James Guillaume (February 16, 1844, London - November 20, 1916, Paris) was a leading member of the Jura federation, the anarchist wing of the First International. Later, Guillaume would take an active role in the founding of the Anarchist St. Imier International.
In his 1876 essay, "Ideas on Social Organization," Guillaume set forth his opinions regarding the form that society would take in a post-revolutionary world, expressing the collectivist anarchist position he shared with Bakunin and other anti-authoritarians involved in the First International:
Only later, he believed, would it be possible to progress to a communist system where distribution will be according to need:
In 1909, James Guillaume assisted Peter Kropotkin with the research in preparing his book, "The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793," particularly helping with regards to the resolutions (arrêtés) of August 4, 1789, where the Assembly declared that it is acting with both constituent and legislative power. Guillaume is said to have played a key role in Peter Kropotkin's conversion to anarchism.
He also edited five of the six volumes of Bakunin's collected works (in French), which included the first biography of Bakunin.
Part of James Guillaume's archives are conserved in the "Archives de l'État de Neuchâtel". The collection contains correspondence, notes, articles and memorabilia.