The J?mon period (, J?mon jidai) is the time in Japanese prehistory, traditionally dated between c. 14,000-300 BCE, during which Japan was inhabited by a diverse hunter-gatherer and early agriculturalist population united through a common J?mon culture, which reached a considerable degree of sedentism and cultural complexity. The name "cord-marked" was first applied by the American zoologist and orientalist Edward S. Morse, who discovered sherds of pottery in 1877 and subsequently translated it into Japanese as J?mon. The pottery style characteristic of the first phases of J?mon culture was decorated by impressing cords into the surface of wet clay and is generally accepted to be among the oldest in the world.
The J?mon period was rich in tools and jewelry made from bone, stone, shell and antler; pottery figurines and vessels; and lacquerware. It is often compared to pre-Columbian cultures of the North American Pacific Northwest and especially to the Valdivia culture in Ecuador because in these settings cultural complexity developed within a primarily hunting-gathering context with limited use of horticulture.
The approximately 14,000 year J?mon period is conventionally divided into several phases: Incipient (13,750-8,500 BCE), Initial (8,500-5,000), Early (5,000-3,520), Middle (3,520-2,470), Late (2,470-1,250), and Final (1,250-500), with each phase progressively shorter than the prior phase. The fact that this entire period is given the same name by archaeologists should not be taken to mean that there was not considerable regional and temporal diversity; the time between the earliest J?mon pottery and that of the more well-known Middle J?mon period is about twice as long as the span separating the building of the Great Pyramid of Giza from the 21st century.
Recent findings have refined the final phase of the J?mon period to 300 BCE. The Yayoi period started between 500 and 300 BCE according to radio-carbon evidence, while Yayoi styled pottery was found in a J?mon site of northern Kyushu already in 800 BCE.
The earliest pottery in Japan was made at or before the start of the Incipient J?mon period. Small fragments, dated to were found at the Odai Yamamoto I site in 1998. Pottery of roughly the same age was subsequently found at other sites such as in Kamikuroiwa and the Fukui Cave.
Archaeologist Junko Habu claims "[t]he majority of Japanese scholars believed, and still believe, that pottery production was first invented in mainland Asia and subsequently introduced into the Japanese archipelago." This seems to be confirmed by recent archaeology. As of now, the earliest pottery vessels in the world date back to and were discovered in Xianren Cave in Jiangxi, China. The pottery may have been used as cookware. Other early pottery vessels include those excavated from the Yuchanyan Cave in southern China, dated from , and at present it appears that pottery emerged at roughly the same time in Japan, and in the Amur River basin of the Russian Far East.
The first J?mon pottery is characterized by the cord-marking that gives the period its name and has now been found in large numbers of sites. The pottery of the period has been classified by archaeologists into some 70 styles, with many more local varieties of the styles. The antiquity of J?mon pottery was first identified after World War II, through radiocarbon dating methods.[a] The earliest vessels were mostly smallish round-bottomed bowls 10-50 cm high that are assumed to have been used for boiling food and, perhaps, storing it beforehand. They belonged to hunter-gatherers and the size of the vessels may have been limited by a need for portability. As later bowls increase in size, this is taken to be a sign of an increasingly settled pattern of living. These types continued to develop, with increasingly elaborate patterns of decoration, undulating rims, and flat bottoms so that they could stand on a surface.
The manufacture of pottery typically implies some form of sedentary life because pottery is heavy, bulky, and fragile and thus generally unusable for hunter-gatherers. However, this does not seem to have been the case with the first J?mon people, who perhaps numbered over the whole archipelago. It seems that food sources were so abundant in the natural environment of the Japanese islands that it could support fairly large, semi-sedentary populations. The J?mon people used chipped stone tools, ground stone tools, traps, and bows, and were evidently skillful coastal and deep-water fishermen.
Initial J?mon (7500-4000 BCE)
Traces of Paleolithic culture, mainly stone tools, occur in Japan from around onwards. The earliest "Incipient J?mon" phase began while Japan was still linked to continental Asia as a narrow peninsula. As the glaciers melted following the end of the last glacial period (approximately ), sea levels rose, separating the Japanese archipelago from the Asian mainland; the closest point (in Kyushu) about 190 kilometres (120 mi) from the Korean Peninsula is near enough to be intermittently influenced by continental developments, but far enough removed for the peoples of the Japanese islands to develop independently. The main connection between the Japanese archipelago and Mainland Asia was through the Korean Peninsula to Kyushu and Honshu. In addition, Luzon, Taiwan, Ryukyu, and Kyushu constitute a continuous chain of islands, connecting the J?mon with Southeast Asia, while Honshu, Hokkaido and Sakhalin connected the J?mon with Siberia.
Within the archipelago, the vegetation was transformed by the end of the Ice Age. In southwestern Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu, broadleaf evergreen trees dominated the forests, whereas broadleaf deciduous trees and conifers were common in northeastern Honshu and southern Hokkaido. Many native tree species, such as beeches, buckeyes, chestnuts, and oaks produced edible nuts and acorns. These provided substantial sources of food for both humans and animals.
In the northeast, the plentiful marine life carried south by the Oyashio Current, especially salmon, was another major food source. Settlements along both the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean subsisted on immense amounts of shellfish, leaving distinctive middens (mounds of discarded shells and other refuse) that are now prized sources of information for archaeologists. Other food sources meriting special mention include Sika deer, wild boar (with possible wild-pig management), wild plants such as yam-like tubers, and freshwater fish. Supported by the highly productive deciduous forests and an abundance of seafood, the population was concentrated in Honshu and Kyushu, but J?mon sites range from Hokkaido to the Ryukyu Islands.
The Early J?mon period saw an explosion in population, as indicated by the number of larger aggregated villages from this period. This period occurred during the Holocene climatic optimum, when the local climate became warmer and more humid.
The degree to which horticulture or small-scale agriculture was practiced by J?mon people is debated. The hunter-gatherer conceptualization of the J?mon period culture is part of scientific romanticized narratives. There is evidence to suggest that arboriculture was practiced in the form of tending groves of lacquer (Toxicodendron verniciflua) and nut (Castanea crenata and Aesculus turbinata) producing trees, as well as soybean, bottle gourd, hemp, Perilla, adzuki, among others. These characteristics place them somewhere in between hunting-gathering and agriculture.
An apparently domesticated variety of peach appeared very early at J?mon sites in 6700-6400 BP (4700-4400 BCE). This was already similar to modern cultivated forms. This domesticated type of peach was apparently brought into Japan from China. Nevertheless, in China, itself, this variety is currently attested only at a later date of c. 5300-4300 BP.
Highly ornate pottery dog? figurines and vessels, such as the so-called "flame style" vessels, and lacquered wood objects remain from that time. Although the ornamentation of pottery increased over time, the ceramic fabric always remained quite coarse. During this time Magatama stone beads make a transition from being a common jewelry item found in homes into serving as a grave good. This is a period where there are large burial mounds and monuments.
This period saw a rise in complexity in the design of pit-houses, the most commonly used method of housing at the time, with some even having stone paved floors. A study in 2015 found that this form of dwelling continued up until the Satsumon culture. Using archaeological data on pollen count, this phase is the warmest of all the phases. By the end of this phase the warm climate starts to enter a cooling trend.
Castanea crenata becomes essential, not only as a nut bearing tree, but also because it was extremely durable in wet conditions and became the most used timber for building houses during the Late J?mon phase.
During the Final J?mon period, a slow shift was taking place in western Japan: steadily increasing contact with the Korean Peninsula eventually led to the establishment of Korean-type settlements in western Kyushu, beginning around 900 BCE. The settlers brought with them new technologies such as wet rice farming and bronze and iron metallurgy, as well as new pottery styles similar to those of the Mumun pottery period. The settlements of these new arrivals seem to have coexisted with those of the J?mon and Yayoi for around a thousand years.
At the end of the J?mon period the local population declined sharply. Scientists suggest that this was possibly caused by food shortages and other environmental problems. They concluded that not all J?mon groups suffered under these circumstances but the overall population declined. Examining the remains of the people who lived throughout the J?mon period, there is evidence that these deaths were not inflicted by warfare or violence on a large enough scale to cause these deaths.
The origin myths of Japanese civilization extend back to periods now regarded as part of the J?mon period, though they show little or no relation to the current archaeological understanding of J?mon culture. 11 February 660 BCE is the traditional founding date of the Japanese nation by Emperor Jimmu. This version of Japanese history, however, comes from the country's first written records, the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, dating from the 6th to the 8th centuries, after Japan had adopted Chinese characters (Go-on/Kan-on).
Some elements of modern Japanese culture may date from this period and reflect the influences of a mingled migration from the northern Asian continent and the southern Pacific areas and the local J?mon peoples. Among these elements are the precursors to Shinto, some marriage customs, architectural styles, and technological developments such as lacquerware, laminated yumi, metalworking, and glass making.
The relationship of J?mon people to the modern Japanese (Yamato people), Ryukyuans, and Ainu is diverse and not well clarified. Morphological studies of dental variation and genetic studies suggest that the J?mon people were rather diverse, while other studies of autosomes and immunoglobin alleles suggest that the J?mon people were of predominantly Northeast Asian and Siberian origin. The contemporary Japanese people descended from a mixture of the various ancient hunter-gatherer tribes of the J?mon period and the Yayoi rice-agriculturalists, and these two major ancestral groups came to Japan over different routes at different times.
The J?mon people were not one homogenous ethnic group. According to Mitsuru Sakitani the J?mon people are an admixture of several Paleolithic populations. He suggests that Y-chromosome haplogroups C1a1 and D-M55 are two of the J?mon lineages.
According to study "J?mon culture and the peopling of the Japanese archipelago" by Schmidt and Seguchi (2014), the prehistoric J?mon people descended from diverse paleolithic populations with multiple migrations into J?mon-period Japan. They concluded: "In this respect, the biological identity of the Jomon is heterogeneous, and it may be indicative of diverse peoples who possibly belonged to a common culture, known as the Jomon".
A study by Lee and Hasegawa of the Waseda University, concluded that the J?mon period population of Hokkaido consisted of two distinctive populations, which later merged to form the proto-Ainu in northern Hokkaido. They further concluded that the "dual structure theory" regarding the population history of Japan must be revised and that the J?mon people had more diversity than originally suggested.
A 2015 study found specific gene alleles, related to facial structure and features among some Ainu individuals, which largely descended from local Hokkaido J?mon groups. These alleles are typically associated with Europeans but absent from other East Asians (including Japanese people), which suggests geneflow from a currently unidentified source population into the J?mon period population of Hokkaido. Although these specific alleles can explain the unusual physical appearance of certain Ainu individuals, compared to other Northeast Asians, the exact origin of these alleles remains unknown.
Recent Y chromosome haplotype testing indicates that male haplogroups D-M55 (~30%) and C1a1/C2 (~16%) may reflect paternal J?mon contribution to the modern Japanese Archipelago. Analysis of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of J?mon skeletons indicates that haplogroups N9b, D4h2, G1b and M7a may reflect maternal J?mon contribution to the modern Japanese mtDNA pool.
Full genome analyses in 2020 and 2021 revealed further information regarding the origin of the J?mon peoples. The genetic results suggest early admixture between different groups in Japan already during the Paleolithic, followed by constant geneflow from coastal East Asian groups, resulting in a heterogeneous population which then homogenized until the arrival of the Yayoi people. Geneflow from Northeast Asia during the J?mon period is associated with the C1a1 and C2 lineages, geneflow from the Tibetan Plateau and Southern China is associated with the D1a2a (previously D1b) and D1a1 (previously D1a) lineages. Geneflow from ancient Siberia was also detected into the nothern J?mon people of Hokkaido, with later geneflow from Hokkaido into parts of northern Honshu (Tohoku). The lineages K and F are suggested to have been presented during the early J?mon period but got replaced by C and D. The analysis of a J?mon sample (Ikawazu) and an ancient sample from the Tibetan Plateau (Chokhopani, Ch) found only partially shared ancestry, pointing towards a "positive genetic bottleneck" regarding the spread of haplogroup D from ancient "East Asian Highlanders" (related to modern day Tujia people, Mien people, and Tibetans, as well as Tripuri people). The genetic evidence suggests that an East Asian source population, near the Himalayan mountain range, contributed ancestry to the J?mon period population of Japan, and less to ancient Southeast Asians. The authors concluded that this points to an inland migration through southern or central China towards Japan during the Paleolithic. Another ancestry component seem to have arrived from Siberia into Hokkaido. Archeological and biological evidence link the southern J?mon culture of Kyushu, Shikoku and parts of Honshu to cultures of southern China and Northeast India. A common culture, known as the "broadleafed evergreen forest culture", ranged from southwestern Japan through southern China towards Northeast India and southern Tibet, and was characterized by the cultivation of Azuki beans.
Another study, published in the Cambridge University Press in 2020, concluded that there was a large migration of ancient Northeast Asians at approximately 6000BC (or already at ~10,000BC), which introduced the Incipient J?mon culture, typified by early ceramic cultures such as the ones found at ?dai Yamamoto I J?mon Site or Aoyagamiji site in the Tottori prefecture. This migration is linked to haplogroup C1a1 and C2. The authors argue that this migration may be the source of the Japonic languages rather than the later Yayoi migration.
Late Jomon clay statue, Kazahari I, Aomori Prefecture, 1500-1000 BCE.
Late Jomon clay head, Shidanai, Iwate Prefecture, 1500-1000 BCE.
These results suggest a level of inter-regional heterogeneity not expected among Jomon groups. This observation is further substantiated by the studies of Kanzawa-Kiriyama et al. (2013) and Adachi et al. (2013). Kanzawa-Kiriyama et al. (2013) analysed craniometrics and extracted aDNA from museum samples that came from the Sanganji shell mound site in Fukushima Prefecture dated to the Final Jomon Period. They tested for regional differences and found the Tokoku Jomon (northern Honshu) were more similar to Hokkaido Jomon than to geographically adjacent Kanto Jomon (central Honshu).
Adachi et al. (2013) described the craniometrics and aDNA sequence from a Jomon individual from Nagano (Yugora cave site) dated to the middle of the initial Jomon Period (7920-7795 cal BP). This individual carried ancestry, which is widely distributed among modern East Asians (Nohira et al. 2010; Umetsu et al. 2005) and resembled modern Northeast Asian comparison samples rather than geographical close Urawa Jomon sample.
In this paper, we reconstructed spatiotemporal evolution of 19 Ainu language varieties, and the results are in strong agreement with the hypothesis that a recent population expansion of the Okhotsk people played a critical role in shaping the Ainu people and their culture. Together with the recent archaeological, biological and cultural evidence, our phylogeographic reconstruction of the Ainu language strongly suggests that the conventional dual-structure model must be refined to explain these new bodies of evidence. The case of the Ainu language origin we report here also contributes additional detail to the global pattern of language evolution, and our language phylogeny might also provide a basis for making further inferences about the cultural dynamics of the Ainu speakers [44,45].