Ivan Pului (son of Pavlo Pului Ukrainian: , ; German: Johann Puluj; 2 February 1845 - 31 January 1918) was a Ukrainian physicist and inventor, who has been championed as an early developer of the use of X-rays for medical imaging. His contributions were largely neglected until the end of the 20th century.
Puluj's apparatus for determining the mechanical equivalent of heat
Puluj did heavy research into cathode rays, publishing several papers about those rays between 1880 and 1882. In 1881 as a result of experiments into what he called cold light Prof. Puluj developed the Puluj lamp. Puluj experimented with his new device and published his results in a scientific paper, Luminous Electrical Matter and the Fourth State of Matter in the Notes of the Austrian Imperial Academy of Sciences (1880-1883), but expressed his ideas in an obscure manner using obsolete terminology. Puluj did gain some recognition when the work was translated and published as a book by the Royal Society in the UK.
While Puluj's finding were essentially X-rays, he reported his results after Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen published his, and can not be credited with the discovery of X-rays.
"World history has never been just to certain individuals or certain nations. Small nations and their achievements are often neglected while the accomplishments of large nations are at times exaggerated."
Slavko Bokshan, a Serbian scientist who worked in the same department as Puluj and Röntgen
Strahlende Elektrodenmaterie //Wiener Berichte I. - 1880. - 81. - pp. 864-923; II. - 1881. - 83. - pp. 402-420; III. 1881. - 83. - pp. 693-708; IV. - 1882. - 85. - pp. 871-881.
Strahlende Elektrodenmaterie und der sogenannte vierte Aggregatzustand' - Wien; Verlag Carl Gerold Sohn, 1883.
Radiant Elektrode Matter and the so Called Fourth State. -London: Physical Memoirs, 1889. - Vol. l, Pt.2. - pp. 233-331.
Über die Entstehung der Röntgenstrahlen und ihre photographische Wirkung// Wiener Berichte II Abt. 1896. - 105. - pp. 228-238.
Puluj, H. J. (1875). On a lecture-room apparatus for the determination of the mechanical equivalent of heat. Taylor and Francis.
Puluj, J., Pulyui, I., , ?. ?., & , ?. ?. (1876). Über die Abhängigkeit der Reibung der Gase von der Temperatur. (About the dependence of the friction of the gases on the temperature).
Puluj, J. (1876). Ueber einen Schulapparat zur Bestimmung des mechanischen Wärmeaequivalentes. Annalen der Physik. 233(3): 437-446. (Over a school apparatus for determining the mechanical Wärmeaequivalentes).
Puluj, J. (1876). Beitrag zur Bestimmung des mechanischen Wärmeaequivalentes. Annalen der Physik. 233(4): 649-656. (Contribution to the determination of the mechanical Wärmeaequivalentes).
Puluj, J. (1877). Ueber die Abhängigkeit der Reibung der Gase von der Temperatur. Annalen der Physik. 237(6): 296-310.
Puluj, J. (1877). On the diffusion of vapours through clay cells. Taylor and Francis.
Puluj, J. (1878). On the friction of vapours. Taylor and Francis.
Puluj, J. (1879). On the radiometer. Taylor and Francis.
Crookes, W., & Puluj, J. (1880). Annalen der Physik. Phil. Trans. 1: 152-3879. (Annals of Physics).
Puluj, J., & Glaser, G. (1880). The Fourth State of Matter. A Refutation. Science. 58-59.