Japanese Exonyms
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Japanese Exonyms

Japanese exonyms are the names of places in the Japanese language that differ from the name given in the place's dominant language.

While Japanese names of places that are not derived from the Chinese language generally tend to represent the endonym or the English exonym as phonetically accurately as possible, the Japanese terms for some place names are obscured, either because the name was borrowed from another language or because of some other obscure etymology, such as referring to England (more specifically the United Kingdom) as ? (Igirisu), which is based on the Portuguese term for "English", Inglês.[1] Exonyms for cities outside of the East Asian cultural sphere tend to be more phonetically accurate to their endonyms than the English exonyms if the endonym is significantly different from the English exonym.

The names for nations and cities that existed before major Japanese orthographic reforms in the Meiji era usually have ateji, or kanji characters used solely to represent pronunciation. However, the use of ateji today has become far less common, as katakana has largely taken over the role of phonetically representing words of non-Sino-Japanese origin. As significant differences exist between the pronunciations of the Chinese and Japanese languages, many of the ateji terms for the exonyms of foreign, non-Sinitic terms are unrecognizable in Chinese, and likewise, since some of the ateji terms derived from Chinese, the aforementioned terms do not match the Japanese on or kun readings for the pronunciation of the given kanji.

Legends
dagger Archaic, obsolete
double-dagger Rare
Not exist
(Red XN) Not exist, but kept on list for linguistic interest, or to prevent common errors.

Australia

 Australia (?sutoraria (?), G?sh? ())
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Alice Springs Arisusupuringusu () Alice Springs English
Canberra Kyanbera () Canberra English
Coral Sea K?raru Sh? (?)
Sangokai ()
Coral Sea English Translation from English
Melbourne Meruborun () Melbourne English
Perth P?su () Perth English
Sydney Shidon? (?) Sydney English
Tasmania Tasumania () Tasmania English
Thursday Island S?zud? Airando ()
Mokuy?t? ()
Thursday Island English Translation from English
Uluru Ururu () Uluru Pitjantjatjara dialect

Austria

 Austria (?sutoria (, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Vienna W?n (?) Wien German Based on German spelling

Belgium

 Belgium (Berug? (?, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Brussels Buryusseru ()
Burasseru ()
Brussel Dutch
Bruxelles French

Brazil

 Brazil (Burajiru (?, ?))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Brasília Burajiria () Brasília Portuguese
Rio de Janeiro Riodejaneiro () Rio de Janeiro Portuguese
São Paulo Sanpauro () São Paulo Portuguese

Cambodia

 Cambodia (Kambojia (, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Phnom Penh Punonpen () Phnum-pénh (?) Khmer
Siem Reap Shiemuriappu (?) Si?m-réap () Khmer
Sihanoukville Shian?kubiru (?) Krong Pre?h Seihan? () Khmer Based on English

Canada

 Canada (Kanada (, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Montreal Montori?ru (?) Montréal French
Montreal English
Vancouver Bank?b? () Vancouver English
Victoria Bikutoria () Victoria English

China

 China (Ch?goku ())
English name Japanese name(s) Endonym Notes
Not On'yomi On'yomi Name Language
Beijing Pekin () (Red XNHokky?) B?ij?ng Mandarin Transcription based on Chinese postal romanization
Chengdu Chendu () Seito Chéngd? Mandarin Transcription based on Mandarin pronunciation
Changchun Chanchun () Ch?shun Chángch?n () Mandarin
Chongqing Chonchin () J?kei Chóngqìng () Mandarin
Mount Everest Eberesuto ()
Everesuto ()
Everest English Transcriptions based on English
Chomoranma () Zh?mùl?ngm? F?ng () Chinese Transcriptions based on Tibetan
Chomolungma () Tibetan
Sagarum?ta ()
Sagaram?t? (?)
Sagaram?th? (?) Nepali Transcriptions based on Nepali
Dalian D?ryen () Dairen Dàlián () Mandarin
Guangdong Kanton () (Red XNK?t?) Gu?ngd?ng () Mandarin Transcription based on historical English exonym
Gwong2dung1 Cantonese
Guangzhou K?sh? () Gu?ngzh?u () Mandarin
Gwong2zau1 Cantonese
Guilin Guirin () Keirin Guìlín Mandarin
Gveilinz Zhuang
Han River (Hubei) Kank? () Hàn Ji?ng () Mandarin
Kansui () Hàn Sh?i () Mandarin
Harbin Harubin (, ) H?'?rb?n () Mandarin
Kharbin () Russian
Halbin () Manchu
Hohhot Fufuhoto (?)
Hohehota ()double-dagger
H?héhàotè (?) Mandarin
Kökekhota () Mongolian
Hong Kong Honkon () (Red XNK?k?) Hoeng1gong2 Cantonese Transcription based on English exonym
Macau Makao () ?mon () Ou3mun2 Cantonese Makao based on Portuguese exonym
Nanjing Nankin () (Red XNNanky?) Nánj?ng Mandarin Transcription based on Chinese postal romanization
Ningxia Ninsh? () Neika Níngxià () Mandarin
Qingdao Chintao () (Red XNSeit?) Q?ngd?o () Mandarin Not to be confused with Aoshima, two different islands in Japan spelled with the same kanji
Shaanxi (Red XNSh?nsh?) Sensei () Sh?nx? () Mandarin As the transcriptions for Shanxi and Shaanxi are indistinguishable in Japanese (since the only way to distinguish the two in Mandarin is the tone of the first syllable), it is more common to use the on-yomi as they are distinguishable from each other
Shanghai Shanhai () (Red XNJ?kai) Shàngh?i Mandarin
Zaan22 he44 Wu
Shanxi (Red XNShansh?) Sansei () Sh?nx? Mandarin As the transcriptions for Shanxi and Shaanxi are indistinguishable in Japanese (since the only way to distinguish the two in Mandarin is the tone of the first syllable), it is more common to use the on-yomi as they are distinguishable from each other
Shenzhen Shenchen ()double-dagger Shinsen (, ) Sh?nzhèn Mandarin
Tai Po District (Hong Kong) Taip? () Taiho Daai6bou3 Cantonese Based on Cantonese pronunciation
Tianjin Tenchin () Tenshin Ti?nj?n Mandarin Not to be confused with native Japanese word amatsu, written using the same kanji[2]
Tap Mun (Hong Kong) Tapumunchau () T?monsh? Taap mùhn J?u Cantonese Transcription based on Cantonese pronunciation
Tibet Chibetto (?) Seiz? () X?zàng () Mandarin Transcription based on English exonym Tibet
Bodo ()double-dagger Bod () Tibetan
Ürümqi Urumuchi (?)[3] (Red XN) W?l?mùqí (?) Mandarin Transcription based on Mandarin or Uyghur pronunciation
Ürümçi (?) Uyghur
Xiamen Amoi (, , ) ?-mûi Hokkien Based on historical English exonym Amoy
Sh?men Xiàmén () Mandarin Based on Mandarin pronunciation
Xi'an Sh?an () Seian X?'?n Mandarin
Xinjiang Shinchan () Shinky? X?nji?ng Mandarin
Yangtze Chan-gawa (?)double-dagger Ch?k? ()[4] Cháng Ji?ng () Mandarin
Y?suk? ()[5]
(Red XNY?shik?)
Yángz? Ji?ng () Mandarin

For place names derived from the Chinese language, Japanese typically uses the kanji equivalents of the Chinese characters that make up their respective endonyms, albeit with a Sino-Japanese pronunciation called on readings. Some place names, however, also have an approximate pronunciation (or transcription) of a historical English exonym if the area is internationally well-known, such as Beijing and Hong Kong (see above), and such transcriptions tend to be more common than the on-yomi or the Mandarin transcriptions. Most place names derived from Mandarin also have a Japanese transcription of the Mandarin pronunciation.

One detail to be noted, however, is that for the names of certain districts or areas in Hong Kong and Macau, the pronunciations of the Japanese transcriptions typically try to imitate the Cantonese pronunciation instead of the Mandarin pronunciation.

The Chinese characters for the endonyms above are simplified Chinese characters and will only appear in the table above if they differ from the kanji shinjitai (the current set of Japanese kanji). Most transcriptions above can be either be written either in kanji or katakana. The kanji listed are generally more accurate to the traditional Chinese variants of the endonyms than the current simplified Chinese.

Czech Republic

 Czech Republic (Cheko ())
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Pilsen Puruzeni (?) Plze? Czech
Prague Puraha ()
Pur?gu (?)
Puraggu (?)
Praha Czech

Denmark

 Denmark (Denm?ku (, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Billund Birun () Billund Danish
Copenhagen Kopenh?gen (?) København Danish Transcription based on English Copenhagen
Kubunhaun ()

Egypt

 Egypt (Ejiputo (?, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Alexandria Arekusandoria () al-?Iskandariyya () Standard Arabic
Eskendereyya () Egyptian Arabic
Cairo Kairo () al-Q?hirah (?) Standard Arabic
Ma?r (?) Egyptian Arabic
Nile Nairu-kawa (?) an-Nil () Standard Arabic
en-N?l () Egyptian Arabic

France

 France (Furansu (?, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Cannes Kannu () Cannes French
Dunkirk Dankeruku () Dunkerque French
Lyon Riyon () Lyon French
Normandy Norumand? (?) Normandie French
Paris Pari () Paris French Japanese form adapted from French pronunciation without liaison
Saint-Lo Sanr? (?) Saint-Lô French

Germany

 Germany (Doitsu (, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Berlin Berurin (?) Berlin German
Bonn Bon () Bonn German
Cologne Kerun () Köln German
Frankfurt Furankufuruto (?) Frankfurt am Main German
Hamburg Hanburuku () Hamburg German
Munich Myunhen () München German

Greece

 Greece (Girisha (?, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Athens Atene () Athína () Greek
Corinth Korinto (?)
Korintosu ()
Kórinthos () Greek
Crete Kureta () Kríti () Greek
Marathon Marason (?) Marathónios (?) Greek Based on English exonym
Olympia Orinpia () Olympía (?) Greek
Filippoi Firippi () Fílippi () Greek
Santorini Santor?ni () Thíra (?) Greek
Sparta Suparuta (?) Spárti () Greek Based on English
Thebes T?be () Thíva (?) Greek
Thessalonica Tessaroniki () Thessaloníki () Greek

Iceland

 Iceland (Aisurando (, , ), Hy?t? ())
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Reykjavik Reikyabiku ()
Reikyav?ku ()
Reykjavík Icelandic

India

 India (Indo (, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Bangalore Bangar?ru () Bengaluru () Hindi
Chennai Chennai () Chennee () Hindi
Ganges Ganjisu (?) Ganga (?) Hindi Based on English exonym
Hyderabad Haiderab?do (?) Haidaraabaad () Hindi
Kolkata Korukata (?) Kolakaata (?) Hindi
Mumbai Munbai (?) Mumbee () Hindi
New Delhi Ny?der? () Naii Dillii ( ) Hindi Based on English exonym

Since India is home to many different languages and English is an official language in the country, Japanese exonyms are largely based on the English exonyms. The English exonyms are also familiar to many Indians.

Indonesia

 Indonesia (Indoneshia (, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Bali Bari () Bali Indonesian
Borneo Boruneo (?) Kalimantan Indonesian
Jakarta Jakaruta () Jakarta Indonesian

Ireland

 Ireland (Airurando (, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Dublin Daburin (?) Baile Átha Cliath Irish
Dublin English

Israel

 Israel Isuraeru (, )
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Dead Sea Shikai ()[6] Yam ha-Melah ( ?) Hebrew Translation of "Dead Sea"
Jerusalem Erusaremu () Yerushaláyim (?) Hebrew
Nazareth Nazare () Natsrat (?) Hebrew
Tel Aviv Teruabibu () Tel Aviv ( ?) Hebrew

Italy

 Italy (Itaria (?, ?, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Bologna Bor?'nya () Bologna Italian
Florence Firentse ()
Fur?rensu ()
Firenze Italian Fur?rensu based on English exonym
Milan Mirano () Milano Italian
Naples Napori () Napoli Italian
Rome R?ma () Roma Italian
Sicily Shichiria (?) Sicilia Italian
Venice Venetsiya ()
Benetsiya ()
Benechiya (?)
Benisu ()
Venisu (?)
Venezia Italian Benisu/Venisu from English work of Shakespeare

Japanese exonyms for Italian place names are generally based on the Italian pronunciation rather than English exonyms.

Kazakhstan

 Kazakhstan (Kazafusutan (, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Almaty Arumatoi () Almat? () Kazakh
Nur-Sultan Nurusurutan () Nur-Sultan (-) Kazakh

Laos

 Laos (Raosu (, , ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Luang Prabang Ruanpab?n (?) Luangphabang (, ) Lao Exonym based on actual Lao pronunciation rather than spelling
Vientiane Bienchan () Viangchan () Lao Exonym based on English pronunciation

Malaysia

 Malaysia Mar?shia (, ?)
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Borneo Boruneo (?) Borneo Malay
Johor Bahru Joh?rubaru (?) Johor Bahru Malay
Kuala Lumpur Kuararunp?ru () Kuala Lumpur Malay
Penang Penan ()
T?j?-t? ()
Pulau Pinang Malay
Putrajaya Putorajaya () Putrajaya Malay

Mexico

 Mexico (Mekishiko (?, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Cancún Kankun (?) Cancún Spanish
Mexico City Mekishikoshiti (?) Ciudad de México Spanish Based of the English exonym
Puerto Vallarta Puerutobajaruta () Puerto Vallarta Spanish
Tijuana Tifuana ()
Tiwana (?)
Tijuana Spanish Tiwana from English pronunciation
Ciudad Juárez Shiud? Fuaresu ()) Ciudad Juárez Spanish

Myanmar

 Myanmar (Myanm? (, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Bagan Bagan () Pu.gam (?) Burmese
Naypyidaw Nepid? (?) Ne-pranytau (?) Burmese
Yangon Yangon (?) Rankun (?) Burmese

Netherlands

 Netherlands (Oranda (?, , ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Amsterdam Amusuterudamu (?) Amsterdam Dutch
The Hague Den H?gu ()
H?gu ()
Den Haag Dutch
Rotterdam Rotterudamu () Rotterdam Dutch

North Korea

 North Korea (Kita-Ch?sen ())
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Not on-yomi On-yomi Name Language
Kaesong Keson () Kaij?double-dagger Kaes?ng () Korean
Paektu Mountain Hakut?san ()
Ch?hakusan ()
Paekdusan () Korean
Pyongyang Pyon'yan () Heij?double-dagger P'y?ngyang () Korean
Sinuiju Shiniju () Shingish?double-dagger Sin?iju () Korean
Tumen River Tomankan () T?mank? Duman'gang () Korean
Yalu River ?ryokuk?, ?ryokk? () Amrokkang () Korean

Norway

 Norway (Noruw? (, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Oslo Osuro () Oslo Norwegian

Pakistan

 Pakistan (Pakisutan (, ?)
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Islamabad Isuramab?do (?) Isl?m?b?d ( ?) Urdu
Karachi Karachi () Kar?c? () Urdu
Lahore Rah?ru (?) L?haur () Urdu

Portugal

 Portugal (Porutogaru (, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Lisbon Risubon (?) Lisboa Portuguese Based on English exonym

Russia

 Russia (Roshia (, ), Rokoku ())
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Grozny Gurozunui () Groznyj (?) Russian
Söl?a-?ala (-) Chechen
Moscow Mosukuwa (?) Moskva () Russian
Novosibirsk Noboshibirusuku (?) Novosibirsk () Russian
Saint Petersburg Sankuto-Peteruburuku (?) Sankt-Peterburg (-) Russian
Siberia Shiberia (?) Sibir' () Russian
Vladivostok Urajiosutoku (?) Vladivostok () Russian
Volgograd Borugogur?do (?) Volgograd () Russian
Yekaterinburg Ekaterinburuku () Ekaterinburg () Russian

Saudi Arabia

 Saudi Arabia (Saujiarabia (?))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Mecca Mekka () Makkah () Arabic
Medina Medina (?) Madinah () Arabic
Riyadh Riyado () Riyadh (?) Arabic

South Africa

 South Africa (Minami Afurika (), Nan'a ())
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Cape of Good Hope Kib?h? () Cape of Good Hope English Translation of Cape of Hope
Kaap die Goeie Hoop Afrikaans
Johannesburg Yohanesuburugu (?) Johannesburg Afrikaans Based on Afrikaans pronunciation

South Korea

 South Korea (Kankoku ())
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Not on-yomi On-yomi
Busan Pusan () Fuzan Busan ()
Gangnam Kan'namu () K?nan Gangnam ()
Han River (Korea) Hangan () Kank? Hangang ()
Incheon Inchon () Jinsen Incheon ()
Itaewon Itewon () Ritai'in Itaewon ()
Jeju Jeju () Saish? Jeju ()
Pyeongchang Pyonchan () Heish? Pyeongchang ()
Seoul Souru () Keij? () Seoul () Souru usually only written in katakana

While most South Korean place names are derived from words in the Chinese language, Japanese can refer to a Korean place name using Japanese on-yomi (Jeju () is Saish? () in Japanese) or a pronunciation that imitates the Korean endonym name as closely as possible (Itaewon () is Itewon () or Ritai'in () in Japanese). Many place names in Korea have at least two of the pronunciations, the first being based on the Japanese on-yomi or kun-yomi and the second being based on the Korean endonym, with the latter being made so that the Japanese could navigate and ask for directions more clearly to native Koreans. Korean-based pronunciations are usually written in katakana.

Spain

 Spain (Supein (?, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Barcelona Baruserona () Barcelona Spanish
Catalan
Basque Country Basuku Chih? () País Vasco Spanish
Euskal Herria Basque
Madrid Mador?do ()
Madoriddo ()
Madrid Spanish
Granada Guranada (?) Granada Spanish
Seville Sebiria (?) Sevilla Spanish

Sweden

 Sweden (Suw?den (, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Stockholm Sutokkuhorumu (?) Stockholm Swedish

Switzerland

  Switzerland (Suisu (, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Bern Berun () Bern German
Geneva Jun?bu () Genève French
Lausanne R?zannu () Lausanne French
Zürich Ch?rihhi () Zürich German

Taiwan

 Taiwan (Taiwan ())
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Non on-yomi On-yomi Name Language
Kaohsiung Takao ()
Kaoshion
K?y? G?oxióng Mandarin Takao is based on the Siraya name for the city.[7]
Ko-hiông Taiwanese Hokkien
Kô-hiùng Hakka
Kinmen
Quemoy
Jinmen () Kinmon J?nmén Mandarin
Kim-mn?g-ko?n Taiwanese Hokkien
Kîm-mùn-yen Hakka
Taichung Taijon ()
Taitson
Taich? Táizh?ng () Mandarin Transcriptions based on Mandarin pronunciation and Chinese postal romanization, respectively
Tâi-tiong Taiwanese Hokkien
Thòi-chûng Hakka
Tainan Tainan () Táinán () Mandarin
Tâi-lâm Taiwanese Hokkien
Thòi-nàm Hakka
Taipei Taipei () Taihoku Táib?i () Mandarin Transcription based on Chinese postal romanization
Tâi-pak Taiwanese Hokkien
Thòi-pet Hakka
Taitung Taidon () Tait? Táid?ng () Mandarin Transcription based on Mandarin pronunciation
Tâi-tang Taiwanese Hokkien
Thòi-tûng Hakka

Similar to Chinese exonyms, Japanese can either use a transcription based on Mandarin or the Japanese on-yomi of the endonym. However, there are some Japanese place names that are unrelated to the Chinese name of the place, but are actually based on the Taiwanese aboriginal languages.

Thailand

 Thailand (Tai (, ?))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Ayutthaya Ayutaya (?) Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya () Thai
Bangkok Bankoku (?) Krung Thep Maha Nakhon (?) Thai Based on English exonym
Chiang Mai Chenmai () Chiang Mai () Thai
Chiang Rai Chenrai () Chiang Rai () Thai
Hua Hin Hoahin (?) Hua Hin () Thai
Krabi Kurabi () Krabi () Thai
Pattaya Pataya () Pattaya () Thai
Phi Phi Islands P?p? Shot? () Mu Ko Phi Phi () Thai
Phuket P?ketto () Phuket () Thai
Sukhothai Suk?tai () Sukhothai (?) Thai

Turkey

 Turkey (Toruko (, ))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Ankara Ankara (?) Ankara Turkish
Cappadocia Kappadokia () Kapadokya Turkish Based on English exonym
Tarsus Tarususu (?) Tarsus Turkish
Istanbul Isutanb?ru (?) ?stanbul Turkish
Izmir Izumiru (?) ?zmir Turkish

United Arab Emirates

 United Arab Emirates (Arabu Shuch?koku Renp? ()
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Abu Dhabi Ab? ?aby (?) Abu Dhabi () Standard Arabic
Dubai Dobai () Dubayy () Standard Arabic

United Kingdom

 United Kingdom (Igirisu (?, ), Egeresu (?), Eikoku (), Reng? ?koku (?))
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Belfast Berufasuto () Belfast English
Béal Feirste Irish
Cardiff K?difu () Cardiff English
Caerdydd Welsh
Dover D?b? (?) Dover English
Edinburgh Edinbara ()
Ejinbara ()
Edinburgh English Based on the Received Pronunciation of the name as opposed to the Scots pronunciation
Scots
England Ingurando () England English
Glasgow Gurasug? () Glasgow English
Liverpool Ribap?ru () Liverpool English
London Rondon (?) London English
Manchester Manchesut? (?) Manchester English
Northern Ireland Kita Airurando (?) Northern Ireland English
Tuaisceart Éirean Irish Gaelic
Norlin Airlann Ulster-Scots
Oxford Okkusuf?do (, ) Oxford English Kanji is based on the Chinese name for Oxford
Scotland Sukottorando (?) Scotland English
Wales W?ruzu () Wales English
Cymru Welsh
York Y?ku () York English

United States

 United States (Amerika (?, ?), Beigoku (), Gassh?koku ())
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
California Kariforunia (?)
Kash? ()dagger
California English
Chicago Shikago () Chicago English
Denali Denari () Denali English
Golden Gate Bridge Goruden G?to Burijji ()
Kinmon-ky? ()
Golden Gate Bridge English Kimmonkyou is a translation of "Golden Gate Bridge"
Hawaii Hawai () Hawaii English
Hawaiʻi Hawaiian
Hollywood Hariuddo ()
Sh?rin ()double-dagger
Hollywood English Sh?rin is a translation of "Holy Wood"
Los Angeles Rosanzerusu () Los Angeles English
New York City Ny?y?ku () New York City English
Pearl Harbor P?ru H?b? ()
Shinjuwan ()double-dagger
Pearl Harbor English Shinju-wan is a translation of "Pearl Harbor"
Washington, D.C. Washinton D?sh? (D.C.)
Kafu ()dagger
Washington, DC English

Vietnam

 Vietnam Betonamu (?, )
English name Japanese name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Da Nang Danan (),[8] ?à N?ng () Vietnamese
?i?n Biên Ph? Dienbienf? () ?i?n Biên Ph? () Vietnamese
H?i An Hoian (?) H?i An () Vietnamese
Haiphong Haifon () H?i Phòng () Vietnamese
H? Long Bay Haron-wan (?) V?nh H? Long () Vietnamese
Hanoi Hanoi () Hà N?i () Vietnamese
Hue Fue () Hu? (?) Vietnamese
Ho Chi Minh City
Saigon
H?chimin-shi () Thành ph? H? Chí Minh () Vietnamese
Saigon (?)[9] Sài Gòn () Vietnamese

See also

References

  1. ^ "Why do the Japanese call the UK 'Igirisu'?". RocketNews24. 2015-12-04. Retrieved .
  2. ^ " - Jisho.org". jisho.org. Retrieved .
  3. ^ For place names in Mainland China, Japanese exonym kanji is different from the simplified Chinese characters used in the endonym.
  4. ^ Kobayashi, Fusatar?, ed. (1932-09-30). "Ch?k?" . ? (Sekaichimeidaijiten; World toponym encyclopedia) (in Japanese). 2 (2 ed.). Tokyo, Japan: Nankosha. p. 1189. doi:10.11501/1876511. Retrieved .
  5. ^ Kobayashi, Fusatar?, ed. (1935-09-30). "Y?suk?" . ? (Sekaichimeidaijiten; World toponym encyclopedia) (in Japanese). 3 (2 ed.). Tokyo, Japan: Nankosha. p. 2028. doi:10.11501/1876523. Retrieved .
  6. ^ "". (in Japanese). Retrieved .
  7. ^ "Stories Behind Taiwan's Place-Names | Island Folklore". Island Folklore: Taiwanese Tales & Traditions. 2018-12-25. Retrieved .
  8. ^ "". (in Japanese). Retrieved .
  9. ^ "Saigon" ?. ? (Sekai chimei daijiten / World toponym encyclopedia) (in Japanese). 2. Tokyo: Nankosha. 1932-09-30 [1932]. p. 788. doi:10.11501/1876511. Retrieved .
  • Nelson, Andrew N. (1962) The Modern Reader's Japanese-English Character Dictionary (Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle Company)

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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