famous resident was rocket science pioneer Konstantin Tsiolkovsky.

Other notable people include:

Twin towns - sister cities

Kaluga is twinned with:[24]

Partner cities

In addition to twin towns, Kaluga cooperates with:[24]

Gallery

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Charter of Kaluga Oblast
  2. ^ ? ? ?
  3. ^ Representative bodies of the municipality City of Kaluga
  4. ^ ? (in Russian). vest-news.ru. March 27, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  5. ^ " " (in Russian). kaluga-gov.ru. September 19, 2011. Retrieved 2018.
  6. ^ , 14 2011
  7. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). ? 2010 ?.  1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. ? 2010 ? [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  8. ^ "26. ? ? 1 2018 ?". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2019.
  9. ^ a b c Law #7-OZ
  10. ^ " ? ?". - ? (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved 2019.
  11. ^ . ?- ? . (Russian Post). (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  12. ^ Phcode.ru
  13. ^ ? ? , 22 2015
  14. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). , ? ? ? ?, ?, , ? ? - ? ? ? ? ? ? 3  ? ? [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities--Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). ? 2002 ? [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  15. ^ ? 1989 ?. ? ? ? , ? ? ?, , , ?, ? -? [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. ? 1989 ? [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). ? ? : [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  16. ^ E.M. Pospelov, Geograficheskie nazvaniya mira (Moscow: Russkie slovari, 1998), p. 181.
  17. ^ "?koda Annual Report 2014" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2015. Retrieved 2016.
  18. ^ Volvo Truck starts production at Kaluga plant, Just-auto.com, January 19, 2009
  19. ^ New Volvo Group assembly plant in Kaluga, Volvo Group corporate news, October 15, 2007
  20. ^ PSA Peugeot Citroën to Build Plant in Kaluga, Russia Archived December 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, PSA Peugeot Citroën press release, December 12, 2007
  21. ^ "RIA Novosti 26 March 2010". En.rian.ru. March 26, 2010. Retrieved 2014.
  22. ^ "Train Station in Kaluga" (in Russian). Nnov-airport.ru. Archived from the original on September 29, 2013. Retrieved 2014.
  23. ^ " ("They Bring Pride to Kaluga")" (in Russian). Kaluga: Office of the Affairs of the Mayor of Kaluga. Retrieved 2009.
  24. ^ a b "-". kaluga-gov.ru (in Russian). Kaluga. Retrieved 2020.

Sources

  • ?. No473 27 1996 ?. « ?», ? . No681-  27 ? 2015 ?. «? ? ?». : "", No79, 9 1996 ?. (Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast. #473 March 27, 1996 Charter of Kaluga Oblast, as amended by the Law #681-OZ of February 27, 2015 On Amending the Charter of Kaluga Oblast. ).
  • ?.  No7-  28 ? 2004 ?. « ? , ? ? - " ", " ", " ", " ", " ", " ", "? ", "? ", "? ", " ", "? ", " ", " ?", ? ? , , ? , », ? . No620-  29 2014 ?. «? ? ? " ? , ? ? - " ", " ", " ", " ", " ", " ", "? ", "? ", "? ", " ", "? ", " ", " ?", ? ? , , ? , "». ? ? ?  ?, ? ? " ", ? ? ? ? ?. : "", No402-404, 29 ? 2004 ?. (Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast. Law #7-OZ of December 28, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Located on the Territory of the Administrative-Territorial Units of "Babyninsky District", "Borovsky District", "Dzerzhinsky District", "Zhizdrinsky District", "Zhukovsky District", "Iznoskovsky District", "Kozelsky District", "Maloyaroslavetsky District", "Mosalsky District", "Ferzikovsky District", "Khvastovichsky District", "City of Kaluga", "City of Obninsk", and on Granting Them the Status of an Urban Settlement, Rural Settlement, Urban Okrug, Municipal District, as amended by the Law #620-OZ of September 29, 2014 On Amending the Law of Kaluga Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Located on the Territory of the Administrative-Territorial Units of "Babyninsky District", "Borovsky District", "Dzerzhinsky District", "Zhizdrinsky District", "Zhukovsky District", "Iznoskovsky District", "Kozelsky District", "Maloyaroslavetsky District", "Mosalsky District", "Ferzikovsky District", "Khvastovichsky District", "City of Kaluga", "City of Obninsk", and on Granting Them the Status of an Urban Settlement, Rural Settlement, Urban Okrug, Municipal District". Effective as of after the official publication, with the exception of the clauses regarding the municipal formation of the "City of Kaluga", for which different dates of taking effect are specified.).

External links


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