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In the following description, only forms that differ from those of later Greek are discussed. Omitted forms can usually be predicted from patterns seen in Ionic Greek.
Homeric Greek is like Ionic Greek, and unlike Classical Attic, in shifting almost all cases of long ? to ?: thus, Homeric , , for Attic , , /? "Troy", "hour", "gates (dat.)". Exceptions include nouns like ? "goddess", and the genitive plural of first-declension nouns and the genitive singular of masculine first-declension nouns: , "of goddesses, of the son of Atreus".
The dative plural almost always end in -(?) or -: ? for Attic .
Genitive singular: ends in -, as well as -. For example, ?, as well as .
Genitive and dative dual: ends in -?. Thus, ? appears, rather than .
Dative plural: ends in -?(?) and -. For example, , as well as ?.
Accusative singular: ends in -, as well as -. For example, , as well as ?.
Dative plural: ends in -? and -. For example, ? or .
Homeric Greek lacks the quantitative metathesis present in later Greek (except in certain masculine ?-stem genitive singulars):
Homeric instead of , instead of
Homeric Greek sometimes uses different endings:
? alternates with ?
A note on nouns:
After short vowels, the reflex of Proto-Greek *ts can alternate between -?- and -- in Homeric Greek. This can be of metrical use. For example, and are equivalent; and ; ? and .
A relic of the Proto-Greek instrumental case, the ending -(?) (-(?)) can be used for the dative singular and plural of nouns and adjectives (occasionally for the genitive singular and plural, as well). For example, (...by force), (...with tears), and ? (...in the mountains).
Anger be now your song, immortal one,
Akhilleus' anger, doomed and ruinous,
that caused the Akhaians loss on bitter loss
and crowded brave souls into the undergloom,
leaving so many dead men--carrion
for dogs and birds; and the will of Zeus was done.
Begin it when the two men first contending
broke with one another--
the Lord Marshal
Agamemnon, Atreus' son, and Prince Akhilleus.
^Some suggest that - may have originally been the more expected -, with - later being transcribed - under the influence of other (literary) dialects, whilst others suggest that - may have been an Aeolic form. (See ? and ? for expected ? and .)
^- for expected - would occur for the reasons given in Note 1.
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