International Phonetic Alphabet Chart For English Dialects
Get International Phonetic Alphabet Chart For English Dialects essential facts below. View Videos or join the International Phonetic Alphabet Chart For English Dialects discussion. Add International Phonetic Alphabet Chart For English Dialects to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
International Phonetic Alphabet Chart For English Dialects

This chart shows the most common applications of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to represent English language pronunciations.

See Pronunciation respelling for English for phonetic transcriptions used in different dictionaries.

Chart

This chart gives a partial system of diaphonemes for English. The symbols for the diaphonemes are given in bold, followed by their most common phonetic values. For the vowels, a separate phonetic value is given for each major dialect, and words used to name corresponding lexical sets are also given. The diaphonemes and lexical sets given here are based on RP and General American; they are not sufficient to express all of the distinctions found in other dialects, such as Australian English.

English consonants
Dia-
phoneme
[1]
Phones Examples
p p?, p pen, spin, tip
b b, b? but, web
t t?, t, ?, ?[2] two, sting, bet
d d, d?, ?[3] do, daddy, odd
t? t, t? chair, nature, teach
d? d?, d gin, joy, edge
k k?, k cat, kill, skin, queen, unique, thick
? ?, go, get, beg
f f fool, enough, leaf, off, photo
v v, v? voice, have, of, verve
? ?, t?, f[4] thing, teeth
ð ð, ð?, d?, v[5] this, breathe, father
s s see, city, pass
z z, z? zoo, rose
? ? she, sure, session, emotion, leash
? ?, genre, pleasure, beige, equation, seizure
h h, ?,[6] ç[7] ham, hue
m m, ?[8] man, ham
n n no, tin
? ? ringer, sing,[9] finger, drink
l l, ?,[10] l?, ,[11] ?, o,[12] left, bell, sable, please
r , ?, ?,[13] r,[14] ?, , , , ,[11] ?[15] run, very, probably
w w, ?[11] we, queen
j j yes, nyala
hw ?, w[16] what
Marginal consonants
x x, ?, k, k?, h, ?, ç loch (Scottish),[17] ugh[18]
? ? uh-oh
? ?, l[19] Llangefni
English vowels and diphthongs
Dia-
phoneme
[1]
AmE AuE[20][21] BahE BarE CaE[22] CIE EnE FiE InE[23] IrE[24] NZE[25][26] PaE ScE[27] SIE SAE[28][29] SSE WaE[30] Keyword Examples
AAVE Boston accent Cajun English General American[31][32][25] Inland Northern American English Mid-Atlantic accent Mid-Atlantic American English New York accent Southern American English Cockney Geordie RP[33][34] Scouse Ulster English West & South-West Ireland English Dublin English Supraregional southern Irish English Abercraf English Port Talbot English Cardiff English
Non-Rhotic Rhotic Older Younger Non-Rhotic Older Rhotic Non-Rhotic Older Rhotic Cultivated General Broad Conservative Contemporary Belfast Mid-Ulster traditional Ulster Scots Local Dublin English New Dublin English Cultivated General Broad Cultivated General Broad
æ ?:~~e e~[35] æ e~~æ[35] e~ æ æ~~e[35] ~e~[35] e~æj?[35] æ:[36] a:~æ:[36] æ:~?:[36] æ~a a æ~[35] æ æ~?~ a æ a a æ æ~? ä:~a æ a æ~a æ ? æ ä ?~æ æ a~æ æ~?~e? ?[37] a a:[36] a:~æ:[36] TRAP ham
æ~?:~ æ~ æ~ æ æ~æj?~ææ? æ~a bad
æ æ, ~e~[35] æ a~æ æ~? æ~? a a~æ lad
?: / æ ä~a a æ~~e[35] ~e~[35] ä: ä:~?: a: ?: ?: : a~? ä: æ:~a: a: ?:~ä: ? : ?: ?:~?: ä[38] BATH pass
?: a~ä~? a~ä ? ?~ä a~ä ?: ? ?~ä ? ? ?~? ?:~?: a:~?: a: ä:~?: ?: ?: a: a:~æ: PALM father
? ?~? ?~? ? ? ?~? ?~? ? ?~? ? ? ? ? ? ?~?~ä ?~?~ä ä: ?: ä ?~?~? ? ?~? ? ? ? ~ ? ? LOT not
? / ?: ?()~?() ?()~?() ?~? ?~? a ?~?~?[39] ?~? ~? ~o~ ~? ?o?~ ~? ? ?: ?: o?: ?: a:~ä ?: ? , o?: ~, o: , o: CLOTH off[40]
?: ?()~?() ?()~?() ?~? ?~? a ?: o?: o: ?:~?: o:~?: ?:~~?u? ?: o: o?: ?:~?: ?:~?:~o: ?: o: o?: o: ?: : THOUGHT law
?()~?() ?()~?() ?~? ?~? a o:~o?~?o pause
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?~? ? ?~a ? ? ? ? ? ? ?~? ? ?[41] ? ? COMMA about
? ?~i ?~~ ? ?~ ?~ ?~ ?~?j?~i ? ?~i i ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?~? ? ? ? ?~ë?~?~? ? ? [41] ?~i ? KIT bit
?[41] i[41] kit
i i ?~i ?i?~i i ?i?~i ?~i ?i? ?i?~?i? i: i i:~i i ?i? i i i: e i: ?i? ?i?~?i? i e~?~i i i: i i: HAPPY city
i: i i: ?i?~i ?i?~i ?i? ?i?~i: ?i~?i i:, ei? ?i? i:, i? ~ ? i: ?i? i: i i: FLEECE see
e? e~ e e: e e~ ?i?~æ?i? æ~ e~ e~e:~? e e æ?~a? e:~e~ e e e: e: e:~?:, e~ e: e:~e~ æe?~?e? ?e? e~e: e e~e: e e~~æ æ~ä~ e[42] e: ei? FACE date
e day
? ?~e ? ?~æ ? ?~? ?~e ? ?~?j? e? e?~e e~e? ? ? ? ? e, e?~e?~ ? e? ? ? ? ? ? e? e~e? e? ? ? ? e? e~e? ?, e[43] ? DRESS bed[44]
?~i ? ?~?j?~i ? pen
i length
? ?~? ?~? ? ?~?~? ?~? ? ? ? ä~? ? ? ?~?~? ?~? ~a ~? ? ?~~[45] ? ?~? ?~?~? ?~ ~? ? ?~? ~? ?~ä ? ?~? ?~? ?~ä ä ?~? STRUT run
? ?~?~ø? ? ? ~? ? ?~u u ? ? ? ? ?, ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?~ ? ? ? ?~? ?~u ? ? FOOT put
?:~? u:~? hood
u: ?u?~u u~?u?~?u? u u?~?u?~?u?~?u? u~?u? u: ?u? u~?u?~~?u? ?u~?u~y~?y~u? ?u? ? ?~ ?: u: ?u? u:~? ~?:~?:~?: u?:~?:, ?u? ? ?:, u?~? u u: u: ? u u u?: ?:~y: ?: u u: GOOSE through
?u?[46] threw
ju: (j)?u?~(j)u (j)u~(j)?u?~(j)?u? (j)u?~(j)?u?~(j)?u?~(j)?u? (j)u~(j)?u? ju: (j)?u? (j)u~(j)?u?~(j)~(j)?u? (j)?u~(j)?u~(j)y~(j)?y~(j)u? j?u? j? j?~j j?: ju: (j)?u? ju:~j? j~j?:~j?:~j?: ju?:~j?:,j j?u? j? j?:, ju?~j? ju ju: j? j ju: j? ju j? ju ju?: j?:~jy: j?: ju cute
a? ä ?i?[47] ~a: ~~[47] ä ä ?i~ä?~ä? ä e?~?e? ?e?~?e? ~~[47] a~~ ~~~: äi? ä ? a~~a: ?e? ä ?i?~?i?[47] æ~ ~ ~ a~ ? ?e? ?e? ?i?, äe? ä ä~ä: ~: ai? ? ?i? PRICE flight
ä:~äe?~a: ä ä a~ae?~æ ä ~~ä ä:~ä? äe?~?i? my
o ~o ~o ~o oi? o o o~ o~ ~o ~o? oe? o ~ a~ä ~o o oe? oi? ~ ?i? i? CHOICE boy
o? ~ o~ o: o~~~o ?o?~o~o o ~ o~? ~~ ? ~ o~ o:~o o æ~æ?~~?~
æ~~a?~?ø~
oe?ø~:~oe?
o:~~?: ~~e~
e~~
o: o: o: ?o?~ o~ ~ o:~o o? o:~o ~oe oe~oe~oe: o[42] o: ?u? GOAT no
ou? o tow
?u? ~ ~?o~a? ?o? soul
a? æ~æ [47] a~a: a~æ ä~ æ~ a~æ æ~?j? ä a~ao?~æ~æo? æo?~æ~?o?~ ao?~~a?~a ~[47] a æ?~æ?~æ:~a:~æi? äu?~æu?~?u?~?u?~u: ? a a ä ~ ~ a~ a æo? ?o?~ ä ä: æ au? ?u? u? MOUTH about
a ä~ now
?:r ?(?)~?(?) ~ a(?)~ä(?) ?(?)~a(?) ä?~ ?:(?) (?) ä(?) ~ ?(?)~?(?) ~ ä:(?) ä:(?)~?:(?) ?:(?) a:? ~ ?:(?) ?:(?) ?:(?)~?:(?) :(?) a:(?)~?:(?) ?:(?) ä:(?) æ:?~a? ä:?~ ?:(?)~ä:(?) ä? ?:(?) :(?) ?:(?) ?:(?)~?:(?) ä(?) a:(?) a:(?)~æ:(?) START arm
r i(?)~i(?) i? (?)~(?) i(?)~?(?) ~i? i?~i (?) i? (?)~i(?) ~i? i(?) i? (?) (?)~?:(?)~i:(?)~i(?) i:(?)~i(?) i(?)~e(?) e:? i(?)~(?) i?(?)~?:(?)~?i?(?) i(?) (?) ?:(?)~(?) i(?) (?)~i(?) (?)~i:(?) i:? (?) (?)[48] ~i? i (?)~i(?) (?) (?)~?:(?) i(?) i:?(?)~jø:(?) i:?(?)~jø:(?) NEAR deer
r (?) (?)~(?) ?(?)~æ(?) e~e? (?) e? (?)~e(?) ~e? ?(j)?(?) e~?(j)? e(?) e?:(?)~e:(?) e:(?)~e?:(?) e(?) (?) (?)~?:(?)~?i?(?) ?:(?) (?) ?:(?)~(?)[49] ?:(?)~e:(?)~ë:(?)~?:(?)~
:(?)~oe:(?)~?:(?)~
?:(?)~?:(?)~?:(?)
(?) (?)~e:(?) ?: ?:? e:? e(?) e (?)~(?) (?) (?)~?:(?)~e:(?) e:(?)~e?:(?) ?(?) ?:(?) ?:(?)~e:(?) SQUARE mare
?:r ? ? ?:(?) ? (?)~ ? ?~ ?:(?)~?:(?) ? ? ? ?~ ?(?) ?~ ?:(?) ?:(?)~?:(?) ?:(?)~?:(?) ?(?)~?(?)~?i?(?) ? ? ?:(?) ?:(?)~:(?)~oe?:(?) ø:(?)~?:(?)~?:(?)~?:(?) ?:(?)~?:(?) ?:(?) ?:(?)~?:(?) ?:(?)~ä? ?: ?:[50] ?: ?:?[50] ?: ?:(?) ? [50] ?:(?)~?:(?) ?:(?)~?:(?) ø?:(?)~ø:(?) ø?:(?)~ø:(?) ?(?) ?:(?) ø:(?) ø:(?) NURSE burn
~[50] bird
?:?[50] ?:?[50] [50] earth
?r ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ? ?(?) ?(?) oe(?)~?(?) ?(?)~?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?)~a(?) ?(?) ? ?(?) ?(?)~?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) ?(?) LETTER winner[51]
(?)~ donor
?:r o(?)~(?)~?o?(?) o? (?)~(?)~?(?) (?)~ ~o? ~o? (?) o?~ o(?)~(?) o?~ o(u)?(?) o(u)? o?:(?) o:(?) (?) ?:?~?:? ?:(?)~?:(?) ?:(?)~(?)~?u?(?), o:(?)~o?(?)~?o(?) ?:(?) o?:(?) o:(?) o?:(?) o:(?) ?:(?)~?:(?) ?:? ä:?~?:? ?:?~o:? o:(?) o? o:(?) o?:(?) o:(?) o:(?) ?(?) ?:(?) :(?) NORTH sort
(?)~o(?) o(?) o:? o:(?)~?:(?) o:? ?:? ?:? o:? o?()? o:(?) FORCE tore
r (?)~(?) u?(?)~(?) ~~o? u?~o? (?) (?) (?), o:(?) u(?) ~ u(?) (?)~?:(?)~?:(?)~(?)~?u?(?) u(?) (?) u(?)~u(?)~(?)~
o?:(?)
o(?) (?)~u:(?) u:? (?) (?), o:(?) o? o(?)~o(?) (?) (?)~o:(?) u(?) u:?(?) u:?(?)~:(?) CURE tour
jr ju(?)~j(?) ju?~j j(?)~j(?) j~j? j? j(?) j~jo?~j? ju(?)~ju(?) ju? ju(?) ju?~j? j(?) j(?), jo:(?) ju(?) jo:? j?~j~j ju(?) j(?)~j?:(?)~j?:(?)~j(?)~j?u?(?) ju(?) j(?) jo:(?) jo?:(?) jo(?) j(?)~ju:(?) ju:? j(?) j(?), jo:(?) jo? j jo(?)~jo(?) j(?) j(?)~jo:(?) jo:(?) j?(?) ?u:?(?) ju:?(?)~j:(?) pure
Other symbols used in transcription of English pronunciation
IPA Explanation
' Primary stress indicator (placed before the stressed syllable); for example, rapping /'ræp/
? Secondary stress/full vowel indicator (placed before the stressed syllable); for example, pronunciation /prn?nsi'en/
. Syllable separation indicator; for example, ice cream /'a?s.kri:m/ vs. I scream /?a?.'skri:m/
? ? Syllabic consonant indicator (placed under the syllabic consonant); for example, ridden ['dn?]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b This is a compromise IPA transcription, which covers most dialects of English.
  2. ^ /t/ is pronounced in some positions in GA and Australian English, and is possible in RP in words like butter, in some positions in Scottish English, English English, American English and Australian English, and non-initially in Irish English.
  3. ^ /d/ is pronounced if preceded and followed by vowels in GA and Australian English.
  4. ^ /?/ is pronounced as a dental stop in Irish English, Newfoundland English, Indian English, and New York English, merges with /f/ in some varieties of English English, and merges with /t/ in some varieties of Caribbean English. The dental stop also occurs in other dialects as an allophone of /?/.
  5. ^ /ð/ is pronounced as a dental stop [d?] in Irish English, Newfoundland English, Indian English, and New York English, merges with /v/ in some varieties of English English, and merges with /d/ in some varieties of Caribbean English. also occurs in other dialects as an allophone of /ð/.
  6. ^ The glottal fricative /h/ is often pronounced as voiced between vowel sounds and after voiced consonants. Initial voiced occurs in some accents of the Southern Hemisphere.
  7. ^ /h/ is pronounced before the palatal approximant /j/, sometimes even replacing the cluster /hj/, and sometimes before high front vowels.
  8. ^ The bilabial nasal /m/ is pronounced as labiodental before f and v, as in symphony ['sf?ni], circumvent [?s?k'v?nt], some value [?s'væ?ju:].
  9. ^ In some dialects, such as Brummie, words like ringer, sing /'? 's/, which have a velar nasal [?] in most dialects, are pronounced with an additional /?/, like "finger": /'/.
  10. ^ Velarized traditionally does not occur in Irish English; clear or plain does not occur in Australian, New Zealand, Scottish, or American English. RP, some other English accents, and South African English, however, have clear in syllable onsets and dark in syllable rimes.
  11. ^ a b c Sonorants are voiceless after a fortis (voiceless) stop at the beginning of a stressed syllable.
  12. ^ L-vocalization in which l is pronounced as a kind of a back vowel ( or , or non-syllabic [, o?], forming a diphthong with the preceding vowel) occurs in New Zealand English and many regional accents, such as African-American Vernacular English, Cockney, New York English, Estuary English, Pittsburgh English, Standard Singapore English.
  13. ^ /r/ is pronounced as a tap in some varieties of Scottish, Irish, Indian, Welsh, Northern England and South African English.
  14. ^ The alveolar trill only occurs in some varieties of Scottish, Welsh, Indian and South African English.
  15. ^ R-labialization, in which r is pronounced as , is found in some accents in Southern England.
  16. ^ Some dialects, such as Scottish English, Irish English, and many American South and New England dialects, distinguish voiceless from voiced ; see wine-whine merger and voiceless labiovelar approximant.
  17. ^ Marginal in most accents, and otherwise merged with /k/, see Lock-loch merger.
  18. ^ This common English interjection is usually pronounced with in unscripted spoken English, but it is most often read // or /?k/
  19. ^ Only exists in Welsh English. Non-Welsh speakers usually replace it with l.
  20. ^ Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997)
  21. ^ Cox & Palethorpe (2007)
  22. ^ Boberg (2004)
  23. ^ Sailaja (2009:19-26)
  24. ^ Wells (1982:422)
  25. ^ a b Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009)
  26. ^ Bauer et al. (2007:97-102)
  27. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006:7)
  28. ^ Bekker (2008)
  29. ^ Lass (2002:111-119)
  30. ^ Coupland & Thomas (1990:93-136)
  31. ^ Kenyon & Knott (1953)
  32. ^ Kenyon (1950)
  33. ^ Roach (2004:241-243)
  34. ^ "Case Studies - Received Pronunciation Phonology - RP Vowel Sounds". British Library.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i In most of the United States (with high dialectal variation), and to a lesser degree in Canada, special /æ/ tensing systems occur.
  36. ^ a b c d e See bad-lad split for this distinction.
  37. ^ Suzanna Bet Hashim and Brown, Adam (2000) 'The [e] and [æ] vowels in Singapore English'. In Adam Brown, David Deterding and Low Ee Ling (eds.) The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation, Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics ISBN 981-04-2598-8, pp. 84-92.
  38. ^ Deterding, David (2007). Singapore English. United Kingdom: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 24-26. ISBN 978 0 7486 3096 7.
  39. ^ ?~? occurs in American accents without the cot-caught merger (about half of today's speakers); the rest have ?.
  40. ^ In American accents without the cot-caught merger, the LOT vowel (generally written o) appears as ?~? instead of ? before the fricatives /f/, /?/ and /s/ and the velar nasal /?/; also usually before /?/, especially in single-syllable words (dog, log, frog, etc.), and occasionally before /k/ (as in chocolate). See Lot-cloth split. In American accents with the cot-caught merger (about half of today's speakers), only ? occurs.
  41. ^ a b c d It is not clear whether this a true phonemic split, since the distribution of the two sounds is predictable; see Kit-bit split.
  42. ^ a b Deterding, David (2000) 'Measurements of the /e?/ and /o?/ vowels of young English speakers in Singapore'. In Adam Brown, David Deterding and Low Ee Ling (eds.), The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation, Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics, pp. 93-99.
  43. ^ Mary W.J. Tay (1982). "'The phonology of educated Singapore English'". English World-Wide. "3" ("2"): 135-45. doi:10.1075/eww.3.2.02tay.
  44. ^ Often transcribed /e/ for RP, for example in Collins English Dictionary.
  45. ^ The STRUT vowel in BrE is highly variable in the triangle defined by ?, ? and ?, see 'STRUT for Dummies'
  46. ^ In Welsh English, you, yew and ewe are /ju:/, /j?u/ and /?u/ respectively; in most other varieties of English they are homophones.
  47. ^ a b c d e f Some dialects of North American English have a vowel shift called Canadian raising, in which the first element of the diphthongs /a?, a?/ is raised in certain cases, yielding [, ] or [, ]. Canadian English has raising of both diphthongs, but most dialects in the United States only have raising of /a?/. In monosyllables, raising occurs before voiceless consonants, so right [?t] and out [t] have raised vowels, but eyes [a?z] and loud [la?d] do not.
  48. ^ Merging NEAR and SQUARE is especially common amongst young New Zealanders.
  49. ^ While the actual pronunciation is [(?) ~ ?:(?)], it can also be transcribed /e?(?)/.
  50. ^ a b c d e f g See Fern-fir-fur merger for this distinction in some varieties.
  51. ^ Sometimes transcribed for GA as [], especially in transcriptions that represent both rhotic and non-rhotic pronunciations, as [?(?)].

References


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

International_Phonetic_Alphabet_chart_for_English_dialects
 



 



 
Music Scenes