|o Mayor||Zde?ka Blianová (TOP 09)|
|o Total||38.22 km2 (14.76 sq mi)|
|Elevation||432 m (1,417 ft)|
|o Density||290/km2 (750/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
Jeseník (Czech pronunciation: ['j?si:k]; Frývaldov until 1947 (Czech pronunciation: ['fri:valdof]), German: Freiwaldau, Polish: Frywa?dów) is a spa town in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic, the administrative capital of Jeseník District. It has about 11,000 inhabitants.
Villages of Bukovice and D?t?ichov are administrative parts of Jeseník.
The original name was Freiwaldau, deriving from German frei vom Walde, meaning "free from the woods". The former Czech name of Frývaldov was a phonetic transcription of the German original. After World War II the town was renamed along with many other towns containing German elements in their names. It is named after the surrounding mountains which are called Hrubý Jeseník or Jeseníky.
The town is located in the historic Czech Silesia region on the B?lá River, a tributary of the Nysa K?odzka. It is situated within the Hrubý Jeseník mountain range, north of the Prad?d peak. In the west are the foothills of the Golden Mountains.
Freiwaldau/Frývaldov/Frywa?dów in the Duchy of Silesia in fragmented Piast-ruled Poland, probably founded in the course of the German Ostsiedlung, was first mentioned in 1267, when it already held the status of a town belonging to the territory of the Bishops of Wroc?aw. With the surrounding villages it became part of the bishops' ecclesiastical Duchy of Nysa in 1290, which later on passed under Bohemian (Czech) suzerainty.
In the 14th century Freiwaldau developed as a centre of iron production with several foundries and hammer mills processing the ore from the productive deposits in the surrounding mountains. Later on, the flourishing town was purchased by the Swabian Fugger dynasty. In 1506 the Bishop Johann Thurzó vested its citizens with Bergregal privileges. After the iron ore deposits were exhausted, the Fugger sold the town back to the Wroc?aw bishops in 1547 and linen weaving became the most important source of income.
Silesia with the Lands of the Bohemian Crown had passed to the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy in 1526; after the First Silesian War it became part of Austrian Silesia in 1742. It remained with the Austrian Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, until World War I and the creation of Czechoslovakia in 1918. According to the Austrian administration census of 1910 the town had 6,859 inhabitants, 6,619 of whom had permanent residence there. The census asked people for their native language: 6,588 (99.5%) were speaking German, 16 Czech and 13 Polish. Jews were not allowed to declare Yiddish, most of them thus declared German. Most populous religious groups were Roman Catholics with 6,552 (95.5%), followed by Protestants with 208 (3%) and the Jews with 83 (1.2%).
On November 25, 1931, the local Communist party organised a hunger march of around 1,000 unemployed stoneworkers to Frývaldov. The police chief at Vápenná instructed his men to prevent the demonstration from reaching the town. The police forced the marchers to take an alternative route through the forest. The police soon caught up with them at Lipová-lázn?, and a clash ensued during which the marchers threw sticks, stones and other objects at the gendarmes. After two stones hit the commander of the unit, First Lieutenant Old?ich Jirkovský, on the forehead, gave his men the order to fire on the crowd. As a result, ten people, including six women - among them a 60-year-old woman and a 14-year-old girl - were killed and fifteen men and women seriously injured and taken to the hospital in Frývaldov. The Vienna Neue Zeitung attributed the march to the growing indebtedness of local stone- and chalkworkers, who could no longer earn enough for subsistence.
From 1938 to 1945 it was occupied by Germany, and was one of the municipalities in Sudetenland. During World War II the Germans operated several forced labour subcamps of the Stalag VIII-B/344 prisoner-of-war camp in the town. The town was restored to Czechoslovakia after the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II in 1945. The German population was expelled according to the Potsdam Agreement and Bene? Decrees in 1945.
In 2005, during the renovation of a Polish monument from the 1890s, notes were discovered in its foundation, which contained a protest against the Partitions of Poland (Poland was under partitions when the monument was erected).
The town is well known for its spa.