Jan %C5%BDi%C5%BEka
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Jan %C5%BDi%C5%BEka
Jan ?i?ka z Trocnova a Kalicha
Jan Zizka Vitkov Prague CZ 007.jpg
Statue of Jan ?i?ka by Bohumil Kafka on Vítkov Hill in Prague
Nickname(s)John the One-Eyed
?i?ka of the Chalice
Bornc. 1360
Trocnov, Kingdom of Bohemia
Died11 October 1424(1424-10-11) (aged 63-64)
P?ibyslav, Kingdom of Bohemia
Buried
Cathedral of the Holy Spirit
AllegianceHussites (1419-1423)
Taborites (1423-1424)
Years of servicec. 1378-1424
RankChamberlain to Queen Sofia of Bavaria
Battles/warsBattle of Grunwald
Hussite Wars
AwardsA castle near Litomice. He gave the biblical name of Chalice (Kalich in Czech) to this new possession

Jan ?i?ka z Trocnova a Kalicha (English: John Zizka of Trocnov and the Chalice) (c. 1360 - 11 October 1424) was a Czech general - a contemporary and follower of Jan Hus and a Radical Hussite who led the Taborites. ?i?ka was a successful military leader and is now a Czech national hero. He was nicknamed "One-eyed ?i?ka", having lost one and then both eyes in battle.

He was born in the small village of Trocnov in the Kingdom of Bohemia into an aristocratic family. From his youth, he was attached to the royal court and held the office of Chamberlain to Queen Sofia of Bavaria.[1]

He fought in the Battle of Grunwald (July 15, 1410), where he defended Radzy? against the Teutonic Order. Later he played a prominent role in the civil wars in Bohemia during the reign of Wenceslas IV. In the Battle of Kutná Hora (1421) he defeated the army of the Holy Roman Empire and the Hungarian Kingdom. The effectiveness of his field artillery against the royal cavalry in this battle made it a successful element of Hussite armies.

?i?ka's tactics were unorthodox and innovative. In addition to training and equipping his army according to their abilities, he used armored wagons fitted with small cannons and muskets, anticipating the tank of five hundred years later. He exploited geographic features to the full and maintained good discipline in his armies. He had to quickly train peasants to repeatedly face highly trained and armored opponents who usually outnumbered his own troops.

A monument was erected on the Vítkov Hill in Prague to honor Jan ?i?ka and his victory on this hill in 1420. It is the third largest bronze equestrian statue in the world.[2]

Early life

Jan ?i?ka was born in one of two Meierhofs of the village Trocnov (nowadays part of the Borovany municipality in the ?eské Bud?jovice District). An old legend says that he was born in the forest under an oak growing just next to the fields and little ponds belonging to the Meierhof.[3] The date of his birth is not known. A document dated 3 April 1378 mentions Johannes dictus Zizka de Trocnov (Jan called Zizka of Trocnov) but there is no direct evidence whether it was the same person. For example Czech historian Tomek and his followers supposed it could have the military leader's father. They argued that if ?i?ka were adult in 1378, he would be too old to become such an able commander after 1419.[3][4] Others, such as ?mahel, admitted that even such an age might not have prevented him from successful leadership, and so this question remains unsolved.[4] A 1384 document also mentions some Kate?ina, a wife of Johannes dictus Zizka.[3]

?i?ka's family belonged to the lower Czech gentry (zemané) but did not own much estate. Little is known of the rest of the family too. Jan ?i?ka had several siblings but the only names known to historians are brother Jaroslav and sister Ane?ka. The family had a crayfish in their coat of arms.[3]

Although some of the south Bohemian nobility led by Henry III of Rosenberg took part in various revolts against the king Wenceslas IV at the turn of the 14th and 15th century (the king was even held captive in the Rosenberg's castles of P?íb?nice and ?eský Krumlov for a short time), there is no evidence of ?i?ka's participation in these conflicts. It is supposed that in the early years of the 15th century Jan ?i?ka already controlled his family property.[5] However, the family probably got into financial problems and started selling parts of their estate. Some sources suggest that ?i?ka's father took the place of the royal gamekeeper before he died in 1407 near Plze? and ?i?ka himself might have been taken into the royal service too, but the evidence is not clear enough.[3]

However, beginning in 1406, ?i?ka starts appearing in the black book (acta negra maleficorum) of the Rosenbeg estate as an accused bandit.[6] Unfortunately the reasons of this change are not known, but the fact that he declared open hostility to Henry of Rosenberg and also to the city of Bud?jovice and their allies[7] suggests that he was trying to fight some injustice against his house and to enforce some of his rights in this way. Violence broke out and ?i?ka tried to make harm to his enemies on any possible occasion, using as his allies also local bandits led by Mat?j V?dce (Mathew the Leader) who were seeking only financial profit. The bandits were mugging merchants and other people travelling on south Bohemian highways. ?i?ka took part in these raids which included stealing money and various goods, kidnapping, and at least one murder of a man belonging to the cohort of Henry of Rosenberg.[7]

?i?ka and the bandits were also in touch with some more powerful enemies of Henry of Rosenberg. For example in 1408 he took part in preparations for conquering the castle Hus near Prachatice (whose burgrave was Mikulá? of Hus who later became one of first commandants in ?i?ka's army in the beginning of the Hussite Wars). He was also dealing with Ale? of Bítov about his help in an attempt to conquer the towns of Nové Hrady and T?ebo?. Another nobleman asking his help was Erhart of Kun?tát who wanted to attempt the stronghold of Slov?nice.[8]

?mahel assigns the boom of south-Bohemian banditism in that time to the continual growth of the estates of the rich house of Rosenberg (and of the church estates too) and simultaneous indebtedness and pauperization of the lower gentry together with the thirst for land among their subjects, which resulted into big social tension in the area.[9]

Finally ?i?ka was forced to leave his residence in Trocnov. The reason could be the growing hostility with his powerful neighbours. Historian Tomek also speculated that he might have been forcibly deprived of his small hereditary property, which was not uncommon in that time. As a result he started leading the life of an outlaw, partly supported by a local nobleman Valkoun. The group, still led by Mat?j V?dce, camped in various places, including a farm in the village of Sedlo (nowadays part of ?ím), a mill not far from Lomnice nad Lu?nicí, at a house of an unknown woman in Hlavatce or simply in the woods.[10] In that time mugging, holding people for ransom and attacking small towns were the main source of the group's income who used it for their living and to pay spies and temporary hosts.[11] Some of his companions were finally captured, tortured and executed, including V?dce.[12]

?i?ka's situation changed on 25 of April 1409 when king Wenceslas agreed that his conflict with the city of Bud?jovice should be finished and on 27 June he pardoned him (calling him "faithful and beloved") by a special letter. At the same time he ordered the city council of Bud?jovice to do so too.[13] This suggests that the king admitted that ?i?ka was at least partly right in the conflict.[12]

Grunwald

?i?ka was on the winning side of the Battle of Grunwald, also called the 1st Battle of Tannenberg, one of the largest battles in Medieval Europe.[14][15] It was fought on July 15, 1410, during the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War. The alliance of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led respectively by King of Poland W?adys?aw Jagieo and Grand Duke Vytautas (Witold), decisively defeated the Teutonic Knights, led by Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen. Most of the Teutonic Knights' leadership were killed or taken prisoner. The Knights never recovered their former power and the financial burden of war reparations caused internal conflicts and an economic downturn in their lands. The battle shifted the balance of power in Eastern Europe.

Rise to prominence

Jan ?i?ka leading his troops (illumination from the late 1400s)

?i?ka was the military leader of the Hussites in the Hussite Wars. The Hussites were a proto-Protestant, Christian movement following the teachings of Czech priest, philosopher, reformer, and master at Charles University in Prague, Jan Hus (c. 1369-1415). On November 13, 1419 a temporary armistice was concluded between the partisans of King Sigismund, the last Emperor of the House of Luxemburg and the citizens of Prague. ?i?ka disapproved of this compromise and left Prague for Plze?, one of the richest cities of the kingdom with his followers, but soon left that city. On March 25, 1420 he defeated the partisans of Sigismund at Sudom, the first pitched battle of the Hussite wars. He later arrived at Tábor, the then-recently established stronghold of the Hussite movement. The ecclesiastical organization of Tabor had a somewhat puritanical character with a very strict military discipline being instituted though the government was established on a thoroughly democratic basis. ?i?ka took a large part in the organization of the new military community and became one of the four captains of the people (hejtman) who were at its head.

Wagenburg tactics

Jan ?i?ka z Trocnova, fictional portrait by Jan Vilímek

?i?ka helped develop tactics of using wagon forts, called vozová hradba in Czech or Wagenburg by the Germans, as mobile fortifications. When the Hussite army faced a numerically superior opponent they prepared carts for the battle by forming them into squares or circles. The carts were joined wheel to wheel by chains and positioned aslant, with their corners attached to each other, so that horses could be harnessed to them quickly, if necessary. In front of this wall of carts a ditch was dug by camp followers. The crew of each cart consisted of 16-22 soldiers: 4-8 crossbowmen, 2 handgunners, 6-8 soldiers equipped with pikes or flails (the flail was the Hussite "national weapon"), 2 shield carriers and 2 drivers.

The Hussites' battle consisted of two stages, the first defensive, the second an offensive counterattack. In the first stage the army placed the carts near the enemy army and by means of artillery fire provoked the enemy into battle. The artillery would usually inflict heavy casualties at close range.

In order to avoid more losses, the enemy knights finally attacked. Then the infantry hidden behind the carts used firearms and crossbows to ward off the attack, weakening the enemy. The shooters aimed first at the horses, depriving the cavalry of its main advantage. Many of the knights died as their horses were shot and they fell.

As soon as the enemy's morale was lowered, the second stage, an offensive counterattack, began. The infantry and the cavalry burst out from behind the carts striking violently at the enemy, mostly from the flanks. While fighting on the flanks and being shelled from the carts the enemy was not able to put up much resistance. They were forced to withdraw, leaving behind dismounted knights in heavy armor who were unable to escape the battlefield. The enemy armies suffered heavy losses and the Hussites soon had the reputation of not taking captives.

Gunpowder weapons

The Hussite wars also marked the earliest successful use of pistols on the battlefield and ?i?ka was an innovator in the use of gunpowder. He was the first European commander to maneuver on the field with cannon of medium caliber mounted on carts in between the wagons.[16] The Czechs called the handgun a píala, and anti-infantry field guns houfnice, from which the English words "pistol" and "howitzer" have been derived. The Germans had just started corning gunpowder, making it suitable for use in smaller, tactical weapons. A musketeer on an open field armed with only a single-shot weapon was no match for a charging knight on a horse; however, from behind a castle wall, or from within the enclosure of the wagenburg, massed and disciplined gunmen could use the handgun to its greatest potential. From his experiences at the Battle of Grunwald, ?i?ka knew exactly how his enemies would attack, and he found new ways to defeat forces numerically superior to his own.

Hussite Crusades

The Hussite Wars were fought to win recognition of faith of the Hussites, the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation, and though predominantly a religious movement, it was also propelled by social issues and strengthened Czech national awareness. The Catholic Church deemed Hus's teachings heretical. He was excommunicated in 1411, condemned by the Council of Constance, and burned at the stake in 1415. The wars proper began in July 1419, with the First Defenestration of Prague, when protesting Hussites threw the town councillors and the judge out the windows of the New Town Hall. It has been reputed that King Wenceslaus IV was so stunned by the defenestration that he died from the shock shortly afterward on 16 August 1419. This led to the armed conflict in which ?i?ka was to earn his fame.

The first anti-Hussite crusade

A painting by Mikolá? Ale? showing Jan ?i?ka as hussite general
Jan ?i?ka in a detail of Jan Matejko's Battle of Grunwald

King Sigismund was king of Hungary but only the titular king of Bohemia. Sigismund had acquired a claim on the Bohemian crown, though it was then in question (and remained so till much later) whether Bohemia was a hereditary or an elective monarchy, especially as the line through which Sigismund claimed the throne had accepted that the Kingdom of Bohemia was an elective monarchy elected by the nobles, and thus the regent of the kingdom (?en?k of Wartenberg) also explicitly stated that Sigismund had not been elected as reason for Sigismund's claim to not be accepted. A firm adherent of the Church of Rome, Sigismund was successful in obtaining aid from Pope Martin V, who issued a bull on 17 March 1420 which proclaimed a crusade "for the destruction of the John Wycliffe, Hussites and all other heretics in Bohemia". Sigismund and many German princes arrived before the walls of Prague on June 30 at the head of a vast army of crusaders from all parts of Europe, largely consisting of adventurers attracted by the possibility of pillage. They immediately began a siege of the city and ?i?ka was compelled to defend the Kingdom. He was a pragmatist in developing his military strategy. His army consisted of farmers and peasants, lacking both the funds and equipment to be classic soldiers with sword, horse and armor, so ?i?ka used their farmers' skills to boost their military efficiency. He adapted the tools of agriculture into the tools of war. The agricultural flail was transformed into the flail.

Menaced by Sigismund, the citizens of Prague entreated the Taborites for assistance. Led by ?i?ka and their other captains, the Taborites set out to take part in the defence of the capital. At Prague, ?i?ka and his men took up a strong position on the hill just outside the city known as the Vítkov, now in ?i?kov, a district of Prague named after the battle in his honour. On July 14 the armies of Sigismund made a general attack. A strong German Crusader-led force assaulted the position on the Vítkov, the stronghold that secured the Hussite communications with the open country. Thanks to ?i?ka's personal leadership, the attack was thrown back and the forces of Sigismund abandoned the siege. On August 22 the Taborites left Prague and returned to Tábor.[1] Though Sigismund had retired from Prague, the castles of Vy?ehrad and Hrad?any remained in possession of his troops. The citizens of Prague laid siege to the Vy?ehrad (see Battle of Vy?ehrad), and towards the end of October the garrison was on the point of capitulating through famine. Sigismund attempted to relieve the fortress, but was decisively defeated by the Hussites on November 1 near the village of Pankrác. The castles of Vy?ehrad and Hrad?any now capitulated, and shortly afterwards almost all Bohemia fell into the hands of the Hussites.

?i?ka now engaged in constant warfare with the partisans of Sigismund, particularly with the powerful Romanist, Old?ich II of Ro?mberk. Through this struggle, the Hussites obtained possession of the greater part of Bohemia from Sigismund. It was proposed to elect the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas to the throne. However, the estates of Bohemia and Moravia met at ?áslav on June 1, 1421 and decided to appoint a provisional government, consisting of twenty members chosen from all the political and religious parties of the country. ?i?ka, who took part in the deliberations at ?áslav, was elected as one of the two representatives of Tábor.[1]

?i?ka summarily suppressed some disturbances on the part of a fanatical sect called the Adamites. He then continued his campaigns against the Romanists and the adherents of Sigismund, and having captured and rebuilt a small castle near Litomice (Leitmeritz) he retained possession of it, the only reward for his great services that he ever received or claimed. According to the Hussite custom he gave the Biblical name of Chalice (Kalich in Czech) to this new possession, and henceforth adopted the signature of ?i?ka of the Chalice.[1] Jan ?i?ka did not capture any more properties for himself during the Hussite Wars. This fact was unusual for the time and distinguished ?i?ka from his contemporaries.

Later that year he was severely wounded while besieging the castle of Rábí, and lost the use of his remaining eye. Though now totally blind, he continued to command the armies of Tábor.[1]

The second anti-Hussite crusade

At the end of 1421, Sigismund, again attempted to subdue Bohemia and gained possession of the important town of Kutná Hora. The mainly German citizens of the city killed a few of the Hussites in the town and closed the city to ?i?ka, whose armies were camped outside the city walls. Sigismund's armies arrived and surrounded the Hussites. ?i?ka was at the head of the united armies of Tábor and Prague and though trapped managed to execute what some historians call the first mobile artillery manoeuver in history. ?i?ka broke through the enemy lines and retreated to Kolín, but having received reinforcements he attacked and defeated Sigismund's unsuspecting army at the village of Nebovidy between Kolín and Kutná Hora on January 6, 1422. Sigismund lost 12,000 men and only escaped himself by rapid flight. Sigismund's forces made a last stand at N?mecký Brod (Deutschbrod) on 10 January, but the city was stormed by the Czechs, and contrary to ?i?ka's orders, its defenders were put to the sword.[1]

Civil war

Statue of ?i?ka in Tábor's town square (?i?ka Square), J. Stachovsky, 1884.

Early in 1423, internal dissent among the Hussites led to civil war. ?i?ka, as leader of the Taborites, defeated the men of Prague and the Utraquist nobles at Ho?ice on April 20. Shortly afterwards came news that a new crusade against Bohemia was being prepared. This induced the Hussites to conclude an armistice at Konopi?t? on June 24. As soon as the crusaders had dispersed, internal dissent broke out anew. During his temporary rule over Bohemia, Prince Sigismund Korybut of Lithuania had appointed Bo?ek, the lord of Miletínek, governor of the city of Hradec Králové. Bo?ek belonged to a moderate Hussite faction, the Utraquist party. After the departure of Sigismund Korybut, the city of Hradec Králové refused to recognize Bo?ek as its ruler, due to the democratic party gaining the upper hand. They called ?i?ka to its aid. He acceded to the demand and defeated the Utraquists under Bo?ek at the farm of Strachov, near the city of Hradec Králové on August 4, 1423.[1]

?i?ka now attempted to invade Hungary, which was under the rule of his old enemy King Sigismund. Though this Hungarian campaign was unsuccessful owing to the great superiority of the Hungarians, it ranks among the greatest military exploits of ?i?ka, on account of the skill he displayed in retreat. In 1424, civil war having again broken out in Bohemia, ?i?ka decisively defeated the "Praguers" and Utraquist nobles at Skalice on January 6, and at Male?ov on June 7. In September, he marched on Prague. On the 14th of that month, peace was concluded between the Hussite parties through the influence of John of Rokycany, afterwards Utraquist archbishop of Prague. It was agreed that the now reunited Hussites should attack Moravia, part of which was still held by Sigismund's partisans, and that ?i?ka should be the leader in this campaign. However, he died of the plague at P?ibyslav on 11 October 1424 on the Moravian frontier.[1] According to chronicler Piccolomini, ?i?ka's dying wish was to have his skin used to make drums so that he might continue to lead his troops even after death. ?i?ka was so highly regarded that when he died, his soldiers called themselves the Orphans (sirotci) because they felt as if they had lost their father. His enemies said that "The one whom no mortal hand could destroy was extinguished by the finger of God."

He was succeeded by Prokop the Great.

In popular culture

?i?ka appears as one of the main characters in the Armed Garden graphic novella (The Armed Garden and Other Stories) by David B.[17] He is the hero of a novel by George Sand, of a German epic by Meissner, and of a Bohemian tragedy by Alois Jirásek.[1]

Jan ?i?ka is a central figure of the "Hussite Revolutionary Trilogy" directed by Otakar Vávra. The films starred Zden?k ?t?pánek as ?i?ka. It consists of Jan Hus, Jan ?i?ka and Against All.[18][19] Jan ?i?ka appeared in a 1960 Polish film Knights of the Teutonic Order. He is played by Tadeusz Schmidt. In 1968 Czechoslovak film Na ?i?kov? vále?ném voze, ?i?ka was played by Ilja Pracha?.[20]

A film Jan ?i?ka is currently in works by director Petr Jákl. It will follow Jan ?i?ka during his youth. It is expected to be released in 2021 and will be the most expensive Czech film.[21][22]

Jan ?i?ka is one of the main characters in the manga "Dív?í Válka" (also known as "Otome Sensou" or "Battle of the Maidens"), drawn and written by artist Kouichi Ohnishi.

Early in 1917 was created 3rd Czechoslovak Rifle Regiment of the Czechoslovak legions in Russia and named after "Jan ?i?ka z Trocnova".[23]

During WWII a number of military units were named after Jan ?i?ka. One of them, the 1st Czechoslovak Partisan Brigade of Jan ?i?ka, was among the first anti-Nazi guerrilla units in occupied Czechoslovakia. A Yugoslav partisan brigade of the same name was formed in western Slavonia on 26 October 1943 and operated in areas inhabited by a large Czech and Slovak minority.[]

Sources

  • Count Lützow, The Hussite Wars, J. M. Dent & Sons London, E. P. Dutton & Co. New York (1909).
  • Höfler, Konstantin, Geschichtsquellen Böhmens.
  • Heymann, Frederick G. (1969), John Zizka & the Hussite Revolution, Russell & Russell New York (1955).
  • Turnbull, Stephen, The Hussite Wars (1419-36), Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-665-8.
  • Dr. Fudge, The Crusade Against Heretics in Bohemia, 1418-1437: Sources and Documents for the Hussite Crusades (Crusade Texts in Translation S.).
  • ?mahel, Franti?ek, Die Hussitische Revolution I-III, MGH-Schriften. 43/I-III, Hannover (2002).
  • Verney, Victor (2009), Warrior of God: Jan ?i?ka and the Hussite Revolution, Frontline Books London. ISBN 978-1-84832-516-6.
  • Bílek, Ji?í (2007), Hádanky na?í minulosti 7. ?ty?i Janové a bratr Prokop, Euromedia Group Praha. p. 172-173. ISBN 978-80-242-1952-3.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainCount Lützow (1911). "?i?ka, John". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 992. This also cites:
    • Count Lützow, Bohemia: an Historical Sketch (London, 1896)
    • Louis Léger, Jean ?i?ka in "Nouvelles études Slaves," deuxième série (Paris, 1886), the best account of ?i?ka's career for those unacquainted with the Bohemian language
    • Tomek, Jan ?i?ka, and D?jepis Mesta Prahy
    • Palacký, History of Bohemia.
  2. ^ [1] About Zizka's and other bronze horse statues (In Czech)
  3. ^ a b c d e Tomek, Václav Vladivoj (2014). Jan ?i?ka z Trocnova. Praha: Dobrovský. p. 9. ISBN 978-80-7390-108-0.
  4. ^ a b ?mahel, Franti?ek (1969). Jan ?i?ka z Trocnova (in Czech). Praha: Melantrich. pp. 22-25.
  5. ^ Tomek, p. 12
  6. ^ ?mahel, p. 26
  7. ^ a b Tomek, p. 12-13
  8. ^ Tomek, p. 14-15
  9. ^ ?mahel, p. 28
  10. ^ Tomek, p. 15-16
  11. ^ ?mahel, p. 28
  12. ^ a b Tomek, p. 6
  13. ^ ?mahel, p. 33-32
  14. ^ Richter, Jan (16 July 2010). "Jan ?i?ka at Grunwald: from mercenary to Czech national hero". Radio Prague. Retrieved 2014.
  15. ^ "Kto jest kim na obrazie Jana Matejki? Cz. 2". Gazeta.pl. 14 July 2010. Retrieved 2012.
  16. ^ Sedlar, Jean W. (1994), A history of East Central Europe: East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, University of Washington Press. p. 234. ISBN 0-295-97290-4
  17. ^ The Armed Garden and Other Stories, Amazon Reference.
  18. ^ "Josef Kemr". Czech Film Database. Archived from the original on 29 August 2010. Retrieved 2014.
  19. ^ Vondru?ka, PhDr. Vlastimil. "Jan ?i?ka - z lapky husitským vále?níkem". www.filmavideo.cz. Retrieved 2016.
  20. ^ "Film Jan ?i?ka má být nejdraím v historii. P?ípravy na natá?ení vrcholí". Lidovky.cz. 3 January 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  21. ^ "Jákl za?íná to?it Jana ?i?ku, bude to nejdraí ?eský film v?ech dob". ExtraStory (in Czech). Retrieved 2016.
  22. ^ Spá?ilová, Mirka (28 June 2016). "Zahrani?ní herec v roli Jana ?i?ky? Re?isér Petr Jákl to nevylu?uje". iDNES.cz. Retrieved 2016.
  23. ^ PRECLÍK, Vratislav. Masaryk a legie (TGM and legions), váz. kniha, 219 pages, vydalo nakladatelství Paris Karviná, ?i?kova 2379 (734 01 Karvina, CZ) ve spolupráci s Masarykovým demokratickým hnutím (Masaryk democratic movement in Prague), 2019, ISBN 978-80-87173-47-3

External links

  • Media related to Jan ?i?ka at Wikimedia Commons

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