Hinduism by Country
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Hinduism by Country

Percentage of Hindus by country, according to the Pew Research Center.

Hinduism has approximately 1.2 billion adherents worldwide (15-16% of world's population).[1] Nepal (81.3%)[2][3] and India (79.8%)[4] are countries with Hindus being the majority of their respective populations, while Mauritius (an island nation in African continent) have (48.14%)[5] population as followers of Hindu religion.[6] Along with Christianity (31.5%) and Islam (23.3%), Hinduism is one of the five major religions of the world by percentage of population. Hinduism is the third largest religion in the world behind Christianity and Islam.[7]

Presently, India and Nepal are the two Hindu majority countries. Most Hindus are found in Asian countries. The countries with more than 5,000 Hindu residents and citizens include (in decreasing order) - India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Indonesia (especially in Bali, which is 84% Hindu), Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, United States, Myanmar, Thailand, United Kingdom, Canada, South Africa, Mauritius, Suriname and the Caribbean (West Indies).

There are significant numbers of Hindu enclaves around the world, with many in Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Hinduism is also practised by the non-Indic people like Balinese of Bali island (Indonesia), Tengger and Osing of Java (Indonesia) and Balamon Chams of Vietnam, Ghanaian Hindus in Ghana, Chinese Malaysians, Orang Asli of Malaysia and Butuanon people of Philippines.

Background

Hinduism is a heterogeneous religion and consists of many schools of thought. Hinduism has no traditional ecclesiastical order, no centralised religious authorities, no governing body, no prophets; Hindus can choose to be polytheistic, monotheistic, pantheistic, monistic, agnostic, humanist or atheistic.[8] Estimates of Hinduism by country reflects this diversity of thought and way of life.

Demographic estimates

Demographic estimates of Hindu population by country has been published by the Pew Research Center in 2012,[9] as well as US State Department's International Religious Freedom Report 2006.[10]

By total number, India has the most Hindus. As a percentage, Nepal has the largest percentage of Hindu population in the world followed by India and Mauritius.[11] The Hindu population around the world as of (2020) is about 1.2 billion (making it the world's third largest Religion after Christianity and Islam), of which nearly around 1.1 billion Hindus live in India, (making the nation with highest concentration of Hindus) as 94% of world's Hindus live in this country.[12][13] As per a statistical study, there are an estimated 100 million Hindus who lived outside of India.[14] Only two countries in the world, in 2010, had a majority of its population as Hindus - Nepal and India.[15] In Mauritius, Hindus comprise 48.5% i.e. a plurality of its population in 2011 census. Bangladesh, Fiji, Bhutan, Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Sri Lanka have very large and influential Hindu minorities.

By country

Sources used for the table below include the US State Department,[10] the CIA World Factbook,[16] adherents.com,[17] Pew Research Center.[18][19] and as identified.

Hinduism by country
Region Country Hindu total Percentage Total population Census year
South Asia Afghanistan Afghanistan <1,000(est) <0.01%[20][21] 31,889,923 2017
Western Europe Andorra Andorra 300 - 400 0.4%[22] 60,000 >2012
Caribbean Anguilla Anguilla 50 - 60 0.43%[23] 13,452 -NA-
Caribbean Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 379 0.4%[24] 81,799 -NA-
South America Argentina Argentina 4,000+ 0.01%[25] 40,301,927 -NA-
Oceania Australia Australia 440,300 1.9%[26] 23,401,400 2016
Central Europe Austria Austria 11,000 0.1% [27] 8,900,000
Middle East Bahrain Bahrain 7,000 - 144,286[note 1] <1%-9.8%[30][note 1] 708,573
South Asia Bangladesh Bangladesh 14,300,000 8.54%[31] 167,000,000 2011
Caribbean Barbados Barbados 1055 0.46%[32] 226,193
Western Europe Belgium Belgium 6,235 0.06%[33] 10,392,226
Central America and Caribbean Belize Belize 612 0.2%[34] 294,385
South Asia Bhutan Bhutan 185,700 22.6%-25%[35][36] 742,737
Southern Africa Botswana Botswana 3,353 0.3%[37] 1372675
South America Brazil Brazil 5,675-9500 0.0029%[38]-0.01% 192,755,799
Southeast Asia Brunei Brunei 131 0.035%[39] 374,577
West Africa Burkina Faso Burkina Faso 150 0.001%[] 14,326,203
Central Africa Burundi Burundi 8,391 0.1%[40][41] 8,390,505
Southeast Asia Cambodia Cambodia 41,988 0.3%[42][43] 13,995,904
North America Canada Canada 497,965 1.45%[44][45] 33,390,141 2011
Central Europe Czech Republic Czech Republic 2,404 0.023%[46] 10,436,560
South America Colombia Colombia 8,876 0.02%[47] 44,379,598
East Africa Comoros Comoros 711 0.1%(approx)
[]
711,417
Central Africa Democratic Republic of the Congo Congo (Kinshasa) 30,000[19] 0.18%[19] 65,751,512
Balkans Croatia Croatia 449 0.01% (approx)[48] 4,493,312
North America Cuba Cuba 23,927 0.21%[49] 11,394,043
West Africa Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire 18,013 0.1%[50][51] 18,013,409
Western Europe Denmark Denmark 5,468 0.1%[52][53] 5,468,120
East Africa Djibouti Djibouti 99 0.02%[54] 496,374
Caribbean Dominica Dominica 145 0.2%[55] 72,386
East Africa Eritrea Eritrea 4,907 0.1% (approx)[56] 4,906,585
Eastern Europe Estonia Estonia 295 0.027% [57] 1,094,564
Oceania Fiji Fiji 261,136 27.9%[58][59] 935,974
Western Europe Finland Finland 5,000 0.1%[60] 5,238,460
Western Europe France France 63,718 0.1%[61][62] 63,718,187
Eastern Europe Georgia (country) Georgia 465 0.01% (approx)[63] 4,646,003
Western Europe Germany Germany 100,000 0.12%[64] 81,800,000
West Africa Ghana Ghana 11,466 0.05% (approx)[65] 22,931,299
Western Europe Gibraltar Gibraltar 628 2.0% [66] 32,194
Caribbean Grenada Grenada 630 0.7%[67] 89,971
Caribbean Guadeloupe Guadeloupe 2,300 0.5%[68] 460,000
South America and Caribbean Guyana Guyana 190,966 24.83%[69] 769,095
Central Europe Hungary Hungary 1,767[70] 0.02% 9,956,108
South Asia India India 1,053,000,000 79.8% [71][72][73] 1,320,000,000 (2011 Census)
Southeast Asia Indonesia Indonesia 10,000,000 - 18,000,000
[][note 2]
3.86 - 6.95%[77][78][79] 259,000,000
Middle East Iran Iran 20,000[19] <0.1[19] 65,397,521
Western Europe Republic of Ireland Ireland 14,300 0.30%[80] 4,761,865 2016
Middle East Israel Israel 6,427 0.1% (approx)[81] 6,426,679
Western Europe Italy Italy 108,950 0.2% (approx)[82] 60,418,000
Caribbean Jamaica Jamaica 1,836 0.07%[83] 2,780,132
East Asia Japan Japan 30,000[19] <0.1[19] 127,433,494
East Africa Kenya Kenya 60,000[19] 0.1%[19] 37,000,000
East Asia South Korea Korea, South 12,452 0.015% (approx) 49,044,790
Middle East Kuwait Kuwait 300,667[note 3] 12%[85] 2,505,559
Eastern Europe Latvia Latvia 179 0.012%[86] 1,481,823
Middle East Lebanon Lebanon 4,926 0.1% (approx)[87] 4,925,502
Eastern Europe Lithuania Lithuania 344 0.01% [88] 2,561,000
Southern Africa Lesotho Lesotho 2,125 0.1% (approx)[89][90] 2,125,262
West Africa Liberia Liberia 3,196 0.1% (approx)[91] 3,195,931
North Africa Libya Libya 6,037 0.1%[92][93] 6,036,914
Western Europe Luxembourg Luxembourg 336 0.07% (approx)[94] 480,222
Southern Africa Madagascar Madagascar 19,449 0.1%[95][96] 19,448,815
Southern Africa Malawi Malawi 2,721 - 2,726 0.02%[97] - 0.2%[98] 13,603,181
Southeast Asia Malaysia Malaysia 1,949,850 6.3%[99][100] 30,949,962
Caribbean Martinique Martinique 1,317 0.3%[101] 439,202
South Asia Maldives Maldives 37 0.01%[102] 369,031
Southern Africa Mauritius Mauritius 600,327 48.5%[103][104] 1,236,817 2011
Eastern Europe Moldova Moldova 433 0.01% (approx)[105] 3,200,000
Southern Africa Mozambique Mozambique 10,453 - 41,811 0.05%[106] - 0.2%[107] 20,905,585
Southeast Asia Myanmar Myanmar 252,763[108] 0.5%[108] 50,279,900[108]
South Asia Nepal Nepal 23,500,000 81.3%[109][110] 28,901,790 2011
Western Europe Netherlands Netherlands 96,110 - 200,000 0.58%[111] - 1.20%[112] 16,570,613
Oceania New Zealand New Zealand 90,158 2.1%[113] 4,115,771
Western Europe Norway Norway 23,140 0.5% 4,627,926
Middle East Oman Oman 96,147 - 182,679 3%[114] - 5.7%[115] 3,204,897
South Asia Pakistan Pakistan 3,626,000 1.85%[116] 196,000,000 2011
Central America Panama Panama 9,726 0.3%[117][118] 3,242,173
Southeast Asia Philippines Philippines 10,000[19] <0.1% [19] 102,000,000[119]
Western Europe Portugal Portugal 7,396 0.07% 10,642,836
Central Europe Poland Poland 2421 0.008%[120] 30,575,000
Caribbean Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 3,550 0.09%[121] 3,944,259
Middle East Qatar Qatar 422,118 15.1%[122] 2,795,484[123] 2020
East Africa Réunion Réunion 55,409 6.7%[124] 927,000
Eastern Europe Russia Russia 143,000 0.1%[125] 141,377,752
Oceania Samoa Samoa 38 0.02% (approx) 187,429
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis 860 1.82% [126] 47195 2011
Middle East Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 303,611[note 4] 0.6%[128] - 1.1%[129] 27,601,038
East Africa Seychelles Seychelles 1,910 2.1%[19]-2.4%[130] 90,945
West Africa Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 2,458 - 6,145 0.04%[131] - 0.1%[132] 6,144,562
Southeast Asia Singapore Singapore 280,000 5.0%[133][134] 5,600,000 2011
Central Europe Slovakia Slovakia 5,448 0.1% (approx)
[]
5,447,502
Central Europe Slovenia Slovenia 500 0.025% (approx)
[]
2,009,245
Southern Africa South Africa South Africa 505,000 0.9%[135]-1.1%[19] 49,991,300
South Asia Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 2,671,000 12.6%[136] 21,200,000 2011
South America and Caribbean Suriname Suriname 120,623 - 128,995 22.3%[137] - 27.4%[138] 470,784
Southern Africa Eswatini Swaziland 1,700 - 2,266 0.15%[139] - 0.2%[140] 1,133,066
Western Europe Sweden Sweden 7,044 - 10,837 0.078% - 0.12%[141] 9,031,088
Western Europe Switzerland Switzerland 28,708-50,000[142][143] 0.38%[144][145]-0.6%[146] 7,554,661
East Africa Tanzania Tanzania 50,000[147] 0.11%[147] 39,384,223
Caribbean Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 240,100 18.2%[148][149][150] 1,056,608 2011
Southeast Asia Thailand Thailand 65,000 0.1%[151] 65,068,149
Oceania Tonga Tonga 100 0.1%[152] 103,043
Middle East Turkey Turkey 300 0.00035%-0.001% 84,339,067
Eastern Europe Ukraine Ukraine 42,386 0.1%[153] 42,386,400
East Africa Uganda Uganda 43,557 0.2%[154] 30,262,610
Middle East United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 490,000[note 5] 5 - 20%[156] 9,682,000
Western Europe United Kingdom United Kingdom 1,020,000 1.7%[157][158] 60,776,238 2017
North America United States United States 2,300,000 0.7%[159] 322,000,000 2015
Caribbean United States Virgin Islands United States Virgin Islands 528 1.9%[160] 28,054
Central Asia Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 2,778 0.01% (approx)
[]
27,780,059
Southeast Asia Vietnam Vietnam 70,000 0.07% 85,262,356
Middle East Yemen Yemen 155,614 0.7%[161] 22,230,531
Southern Africa Zambia Zambia 16,068 0.14%[162][163] 11,477,447
Southern Africa Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 3,000 0.02% 12,311,143
Total 1,100,000,000 - 1,120,000,000 16 7,500,000,000

By region

These percentages were calculated by using the above numbers. The first percentage, 4th column, is the percentage of population that is Hindu in a region (Hindus in the region * 100/total population of the region). The last column shows the Hindu percentage compared to the total Hindu population of the world (Hindus in the region * 100/total Hindu population of the world).

(Note: Egypt, Sudan, and other Arab Maghreb countries are counted as part of North Africa, not Middle East).

Hinduism in Africa
Region Total Population Hindus % of Hindus % of Hindu total
Central Africa 193,121,055 N/A N/A N/A
East Africa 193,741,900 667,694 0.345% 0.071%
North Africa 202,151,323 5,765 0.003% 0.001%
Southern Africa 137,092,019 1,269,844 0.926% 0.135%
West Africa 268,997,245 70,402 0.026% 0.007%
Total 885,103,542 2,013,705 0.225% 0.213%
Hinduism in Asia
Region Total Population Hindus % of Hindus % of Hindu total
Central Asia 92,019,166 149,644 0.163% 0.016%
East Asia 1,527,960,261 130,631 0.009% 0.014%
West Asia 274,775,527 3,187,673 1.5% 0.084%
South Asia 1,437,326,682 1,068,728,901 70.05% 98.475%
Southeast Asia 571,337,070 6,386,614 1.118% 0.677%
Total 3,903,418,706 1,074,728,901 26.01% 99.266%
Hinduism in Europe
Region Total Population Hindus % of Hindus % of Hindu total
Balkans 65,407,609 449 0.001% 0.001%
Central Europe 74,510,241 163 0% 0%
Eastern Europe 212,821,296 717,101 0.337% 0.076%
Western Europe 375,832,557 1,313,640 0.348% 0.138%
Total 728,571,703 2,030,904 0.278% 0.214%
Hinduism in The Americas
Region Total Population Hindus % of Hindus % of Hindu total
Caribbean 24,898,266 279,515 1.123% 0.030%
Central America 41,135,205 5,833 0.014% 0.006%
North America 446,088,748 2,131,127 0.478% 0.191%
South America 371,075,531 389,869 0.105% 0.041%
Total 883,197,750 2,806,344 0.281% 0.263%
Hinduism in Oceania
Region Total Population Hindus % of Hindus % of Hindu total
Oceania 38,552,683 791,615 2.053% 0.071%
Total 38,552,683 791,615 2.053% 0.071%

Projections

In 2015, the Pew Research Center projected that Hindus will continue to make up 15% of the world's population through 2050. They predict that the following ten countries will have the most Hindus in 2050:[164]

 India: 1.297 billion.

   Nepal: 38.12 million.

 Bangladesh: 14.47 million.

 Pakistan: 5.63 million.

 United States: 4.78 million.

 Indonesia: 4.15 million.

 Sri Lanka: 3.43 million.

 Malaysia: 2.27 million.

 United Kingdom: 1.37 million.

 Canada: 1.07 million.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b The estimates vary depending on whether temporary workers are included or not. The official census of the Bahrain government states that 99% of its citizens are Muslims, and the remaining 1% includes Jews, Christians, Hindus, and Bahais.[28] According to a 2017 publication by Abdullahi An-Na'im, the Muslims in Bahrain constitute 99.3% of the total population.[29]
  2. ^ The lower number is based on Pew Research estimate and is primarily concentrated in the island of Bali, Indonesia and nearby provinces of Indonesia. The higher number is based on a 2010 estimate by the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Government of Indonesia.[74] The largest Hindu organization in Indonesia Parisada Hindu Dharma Indonesia states that the Indonesian census greatly underestimates Hindu population, because predominantly Muslim nation of Indonesia does not recognize all forms of Hinduism, and only recognizes monotheistic Hinduism under its constitution.[75][76]
  3. ^ The estimates vary depending on whether temporary workers - with no residency nor right to openly practice their religion - are included or not. The official Kuwaiti government census data does not count Hindus as residents or citizens of Kuwait.[84]
  4. ^ The estimates vary depending on whether temporary workers - with no residency nor right to openly practice their religion - are included or not. The Saudi Arabian government mandates that all Saudi citizens must be Muslims, and it prohibits public practice of Hinduism and other non-Muslim religions.[127]
  5. ^ The estimates vary depending on whether temporary workers - with no residency nor right to openly practice their religion - are included or not. 80% of the UAE population is non-citizen temporary workers, and estimated 25% of these workers may be Hindu. Only Sunni Muslims can be naturalized new citizens in UAE. According to the US State Department, the federal constitution of the UAE designates Islam as the official religion, and Islam is also the official religion of all seven of the individual emirates in the federal union. The Government does not recognize all non-Muslim religions and only a limited number of Christian groups are granted legal recognition in UAE. Non-Muslim and non-Christian religions such as Hinduism are not recognized legally in any of the emirates.[155]

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