Jewish Religious Terrorism
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Jewish Religious Terrorism

Jewish religious terrorism is religious terrorism committed by extremists within Judaism.[1][2]


Zealotry in the 1st century

According to Mark Burgess (a Center for Defense Information research analyst), the 1st century Jewish political and religious movement called Zealotry was one of the first examples of the use of terrorism by Jews.[3] They sought to incite the people of Judaea Province to rebel against the Roman Empire and expel it from Israel by force of arms. The term Zealot, in Hebrew kanai, means one who is zealous on behalf of God.[4][5] The most extremist groups of Zealots were called Sicarii.[3] Sicarii used violent stealth tactics against Romans. Under their cloaks they concealed sicae, or small daggers, from which they received their name. At popular assemblies, particularly during the pilgrimage to the Temple Mount, they stabbed their enemies (Romans or Roman sympathizers, Herodians), lamenting ostentatiously after the deed to blend into the crowd to escape detection. In one account, given in the Talmud, Sicarii destroyed the city's food supply so that the people would be forced to fight against the Roman siege instead of negotiating peace. Sicarii also raided Jewish habitations and killed fellow Jews whom they considered apostates and collaborators.

Since 1948

Jewish terrorism in Israel existed for a few years during the 1950s and was directed at internal Israeli-Jewish targets, not at the Israeli Arab population.[6] There was then a long intermission until the 1980s, when the Jewish Underground was exposed.[6] The phenomena of price tag attacks began around 2008. These are hate crimes committed by extremist settler Jewish Israelis that usually involve the destruction of property or hateful graffiti, particularly targeting property associated with Arabs, Christians, secular Israelis, and Israeli soldiers. The name was derived from the words "Price tag" which may be scrawled on the site of the attack -- with the allegation that the attack was a "price" for settlements the government forced them to give up and revenge for Palestinian attacks on settlers.[7]

Researchers Ami Pedahzur and Arie Perliger suggested that similarities exist between Jewish religious terrorists and jihad networks in Western democracies, among them: alienation and isolation from the values of the majority, mainstream culture, which they view as an existential threat to their own community; and that their ideology is not exclusively "religious", as it attempts to achieve political, territorial, and nationalistic goals as well (e.g. the disruption of the Camp David accords). However, the newer of these Jewish groups have tended to emphasize religious motives for their actions at the expense of secular ones. In the case of Jewish terrorism in modern Israel, most networks consist of religious Zionists and ultra-Orthodox Jews living in isolated, homogenous communities. However, unlike jihad networks, Jewish terrorists have not engaged in mass-casualty attacks (except for Baruch Goldstein).[8]

Shin Bet has complained that the Israeli government is too lenient in dealing with religious extremism of Jewish extremists who want the creation of a Jewish land based on halacha, Jewish religious laws. Says Haaretz: "The Shin Bet complained that the courts are too lenient, particularly in enforcement against those who violate restraining orders distancing them from the West Bank or restricting their movement. The Shin Bet supports the position of Defense Minister Moshe Ya'alon, who has called for limited use of administrative detention against Jewish terrorists."[9] Israeli agencies keeping tabs on the religious terrorist groups say they are "anarchist" and "anti-Zionist", motivated to bring down the government of Israel and create a new Israeli "kingdom" that would operate according to halacha (Jewish law).[9] A week after the July 2015 attacks, administrative detention was approved for Jewish terror suspects.[7]

Terrorist groups

The following groups have been considered religious terrorist organizations in Israel:

  • Brit HaKanaim (Hebrew ?, lit. Covenant of the Zealots) was a radical religious Jewish underground organization which operated in Israel between 1950 and 1953, against the widespread trend of secularisation in the country. The ultimate goal of the movement was to impose Jewish religious law in the State of Israel and establish a Halakhic state.[10]
  • The Kingdom of Israel group (Hebrew? , Malchut Yisrael), or Tzrifin Underground, were active in Israel in the 1950s. The group carried out attacks on the diplomatic facilities of the USSR and Czechoslovakia and occasionally shot at Jordanian troops stationed along the border in Jerusalem. Members of the group were caught trying to bomb the Israeli Ministry of Education in May 1953, have been described as acting because of the secularisation of Jewish North African immigrants which they saw as 'a direct assault on the religious Jews' way of life and as an existential threat to the ultra-Orthodox community in Israel.'[11]
  • Gush Emunim Underground (1979-1984): formed by members of the Israeli political movement Gush Emunim.[12] This group is most well known for two actions: firstly, for bomb attacks on the mayors of West Bank cities on June 2, 1980, and secondly, an abandoned plot to blow up the Temple Mount mosques. The Israeli Judge Zvi Cohen, heading the sentencing panel at the group's trial, stated that they had three motives, "not necessarily shared by all the defendants. The first motive, at the heart of the Temple Mount conspiracy, is religious."[13]
  • Keshet (Kvutza Shelo Titpasher) (1981-1989): A Tel Aviv anti-Zionist Haredi group focused on bombing property without loss of life.[14][15]:101 Yigal Marcus, Tel Aviv District Police commander, said that he considered the group a gang of criminals, not a terrorist group.[16]
  • Sicarii, an Israeli terrorist group founded in 1989 who made arson and graffiti attacks on leftist Jewish politicians. They were opposed to any process of rapprochement with the Palestine Liberation Organization.[17][18]
  • The "Bat Ayin Underground" or Bat Ayin group. In 2002, four people from Bat Ayin and Hebron were arrested outside of Abu Tor School, a Palestinian girls' school in East Jerusalem, with a trailer filled with explosives. Three of the men were convicted for the attempted bombing.[8][19][20][21][22][23][24]
  • Lehava, was referred to as an extreme religious minority trying through terror to implement their views of how the society should look.[25] In January 2015, Channel 2 reported that Defense Minister Moshe Ya'alon may be preparing to categorize Lehava as a terrorist organization. Ya'alon was reported to have ordered the Shin Bet and the Defense Ministry to assemble evidence required for the classification.[26] Former Justice Minister Tzipi Livni stated that Ya'alon's move to name anti-assimilation group Lehava a terrorist organization should have been made months before. "This organization works from hatred, racism, and nationalism, and its goal is to bring an escalation of violence within us", she said.[27] Tamar Hermann, a sociologist and pollster with the Israel Democracy Institute (IDI), reports that government action against Lehava has only come following months of petitioning by "left-leaning Israelis and media commentators."[28][29] Israeli rabbi Binyamin Lau, warned that: "Lehava wants to implement a reign of religious terror."[30]
  • Sikrikim, a radical group of ultra-Orthodox Jews based mainly in the Israeli ultra-Orthodox neighborhoods Meah Shearim in Jerusalem and in Ramat Beit Shemesh. The anti-Zionist group is thought to have roughly 100 activist members.[31] The Sikrikim gained international attention for acts of violence they committed against Orthodox Jewish institutions and individuals who would not comply with their demands.[32] They are loosely affiliated with Neturei Karta.[33][34]
  • Kach and Kahane Chai, a banned far-right party in Israel. Today, both groups are considered terrorist organisations by Israel,[35] Canada,[36] the European Union[37] and the United States.[38] The groups are believed to have an overlapping core membership of fewer than 100 people.[39][40] The Jewish Defense League in America, founded by Kahane, is also considered terrorist. FBI statistics show that, from 1980 to 1985, 15 terrorist attacks were attempted in the U.S. by JDL members.[41] The FBI's Mary Doran described the JDL in 2004 Congressional testimony as "a proscribed terrorist group".[42] The National Consortium for the Study of Terror and Responses to Terrorism states that, during the JDL's first two decades of activity, it was an "active terrorist organization."[43][44]
  • Terror Against Terror (Hebrew: Terror Neged Terror, "TNT") was a radical Jewish militant organization that sponsored several attacks against Palestinian targets. The group was founded by Rabbi Meir Kahane's Kach organization, and took its name from Kahane's theory that Arab terrorism should be met with Jewish terrorism.[45][46]
  • The Revolt terror group: Members of the Jewish "Revolt" terror group claim the secular State of Israel has no right to existence; they hope to create a Jewish Kingdom in Israel, and that Arabs will be killed if they refuse to leave. Shin Bet says the "Revolt" group's ideology began to evolve in October 2013, shaped by veteran "hilltop youth", including Rabbi Meir Kahane's grandson, Meir Ettinger, who was temporarily put under administrative detention. Before the Duma attack, the group's members had committed 11 arson attacks against Palestinians or Christian churches. 23 of their members were detained because of the Duma attacks.[47]


Several violent acts by Jews have been described as terrorism and attributed to religious motivations. The following are the most notable:[48]

  • Yigal Amir's assassination of Yitzhak Rabin on November 4, 1995, has been described as terrorism with a religious motivation.[2]:98-110[49][50] Amir was quoted as saying he had "acted alone and on orders from God", and that, "If not for a Halakhic ruling of din rodef, made against Rabin by a few rabbis I knew about, it would have been very difficult for me to kill."[15][51]:45 A former combat soldier who had studied Jewish law, Amir stated that his decision to kill the prime minister was influenced by the opinions of militant rabbis that such an assassination would be justified by the Halakhic ruling of din rodef ("pursuer's decree").[51]:48 This Jewish religious concept allows for an immediate execution of a person if that person is "pursuing", that is, attempting immediately to take your life or the life of another person, although the characterization of Rabin as din rodef was rejected as a perversion of law by most rabbinic authorities.[15]:255 According to Amir, allowing the Palestinian Authority to expand on the West Bank represented such a danger.[51]:48Amir was associated with the radical Eyal movement, which had been greatly influenced by Kahanism.[51]:53
  • Baruch Goldstein an American-born Israeli physician, perpetrated the 1994 Cave of the Patriarchs massacre in the city of Hebron, in which he shot and killed 29 Muslim worshipers inside the Ibrahimi Mosque (within the Cave of the Patriarchs), and wounded another 125 people.[52] Goldstein was killed by the survivors.[53] Goldstein was a supporter of Kach, an Israeli political party founded by Rabbi Meir Kahane that advocated the expulsion of Arabs from Israel and the Palestinian Territories. In the aftermath of the Goldstein attack and Kach statements praising it, Kach was outlawed in Israel.[54]
  • Eden Natan-Zada killed four Israeli Arab civilians on August 4, 2005. His actions were condemned by then-prime minister Ariel Sharon, as "a reprehensible act by a bloodthirsty Jewish terrorist", and author Ami Pedahzur describes his motivations as religious.[2]:134[55]
  • Three marchers in a gay pride parade in Jerusalem on June 30, 2005 were stabbed by Yishai Shlisel, a Haredi Jew. Shlisel claimed he had acted "in the name of God". He was charged with attempted murder.[56]
  • Yaakov Teitel an American-born Israeli, was arrested in the aftermath of the 2009 Tel Aviv gay center shooting for putting up posters that praised the attack. Although Teitel confessed to the gay center shooting, Israeli police have determined that he had no part in the attack.[57] In 2009, Teitel was arrested and indicted for several acts of domestic terror, namely a pipe bomb attack against leftist intellectual Zeev Sternhell, the murders of a Palestinian taxi driver and a West Bank shepherd in 1997, and sending a booby-trapped package to the home of a "Messianic Jewish" family in Ariel.[58][59][60] A search of his home revealed a cache of guns and parts used in explosive devices.[61] As of January 2011, the case was still pending trial.[62] On January 16, 2013 Teitel was convicted of two murders, two attempted murders, and several other charges.[63][64]
  • Asher Weisgan was an Israeli bus driver who shot and murdered four Palestinians and injured one other in the Israeli settlement of Shiloh in the West Bank on 17 August 2005. Weisgan wanted to disrupt the Israeli Government's unilateral disengagement plan in Gaza by sparking a Palestinian reaction.[65][66] On 27 September 2006, Weisgan was sentenced by the Israeli court to four consecutive terms of life in prison, for each person he killed, and an additional twelve years in jail. Later that year, he committed suicide by hanging himself in prison. The Haaretz newspaper quoted Weisgan having declared, before entering a courthouse outside of Tel Aviv, 'I'm not sorry for what I did. I hope someone also kills Sharon.'[67]
  • The kidnapping and murder of Mohammed Abu Khdeir occurred early on the morning of 2 July 2014, a day after the burial of three murdered Israeli teens. Khdeir, a 16-year-old Palestinian, was forced into a car by Israeli settlers on an East Jerusalem street.[68] Yosef Ben-David and 2 minors were arrested for the act. Preliminary results from the autopsy suggested that he was beaten and burnt while still alive.[69][70][71] He was beaten repeatedly with a crowbar, each blow accompanied by a recital of Jewish victims of terrorism . Khdeir was recognized by Israel as a victim of terrorism,[72] a move which entitled the family to compensation. The murders contributed to a breakout of hostilities in the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict.[73]
  • Duma arson attack: In July 2015, an Arab baby died, and other family members were injured, in what Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu termed a "terrorist" act. Perpetrators left graffiti in Hebrew on the gutted home saying "Revenge!" and "Long live the messiah!", or[74] "Yechi Hamelech Hamashiach", the motto of the messianist wing of the Chabad-Lubavitch movement, which believes that Menachem Mendel Schneerson, a rabbi who died in 1994, "is the messiah and will return to rebuild the ancient kingdom and redeem the world".[75] The motive, as stated in the indictment, was revenge for the murder of the young Israeli Malachi Rosenfeld by Palestinians, near Duma, about a month earlier.[76][77][78] On August 8, the father of Ali Dawabsha, Saad Dawabsha, died of the burns he sustained in the attack.[79]
  • On 30 July 2015, six marchers were injured, again by Yishai Shlisel when he stabbed them. It was three weeks after he was released from jail.[80] One of the victims, 16-year-old Shira Banki, died of her wounds at the Hadassah Medical Center three days later, on 2 August 2015.[81][82] Shortly after, Prime Minister Netanyahu offered his condolences, adding "We will deal with the murderer to the fullest extent of the law."[81]

See also


  1. ^ "Explaining Part 1: The Axis of Good and Evil." Section "Terrorism Across Religions." by Mark Burgess.
  2. ^ a b c Pedahzur, Ami; Perliger, Arie (2009). Jewish terrorism in Israel. Columbia University Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-231-15446-8. Our Jewish terrorism dataset consists of a list of terror incidents perpetrated by Jewish terrorists in Israel.
  3. ^ a b Burgess, Mark. "A Brief History of Terrorism". Archived from the original on 2012-05-11.
  4. ^ Zealot, Online Etymology Dictionary
  5. ^ Zelotes, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, "A Greek-English Lexicon", at Perseus
  6. ^ a b Gal-or, Noemi (Editor). Tolerating Terrorism in the West: An International Survey. Routledge, 2004. ISBN 978-0-415-02441-9. pp. 61-62
  7. ^ a b "Quick Links". CNN.
  8. ^ a b Rosenfeld, Jean E. (13 December 2010). Terrorism, Identity and Legitimacy: The Four Waves theory and political violence. Taylor & Francis. p. 103-111. ISBN 9780203834329 – via Google Books.
  9. ^ a b Settler Terror Underground Seeks to Overthrow Israeli Government, Say Investigators Haaretz, 3 August 2015
  10. ^ Pedahzur, Ami, and Arie Perliger (2009). "Jewish Terrorism in 33-37", Columbia University Press, (2009)
  11. ^ Pedahzur, Ami, and Arie Perliger (2009). "Jewish Terrorism in 31-33", Columbia University Press, (2009)
  12. ^ For The Land and The Lord: The Evolution of Gush Emunim Archived 2008-12-01 at the Wayback Machine, by Ian S. Lustick
  13. ^ Ami Pedahzur, and Arie Perliger (2009). "Jewish Terrorism in Israel.Ch 3", Columbia University Press, (2009)
  14. ^ Radical Orthodox Group Terrorizes Secular Israelis. Pittsburgh Press Feb 25, 1989
  15. ^ a b c Brother against brother: violence and extremism in Israeli politics Ehud Sprinzak, p. 277
  16. ^ Critical essays on Israeli society, politics, and culture By Ian Lustick, Barry M. Rubin, Association for Israel Studies, p. 71
  17. ^ "Sicarii | Terrorist Groups | TRAC". Retrieved .
  18. ^ Roseberg, Carol (April 28, 1989). "Underground group targets Jewish leftists". The Globe and Mail. p. A8.
  19. ^ "Supreme Court rejects appeal of the 'Bat Ayin Underground': Yuval Yoaz". Haaretz.
  20. ^ "Jewish terrorist group (Bat Ayin) attempts to blow up girls school in the East Jerusalem neighborhood of A-Tur: Palestine: Information with Provenance". Cosmos.
  21. ^ Lis, Jonathan (7 August 2011). "Bat Ayin terror cell members get 12 to 15 years in prison". Haaretz.
  22. ^ "Israel's Next War: CHAPTER TWO: A Plot That Shocked All of Israel: Members of a terror cell in the settlement of Bat Ayin are caught trying to bomb a girls' school in East Jerusalem at the busiest time in the morning". PBS.
  23. ^ "Acts of Jewish terrorism since 1949: Matthew Gutman". Jerusalem Post. 11 November 2005.
  24. ^ "[Jewish Terrorism in Israel: Monday January 11, 2010: Palestine Center Book Review No 1 : 11 January 2010: "Jewish Terrorism in Israel" written by Ami Pedahzur and Arie Perliger Hardcover: 264 pages, Columbia University Press November 9, 2009".
  25. ^ "Second Opinions".
  26. ^ "'Report: Ya'alon moves to name anti-assimilation group Lehava a terrorist organization' (4 Jan 2015) The Jerusalem Post"
  27. ^ Livni: Ya'alon's attempt to label Lahava a terrorist group comes too late Jerusalem Post, 4 Jan 2015
  28. ^ "Why Israel may list this hard-line Jewish group as a terrorist organization". The Washington Post. 5 January 2015.
  29. ^ "Anti-Arab group poses legal, political dilemma for Israel". Reuters. 28 December 2014.
  30. ^ " ? "? ? ? ? - ?".
  31. ^ Lidman, Melanie (20 September 2011). "Police arrest one of the leaders of Mea She'arim 'mafia'". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved .
  32. ^ Maayan, Lubell (22 April 2011). "Religious zealots attack "immodest" Jerusalem shops". Reuters. Retrieved .
  33. ^ Tessler, Yitzchak (2011-12-14). . Ma'ariv nrg (in Hebrew). Retrieved .
  34. ^ Amoni, P. An Interview with Rav Shlomo Pappenheim. Ami Magazine, September 2011
  35. ^ "Cabinet Communique - March 13, 1994". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2015.
  36. ^ "Canada Public Safety website". Archived from the original on July 31, 2013.
  37. ^ "COUNCIL COMMON POSITION 2009/67/CFSP". Official Journal of the European Union. European Union. 26 January 2009. p. L 23/41.
  38. ^ "Country Reports on Terrorism 2004" (PDF). U.S. Department of State. April 2005. Retrieved 2015.
  39. ^ "Kach, Kahane Chai (Israel, extremists)". Council for Foreign Relations. 20 March 2008. Retrieved 2015.
  40. ^ "Terrorist Organization Profile: Kach". National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. University of Maryland. 23 June 2015.
  41. ^ Bohn, Michael K. (2004). The Achille Lauro Hijacking: Lessons in the Politics and Prejudice of Terrorism. Brassey's Inc. p. 67. ISBN 1-57488-779-3.
  42. ^ "Federal Bureau of Investigation - Congressional Testimony". Archived from the original on March 11, 2009.
  43. ^ "Anti-Defamation League on JDL". Anti-Defamation League.
  44. ^ "JDL group profile from National Consortium for the Study of Terror and Responses to Terrorism". Archived from the original on August 28, 2010.
  45. ^ Brother against brother: violence and extremism in Israeli politics from Altalena to the Rabin assassination by Ehud Sprinzak
  46. ^ Cohen-Almagor, Raphael (27 June 1994). The Boundaries of Liberty and Tolerance: The Struggle Against Kahanism in Israel. University Press of Florida. p. 159 – via Internet Archive. Terror Against Terror kahane.
  47. ^ A revolt and a king: The ideology behind Jewish terrorism YNET News, Jan 3, 2016
  48. ^ "Terror in Shfaram". Jerusalem Post. 7 August 2005. p. 13.
  49. ^ Stern, Jessica (2004). Terror in the Name of God: Why Religious Militants Kill. HarperCollins. p. 91. ISBN 0-06-050533-8.
  50. ^ * Mahan, Sue; Griset, Pamala, Terrorism in Perspective, SAGE, 2007, pp. 137, 138
    • Mickolus, Edward, The terrorist list: A-K, ABC-CLIO, 2009, p. 66
    • Hoffman, Bruce Inside Terrorism 1998, p. 88
  51. ^ a b c d Mark Juergensmeyer (September 2003). Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24011-1.
  52. ^ Harvey W. Kushner. Encyclopedia of Terrorism, SAGE Publications, 2003, ISBN 978-0-7619-2408-1, p. 150.
  53. ^ 1994: Jewish settler kills 30 at holy site BBC On This Day
  54. ^ In the Spotlight: Kach and Kahane Chai Archived 2006-11-22 at the Wayback Machine Center for Defense Information October 1, 2002
  55. ^ [1] Washington Post, 5 August 2005
  56. ^ "Man charged over Jerusalem attack". BBC News. July 5, 2005. Retrieved 2010.
  57. ^ James, Randy (3 November 2009). "Accused Jewish Terrorist Jack Teitel". Time.,8599,1934103,00.html. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
  58. ^ Weiss, Mark (2 November 2009). "Israeli police arrest West Bank settler over Palestinian killings". The Irish Times. Retrieved .
  59. ^ Mitchell, Chris (6 November 2009). "Suspect Arrest Announced in Ami Ortiz Case". CBN News. Retrieved .
  60. ^ Levinson, Chaim (1 November 2009). "Who is suspected Jewish terrorist Yaakov Teitel?". Haaretz. Retrieved .
  61. ^ * "Settler suspected of multiple hate crimes". Ynetnews. 1 November 2009. Retrieved .
    • [2] (in Hebrew)
  62. ^ "Teitel's associates: He's gone mad".
  63. ^ "'Jewish terrorist' Jack Teitel convicted".
  64. ^ "Jewish terrorist Jack Teitel convicted of murdering two Palestinians". January 16, 2013.
  65. ^ Court Sentences Samaria Jew To Life In Prison Arutz Sheva
  66. ^ Life sentences for W Bank killer BBC News
  67. ^ Man who killed 4 Palestinians: I hope someone kills Sharon Haaretz, 18 August 2005
  68. ^ Adiv Sterman (6 July 2014). "Six Jewish extremists arrested in killing of Jerusalem teen". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 2014.
  69. ^ Kershner, Isabel (6 July 2014). "Suspects Arrested in Death of Palestinian Youth, Israeli Police Say". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014.
  70. ^ "Official: Autopsy shows Palestinian youth burnt alive". Ma'an News Agency. 5 July 2014. Archived from the original on 8 July 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  71. ^ "Palestinian teen abducted, killed in suspected revenge attack". Ma'an News Agency. 2 July 2014. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  72. ^ "Defense Ministry recognizes Mohammed Abu Khdeir as victim of 'hostile action'".
  73. ^ Eranger, Steven; Kershner, Isabel (8 July 2014). "Israel and Hamas Trade Attacks as Tension Rises". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014.
  74. ^ Palestinian baby killed in arson attack 'by Israeli settlers' The Telegraph, 31 July 2015
  75. ^ Why Jewish Terror Is Different This Time Forward, 1 August 2015
  76. ^ Duma arson attack resource page for Duma Arson Attack
  77. ^ [3] Jerusalem Post, January 3, 2016
  78. ^ [4] Arutz Sheva, April 1, 2016
  79. ^ "Israel braces for West Bank escalation after death of Ali Dawabsha's father".
  80. ^ "Six stabbed at Jerusalem pride parade by same assailant who attacked parade in 2005". Retrieved .
  81. ^ a b Joe Williams, Victim of Jerusalem Pride attack dies of injuries, PinkNews, August 2, 2015
  82. ^ Kubovich, Yaniv (August 2, 2015). "16-year-old stabbed in Jerusalem pride parade succumbs to wounds". Haaretz. Retrieved 2015.


  • Juergensmeyer, Mark, Terror in the mind of God: the global rise of religious violence, University of California Press, 2003
  • Pedahzur, Ami; Perliger, Arie, Jewish terrorism in Israel, Columbia University Press, 2009
  • Sprinzak, Ehud, Brother against brother: violence and extremism in Israeli politics from Altalena to the Rabin assassination, Simon and Schuster, 1999
  • Stern, Jessica, Terror in the name of God: why religious militants kill, HarperCollins, 2003

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