Hymn to Liberty
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Hymn to Liberty

Hýmnos is tin Eleftherían
Hýmnos pros tin Eleftherían
English: Hymn to Liberty
?
? ?
Ymnos Eis Tin Eleftherian.Book cover.1825.jpg

National anthem of Greece and Cyprus
LyricsDionysios Solomos, 1823
MusicNikolaos Mantzaros, 1865
Adopted1865 (by Greece)[1]
1966 (by Cyprus)[2]
Audio sample
"Hýmnos is tin Eleftherían" (instrumental)

The "Hymn to Liberty" or "Hymn to Freedom" (Greek: ?,[a] also ? ?),[b] is a poem written by Dionysios Solomos in 1823 that consists of 158 stanzas, which is used as the national anthem of Greece and Cyprus. It was set to music by Nikolaos Mantzaros, and is the longest national anthem in the world by length of text.[1][3] It officially became the national anthem of Greece in 1865, and Cyprus in 1966.[4][5][6]

History

Dionysios Solomos, author of the lyrics

Dionysios Solomos wrote "Hymn to Liberty" in 1823 in Zakynthos and one year later was printed in Messolonghi. It was set to music in 1865 by the Corfiot operatic composer Nikolaos Mantzaros, who composed two choral versions, a long one for the whole poem and a short one for the first two stanzas; the latter is the one adopted as the national anthem of Greece. "Hymn to Liberty" was adopted as the national anthem of Cyprus by order of the Council of Ministers in 1966.[7]

Lyrics

Inspired by the Greek War of Independence, Solomos wrote the hymn to honor the struggle of Greeks for independence after centuries of Ottoman rule.[8][9][10]

"Hymn to Liberty" recounts the misery of the Greeks under the Ottomans and their hope for freedom. He describes different events of the War, such as the execution of Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople, the reaction of the Great Powers, extensively the Siege of Tripolitsa and the Christian character of the struggle.[c]

Greek original

Greek original[11][12][13] Transliteration IPA transcription Turkish translation
(for Cyprus)
English translation[14]
(Rudyard Kipling, 1918)

? ?
? ?,
? ,
? .

' ?
? ?,
? ,
, ? , !
?

Se gnorízo apó tin kópsi
Tou spathioú tin tromerí,
Se gnorízo apó tin ópsi,
Pou me viá metráei ti gi.

Ap' ta kókkala vgalméni
Ton Ellínon ta ierá,
? Kai san próta andreioméni,
Chaíre, o chaíre, eleftheriá! ?

[se ?no'rizo a'po ti? 'kopsi]
[tu spa'?çu tin trome'ri |]
[se ?no'rizo a'po tin 'opsi |]
[pu me 'v?a me'trai? ti '?i ?]

[ap ta 'kokala v?al'meni]
[ton e'linon ta?i?.e'ra |]
? ['ce sam 'prota anðr?o'meni |]
['çere o 'çere | elef?e'r?a ?] ?

Tan?r?m seni, k?l?c?n?n
O korkunç keskinli?inden
Tan?r?m seni bakndan
O ?iddetle sarmalayan
 
Kutlu kemiklerinden
Dirilmi? Yunanlar?n
? O eski yi?itli?iyle
Ya?a, hey ya?a, Özgürlük! ?

We knew thee of old,
O, divinely restored,
By the lights of thine eyes,
And the light of thy Sword.

From the graves of our slain,
Shall thy valor prevail,
? as we greet thee again,
Hail, Liberty! Hail! ?

Uses

An adapted version was used during the short-lived Cretan State as the Cretan Anthem. The "Hymn to Liberty" had been the Greek royal anthem after 1864.

"Hymn to Liberty" has been the national anthem of Cyprus since 1966.[2]

"Hymn to Liberty" has been performed at every closing ceremony of the Olympic Games, to pay tribute to Greece as the birthplace of the Olympic Games. The version commonly played by military bands is an arrangement composed by Lieutenant Colonel Margaritis Kastellis (1907-79), former director of the Greek Music Corps.[15]

Notes

  1. ^ Hýmnos is tin Eleftherían, pronounced ['imnos is tin elef?e'ri.an].
  2. ^ Hýmnos pros tin Eleftherían, pronounced ['imnos pros tin elef?e'ri.an].
  3. ^ Transcriptions are a coordiation of sources from Greek language, Modern Greek phonology and Help:IPA/Greek.

References

  1. ^ a b ? [National Anthem] (in Greek). www.presidency.gr. Archived from the original on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  2. ^ a b "Presidency of the Republic of Cyprus - The National Anthem". Archived from the original on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  3. ^ "Greece: Hymn to Liberty". NationalAnthems.me. Retrieved 2017.
  4. ^ (25 September 2010). " ? ? ? "" ... ? ". Ta Nea. ? « ? ?» ? , , ? -, ? ? ? ? .
  5. ^ (22 November 2010). "? ? "" ". To Pontiki. 1865, ? , ? « ? ?» ? ?.
  6. ^ Argolikos Archival Library of History and Culture (14 September 2012). " - ? ". ? & ? (Argolikos Archival Library of History and Culture. , ? ? ? ? 21 1825 ? ? ?. ? « ? ?», . .
  7. ^ "National Anthem". Archived from the original on 13 August 2011. Retrieved 2015.
  8. ^ " ?". stixoi. Retrieved 2019.
  9. ^ " ?". sansimera. Retrieved 2019.
  10. ^ Papaloizos, Theodore (2009). Greek language, Modern. ISBN 9780932416025. Retrieved 2019.
  11. ^ " ?". Stixoi.
  12. ^ " ?". Sansimera.
  13. ^ Papaloizos, Theodore (2009). Greek language, Modern. ISBN 9780932416025.
  14. ^ "The National Anthem". Presidency.gr.
  15. ^ "National Anthem". Hellenic Army Academy. Archived from the original on 9 February 2015. Retrieved 2015.

External links


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