Get Help:IPA/Italian essential facts below. View Videos or join the Help:IPA/Italian discussion. Add Help:IPA/Italian to your topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.

The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet represents pronunciations of Standard Italian in resource articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to resource articles, see {{IPA-it}}, {{IPAc-it}} and Resource: Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Italian phonology and Italian orthography for a more thorough look at the sounds of Italian.

IPA Examples English approximation
b banca, cibo about
d dove, idra today
dz zaino, azalea, mezzo[2][3] dads
d? gelo, giù, magia, judo, gadget job
f fatto, cifra, phon fast
? gatto, agro, ghetto, glicosio[4] again
j ieri, saio, più, Jesi, yacht, news yes
k cosa, acuto, finché, quei, kiwi, koala scar
l lato, tela, glicosio[4] ladder
? figli, glielo, maglia[3] billion
m mano, amare, input[5] mother
? anfibio, invece[5] comfort
n nano, punto, pensare, mangiare[5] nest
? unghia, anche, dunque[5] sing
? gnocco, ogni[3][5] canyon
p primo, ampio, apertura spin
r Roma, quattro, morte[6] trilled r
s sano, scusa, presentire, pasto[7] sorry
? scena, scià, pesci, flash, chic[3] shoe
t tranne, mito, altro, thai star
ts zio, sozzo, marzo[2][3] cats
t? certo, ciao, farmacia, chip check
v vado, povero, watt vent
w uova, guado, qui, week-end wine
z sbirro, presentare, asma[7] amazon
Non-native consonants
h hobby, hertz[8] house
? Thatcher, Pérez[9] thing
x jota, Bach, khamsin[10] loch (Scottish English)
? Fuji, garage, casual vision
IPA Examples English approximation
a alto, sarà, must fast (Scottish English)
e vero, perché, liaison fade
? etto, cioè, spread bed
i viso, sì, zia, feed, team, sexy ski
o ombra, otto, show, coach story
? otto, sarò, Sean off
u usi, ragù, tuo, tour rule
Non-native vowels
ø viveur, goethiano, Churchill[12] murder (RP)
y parure, brûlé, Führer[13] future (Scottish English)
IPA Examples Explanation
' Cennini [t?en'ni:ni] primary stress
? altamente [?alta'mente] secondary stress[14]
. continuo [kon'ti:nu.o] syllable break
: primo ['pri:mo] long vowel[15]


  1. ^ Except , all consonants after a vowel and before /r/, /l/, a vowel or a semivowel may be geminated. Gemination in IPA is represented by doubling the consonant (fatto ['fatto], mezzo ['m?ddzo]), and can usually be told from orthography. After stressed vowels and certain prepositions and conjunctions, word-initial consonants also become geminated (syntactic gemination): va via [?va v'vi:a].
  2. ^ a b ?z? represents both /ts/ and /dz/. The article on Italian orthography explains how they are used.
  3. ^ a b c d e /ts, dz, ?, ?, ?/ are always geminated after a vowel.
  4. ^ a b ?gli? represents /?/ or /?i/, except in roots of Greek origin, when preceded by another consonant, and in a few other words, where it represents /?li/.
  5. ^ a b c d e A nasal always assimilates to the place of articulation of the following consonant. It is bilabial [m] before /p, b, m/, labiodental [?] before /f, v/, dental, alveolar or postalveolar [n] before /t, d, ts, dz, t?, d?, ?, l, r/, and velar [?] before /k, ?/. Utterance-finally, it is always [n].
  6. ^ Non-geminate /r/ is generally realised as a monovibrant trill or tap , particularly in unstressed syllables.
  7. ^ a b /s/ and /z/ contrast only intervocalically. Word-initially, after consonants, when geminated, and before voiceless consonants, only [s] is found. Before voiced consonants, only [z] is found.
  8. ^ /h/ is usually dropped.
  9. ^ /?/ is usually pronounced as in English loanwords, and , (if spelled ?z?) or (if spelled ?c? or ?z?) in Spanish ones.
  10. ^ In Spanish loanwords, /x/ is usually pronounced as or or dropped. In German, Arabic and Russian ones, it is usually pronounced .
  11. ^ Italian contrasts seven monophthongs in stressed syllables. Open-mid vowels /?, ?/ can appear only if the syllable is stressed (coperto [ko'p?rto], quota ['kw?:ta]), close-mid vowels /e, o/ are found elsewhere (Boccaccio [bok'katt?o], amore [a'mo:re]). Close and open vowels /i, u, a/ are unchanged in unstressed syllables, but word-final unstressed /i/ may become approximant before vowels, which is known as synalepha (pari età [?parj e'ta]).
  12. ^ Open-mid or close-mid if it is stressed but usually if it is unstressed. May be replaced by (stressed) or (stressed or unstressed).
  13. ^ /y/ is often pronounced as or [ju].
  14. ^ Since Italian has no distinction between heavier or lighter vowels (like the English o in conclusion vs o in nomination), a defined secondary stress, even in long words, is extremely rare.
  15. ^ Primarily stressed vowels are long in non-final open syllables: fato ['fa:to], fatto ['fatto].

Further reading

  • Bertinetto, Pier Marco; Loporcaro, Michele (2005). "The sound pattern of Standard Italian, as compared with the varieties spoken in Florence, Milan and Rome" (PDF). Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 35 (2): 131-151. doi:10.1017/S0025100305002148.
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004). "Italian" (PDF). Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 34 (1): 117-121. doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes