Jas%C5%82o
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Jas%C5%82o
Jas?o
Starosty in Jaslo, Gazebo in City Park, Palace, Parish Church, Church of Sts. Stanislaus, Promenade and historic buildings, Jewish Cemetery, Tadeusz Kosciuszko Monument
Starosty in Jaslo, Gazebo in City Park, Palace, Parish Church, Church of Sts. Stanislaus, Promenade and historic buildings, Jewish Cemetery, Tadeusz Kosciuszko Monument
Flag of Jas?o
Flag
Coat of arms of Jas?o
Coat of arms
Jas?o is located in Subcarpathian Voivodeship
Jas?o
Jas?o
Jas?o is located in Poland
Jas?o
Jas?o
Coordinates: 49°44?52?N 21°28?17?E / 49.74778°N 21.47139°E / 49.74778; 21.47139Coordinates: 49°44?52?N 21°28?17?E / 49.74778°N 21.47139°E / 49.74778; 21.47139
Country Poland
Voivodeship Subcarpathian
CountyJas?o County
GminaJas?o (urban gmina)
Established12th century
Town rights1365
Government
 o MayorRyszard Pabian
Area
 o Total36.52 km2 (14.10 sq mi)
Highest elevation
380 m (1,250 ft)
Lowest elevation
225 m (738 ft)
Population
(2012)
 o Total36,641
 o Density1,000/km2 (2,600/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 o Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
38-200 to 38-211
Area code(s)+48 13
Car platesRJS
Websitehttp://www.jaslo.pl/

Jas?o ['jasw?] is a county town in south-eastern Poland with 36,641 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2012.[1] It is situated in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship (since 1999), and it was previously part of Krosno Voivodeship (1975-1998). It is located in Lesser Poland, in the heartland of the Do?y (Pits), and its average altitude is 320 metres above sea level, although there are some hills located within the confines of the city. The Patron Saint of the city is Saint Anthony of Padua.

History

Gothic Church of the Assumption

In the early days of Polish statehood, Jas?o was part of the Castellany of Biecz, out of which Biecz County emerged in the 14th century. A list of rectories, created for collecting tithes, a church in "Jassel" in Zr?cin deanery, Kraków diocese, is shown in 1328.[2] The area of the future town belonged to a Cisterian Abbey from Koprzywnica, and by the mid 13th century, Jas?o, known then as Jasiel or Jasiol, had a fair of local importance. Together with a number of other locations in Lesser Poland, the village was granted Magdeburg rights by King Casimir III the Great, on April 23, 1366. In 1368 the king made a transaction with the Cisterian monks - in exchange for the town of Frysztak, and the villages of Glinik and Kobyle, Jas?o became a royal town. It already had a parish church, founded before 1325 by King W?adys?aw I the Elbow-high. The parish had a school, and in the mid-14th century, Carmelite brothers came to the town. According to Dlugosz in Liber beneficiorum Dioecesis cracoviensis, the church that stands today was built by brothers Stanislaw Cielatko (Czelanthco), Sandomierz scholastic, and Mikolaj of Cio?ek arms, in 1446. This occurred because the original was destroyed by the Hungarians.[2] The coats of arms of Strzemie, Tr?by, Gryf, Janina, and Pobóg are on the vault of the church, and because of this, the Slownik Geograficzny suggests these may be noble houses that contributed to the development.[2]

Polish Golden Age was the period of prosperity for both Lesser Poland and Jas?o, which belonged to Kraków Voivodeship of the Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown. The city was challenged at the start of the period; in 1474, the King of Hungary, Matthias Corvinus, burned Jas?o in his assault of the foothills of the Carpathians.[2] After this, the town grew, but it never became an important urban location of this part of the country. It had a number of artisans, several fairs and markets. Local merchants traded with both Polish and foreign merchants, mostly from the Kingdom of Hungary, taking advantage of the vicinity of the border. In 1550, Joachim Lubomirski, a courtier of King Sigismund II Augustus, and his lineage, was given Jas?o, after it was converted to a starostwo. [2] When referring the details of a 1564 city inspection, the Slownik Geograficzny described: "Judging by the number of bakers and cobblers, one must conclude that the town was significantly larger than today." This is about the Jas?o of around 1902, with 2,962 inhabitants at that later time.[2] Jas?o was given to Miko?aj Stru? by King Sigismund III of Poland in 1613. He revived the town and strengthen the prohibition against Jews, "because they hinder the townsmen in trade and buy up all the victuals," as described Strus, according to the Slownik Geograficzny.[2]

Sroczy?ski Palace

Good times ended in the 1650s. In 1655, the town was captured and destroyed by the Swedes (see the Deluge), in 1657 - by the Transilvanians of George II Rakoczi, and in the first years of the 18th century - again by Swedish troops of King Charles XII of Sweden (see Great Northern War). Additionally, destructive fires occurred in Jas?o in 1683, 1755, and 1826, which likely slowed development of the city.[2] The town was destroyed once again by the Russians during the Bar Confederation.

Adam Tarlo became the starosta of Jas?o in 1733, and Jedrzej Moszczenski was the next starosta to take office.[2] The starosta lived in a castle in Krajowice, since Jas?o had no walls or castle; no traditional castle ruins exist in Jaslo.[2] A monastery and church of the Carmelites also existed in Jas?o. The Slownik Geograficzny suggests that it was probably founded before 1437. A well, which St. Wojciech supposedly blessed while traveling from Hungary, existed in the church, which drew pilgrims to the town. The monastery was changed to an office for the starosta in 1786, the well cannot be found today.[2]

In 1772, after the First Partition of Poland, Jas?o was annexed by Austria, and made part of Galicia. In 1790, the town became the seat of a district, which had been moved here from Dukla. Several Austrian civil servants came here, and office buildings, with a new town hall, courthouse, prison and schools were built. Several houses in the market square burned in the 1826 fire, which resulted in construction boom, and in early 1846, farmers from villages around Jas?o took part in the Galician peasant revolt. On June 12, 1846, the Galician riots bred a wave of anti-Jewish riots, which swept through the city, injuring and destroying the property of many of the native Jews. Very close to Jas?o, the spirit refinery of Jacob Frant was burnt down. Fire-fighting utilities were ordered not to extinguish the fires by the district captain that arrived at the scene, and other authorities did not intervene. The city and surrounding villages were reported to contain six thousand inhabitants at this time, and a quarter of that population was Jewish, according to the special correspondent of The Jewish World newspaper at the time.[3] One of the clerics that mobilized the peasantry in the following 1848 anti-Austrian rising was Father Karol Szlegal from near Jas?o.[4]

Memorial plaque at the former pharmacy of Ignacy ?ukasiewicz

Between 1840 and 1849, the city maintained a population of about 1950 individuals, according to census data included in the Dictionary of Geography.[5] In 1858, Ignacy ?ukasiewicz, a world-renowned inventor, moved to Jas?o. Due to his pioneering work, an oil well was constructed in Nieg?owice near Jas?o (1889-1890). Near Jas?o and the nearby town of Krosno, other crude-oil refineries were established in the mid-late 1800s.[6] At approximately same time, a rail line from Stró?e to Zagórz was constructed (1872-1884), with additional connection from Jas?o to Rzeszów opened in 1890. "The Parish of Christ's Crucifixion," which resides at the cemetery, was established in 1862.[2] In 1860, the Austrian Imperial administration again declared the right for Jews to live inside the confines of Jas?o. Afterwards, the Jewish population rapidly increased, ingraining itself in the financial and commercial sectors of the city and nearby areas.[7]

Jas?o County Council in 1900

In the early 20th century, the population of Jas?o was 10,000. The town was well-kept and clean, a power plant was built in 1897, then a municipal park was opened, and in September 1900, Jas?o was visited by Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria. Between 1880 and 1902, agriculture and cloth manufacturing were the common main occupations in the area around the city.[2] Around 1910, the priest Kisevsky and his six gendarmes persecuted Eastern Orthodox peasants by fining them on trivial pretexts, and many were taken to the court in Jas?o to receive their sentences. A Jewish lawyer represented the Orthodox peasants, and described that the Jews in the area were not persecuted for handling lit candles openly, for which the Orthodox peasants were fined.[8] The Ukrainian national group known as the Prosvita (Enlightenment) Society developed affiliates in Jas?o between 1893 and 1903. By 1914, the Society spread to 22 Lemko villages, and promoted Ukrainian national ideology, identity, and language.[9] Several World War I battles took place in the area of Jas?o, but the town itself was not destroyed. The city was taken behind the Russian front. Railroads ran from Sanok to Jas?o and from Jas?o to Przemysl, which the occupying Russian forces relied on for transportation of food, munitions, and troops through the front.[10] In May 1915, in the Gorlice-Tarnów Offensive, Russian forces were pushed back by the Germans, who entered Jas?o on May 6, 1915, at 22:30. Prussian commander August von Mackensen moved his headquarters to Jas?o the following morning, after the line was pushed back several miles beyond the city.[11] Following the war, in 1918, Poland regained independence and control of the town.

In the Second Polish Republic, Jas?o was the seat of a county in Kraków Voivodeship. For most part of the interwar period, unemployment and poverty were prevalent, and the situation began slowly to improve in the late 1930s, after creation of the Central Industrial Region. In 1937, Gamrat chemical plant was opened, but all efforts were destroyed in the German invasion of Poland, which started World War II in September 1939.

Monument commemorating the successful Kedyw operation from 5 August 1943

Under German occupation Jas?o belonged to the General Government, and was an important center of the Polish resistance movement. At the turn of 1939 and 1940, 93 Poles who tried to cross the border to find refuge in Hungary were imprisoned by the Germans in Jas?o, and then massacred in the nearby village of Sieklówka (see Nazi crimes against the Polish nation).[12] 27 Poles born in Jas?o, as well as other Poles who lived or studied in the town, were murdered by the Russians in the large Katyn massacre in April-May 1940.[13] In the night of August 5/6, 1943, the Kedyw carried out a successful attack on the local prison. Poles who rescued Jews from the Holocaust, were tied up with Jews by the Germans and deported with them.[14] In September and October 1944, after the Soviet-German frontline was established, and remained unchanged for several months, the Germans began expulsion of all inhabitants of Jas?o, as the town was located on the front line. In the late autumn of 1944, Wehrmacht units burned the whole town, as the occupying German administration ordered the town to be destroyed, and as a result, 90% of Jas?o was destroyed.[15] It was one of the most destroyed Polish towns. In January 1945, only 365 people dwelled among the ruins of the town.

Etymology

The name derives from Old Polish common word for the "manger" or "trough [trof]" which sounded "jas?o" < *jes?o (before the Lechitic umlaut). Plausibly, it comes from the Slavonic verb "to eat" - "je" < *jesti. The Modern Polish equivalent is "ób" or more seldom "koryto" and the word "jas?o" is forgotten in this meaning. The Germanized version was Jassel or Jessel which appeared in 1325.[16]

Transport

Jas?o is an important railroad junction of southeastern Poland, with trains going into three directions - eastwards (to Zagórz), westwards (to Stró?e) and northeast, to Rzeszów. Another line, along the Wis?oka to D?bica, was planned in the interebellum period. Construction on it began in 1938, but it was never completed because of World War II.

Education

High School in Jas?o

Sports

->Jas?o is home to a sports club Czarni Jas?o, founded in 1910.

->Polish Folk Dance

Churches of Jas?o

Façade of St. Anthony's Church in Jas?o

Jas?o has a population that includes Roman Catholics, Greek Catholics, non-Catholics (mostly Protestants), and a small Jewish population. However, it is mainly Roman Catholic, and contains 9 Catholic Churches.

  • ?w. Antoniego Padewskiego
  • Chrystusa Króla
  • Dobrego Pasterza
  • Matki Bo?ej Królowej ?wiata
  • Mi?osierdzia Bo?ego
  • Naj?wi?tszego Serca Pana Jezusa
  • ?wi?tego Stanis?awa
  • Wniebowzi?cia Naj?wi?tszej Marii Panny
  • Matki Bo?ej Cz?stochowskiej

Notable people

International relations

Town Hall

Twin towns -- Sister cities

Jas?o is twinned with:[17]

See also

References

  • "Central Statistical Office(GUS) - TERYT(National Register of Territorial Land Apportionment Journal)" (in Polish). G?ówny Urz?d Statystyczny. 2008. Archived from the original on 2013-10-25. Retrieved .
  • "Municipal Office of the Town of Jaslo". Retrieved .
Notes
  1. ^ "Population. Size and structure by territorial division" (PDF). © 1995-2009 Central Statistical Office 00-925 Warsaw, Al. Niepodleg?o?ci 208. 2009-06-02. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-26. Retrieved . External link in |publisher= (help)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Sulimierski, Filip, Bronis?aw Chlebowski, and W?adys?aw Walewski. S?ownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego I Innych Krajów S?owia?skich: Warszawa 1880-1902. Translated by William F. "Fred" Hoffman. Warszawa: BUW. Sekcja Dokumentów Wtórnych, 2006. p. 488-490
  3. ^ "The Galician Riots." The Jewish World (New York City), July 1, 1898. p. 272
  4. ^ Stauter-Halsted, Keely. The Nation in the Village: The Genesis of Peasant National Identity in Austrian Poland, 1848-1914. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2004.
  5. ^ Johnston, Alexander (1853). Dictionary of Geography, Descriptive, Physical, Statistical, and Historical, Forming a Complete General Gazetteer of the World. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans. p. 681.
  6. ^ Peasant maids, city women : from the European countryside to urban America. Harzig, Christiane. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 1997. pp. 145. ISBN 0801483956. OCLC 36407723.CS1 maint: others (link)
  7. ^ History of the Jews of Jas?o : Yizkor (memorial) book of the Jewish community of Jaslo, Poland : translation of Toldot Yehudei Yaslo. Leibner, William., Kramer, Phyllis., Ibn-Chaim, Moshe N. New York. 2013. pp. Synopsis. ISBN 9781939561084. OCLC 859528896.CS1 maint: others (link)
  8. ^ Birkbeck, W. J. Religious Persecution in Galicia (Austrian Poland). Berridge, 1912. pp. 14-15
  9. ^ R., Magocsi, Paul (2015). With their backs to the mountains: a history of Carpathian Rus' and Carpatho-Rusyns. Budapest: Central European University Press. p. 133. ISBN 9789633861073. OCLC 929239528.
  10. ^ Various. New York Times Current History; The European War, Vol 2, No. 3, June, 1915 April-September, 1915. 2005. From section: "Seven Days of War East and West"
  11. ^ Prit, Buttar (2017-03-21). Germany ascendant : the Eastern Front 1915. Oxford. p. 204. ISBN 9781472819376. OCLC 993315423.
  12. ^ Wardzy?ska, Maria (2009). By? rok 1939. Operacja niemieckiej policji bezpiecze?stwa w Polsce. Intelligenzaktion (in Polish). Warszawa: IPN. pp. 258-259.
  13. ^ "Dzie? Katy?ski w Ja?le: ,,zgin kwiat inteligencji polskiej"". terazJaslo.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2021.
  14. ^ Datner, Szymon (1968). Las sprawiedliwych (in Polish). Warszawa: Ksika i Wiedza. p. 110.
  15. ^ Getter, Marek (2004). "Straty ludzkie i materialne w Powstaniu Warszawskim". Biuletyn Instytutu Pami?ci Narodowej (in Polish). No. 8-9 (43-44). IPN. p. 74. ISSN 1641-9561.
  16. ^ prof. Maria Malec. S?ownik nazw geograficznych Polski. 2003. WN PWN. 2007. ISBN 83-01-13857-2
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h "Jas?o Official Website - "Wspó?praca Mi?dzynarodowa Jas?a" (Jas?o's Twin Towns)". Flag of Poland.svg(in Polish) © 2008 Urz?d Miasta w Ja?le. Archived from the original on 2008-03-17. Retrieved .
  18. ^ "Prague Partner Cities" (in Czech). © 2009 Magistrát hl. m. Prahy. Retrieved . External link in |publisher= (help)

External links



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