Help:IPA/Catalan
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Help:IPA/Catalan

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Catalan language pronunciations in popflock.com resource articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to popflock.com resource articles, see {{IPA-ca}} and popflock.com Resource: Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Key for standard Catalan and Valencian

There are two major standards, one of Catalan (C)--based in Coastal Catalonia, encompassing most Eastern Catalan features--and one of Valencian (V)--based in Southern Valencia, encompassing most Western Catalan features. Neither variant is preferred over the other in popflock.com resource articles except in cases where a local pronunciation is clearly more relevant (such as a place in Catalonia or a Valencian artist).

See Catalan phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of standard Catalan and Valencian, and Catalan orthography for the correspondence between spelling and pronunciation.

IPA Consonants
Catalonia
C
Valencian Community
V
Examples English approximation
b b bell, àmbit, capgròs[1] best
v vell, envit, watt [1][2] best (C), vest (V)
? avanç, selva[3] a vest
b abans, arbre[3]
d drac, indret, ritme[1] door
dz dz tretze, tots alhora[1] pads
z utilitza pads (C), zebra (V)
d? mitjà, migdia[1] jeep
ð cada, lladre[3] other
f força, bafs face
? get
? aigües, agrat, lloguer[3] roughly like get
k cors, quan, qui, llarg, kiwi scan
l laca, ce?la,[4] val[5] pill
? llac, cella,[4] Elx[5] billion
m meu, comte[5] mode
? limfa, ínfim[5] lymph
n neu, dansa[5] need
? sang, cigne[5] ring
? nyeu, penges[5] onion
p por, dubte span
r ruc, mirra, honra[6] Scots rook
? mira, truc, per[6] US ladder
s set, es, feliç sack
? j? caixa fish (C), geisha (V)
? Xixona, guix fish
t? xec, Barx fish (C), cheap (V)
t terra, fred stand
ts potser, tots cats
t? txec, mig cheap
v hafni, bafs d'aigua[1] of
z zel, esma[1] zebra
? d? joc, gespa rouge (C), jeep (V)
j jo rouge (C), young (V)
j? caixmir[1] rouge (C), beige (V)
? guix verd[1] rouge
IPA Marginal consonants
h Hawaii, ehem[7] ham
? Smith, Pozo thing
x kharja, Bach Scots loch
 
IPA Semivowels[8]
Catalonia
C
Valencian Community
V
Examples English approximation
j iogurt, llei, posa-hi young
w quatre, Güell, lleu, posa-ho quick
IPA Vowels
Catalonia
C
Valencian Community
V
Examples English approximation
a sac, ànecs father
? ? set, èxit pet
e sec, què[9] pet (C), face (V)
e séc, anells, ídem[10] face
? de[10] alpha (C), face (V)
a fadrí, entens[10]
i naixement alpha (C), meet (V)
i sic, ties, fillet[10] meet
? soc, això off
o o sóc, molt, ego, mouré[10] story
u oratge[10] rule (C), story (V)
u rule
IPA Marginal vowels
y déjà vu[11] roughly like cute
 
IPA Suprasegmentals
Catalonia
C
Valencian Community
V
Examples Explanation
' dac
['dið?k] (C) / ['diðak] (V)
primary stress
? Bellpuig
[?be?'put?] (C / V)
secondary stress
. Maria
[m?'?i.?] (C) / [ma'?i.a] (V)
syllable break
: Imma
['im:?] (C) / ['im:a] (V)
long vowel /
consonant
IPA Other representations
( ) Corts
['ko?(t)s] (C / V)
optional sound

Transcription of Insular Eastern Catalan

Standard Catalan in the Balearic Islands (Balearic Islands / B)
Balearic, a composite of dialects of the Eastern Catalan branch, uses the same pronunciation pattern as Standard Catalan (see C above), but there are some differences that should be used in the transcription of names of the Balearic Islands:
Consonants
  • Distinction of /b/ and /v/, like in Standard Valencian: bell /'be?/, vell /'ve?/, avanç /?'vans/
    • Non-lenition of /b/: abans /?'bans/
  • Elision of final /?/ in most cases: amor /?'mo/
  • Replacement of the geminate ?tll? /?:/ by ?tl? /l:/ like in Valencian: vetla /'v?l:?/. When ?tll? is not substituted by ?tl?, it is generally pronounced as a degeminated /?/: bitllet /bi't/
  • Usage of /j/ in Ibiza for the words jo /'j?/ and ja /'ja/. In the rest of the Balearic Islands /?/ or /d?/ should be used like in Standard Catalan: /'(d)/, /'(d)?a/. In Majorca, as well as in Barcelona surroundings, /j/ can be found, but that is generally considered nonstandard
  • Deaffrication of /dz/ in the suffix -itzar and derivates, like in Valencian: utilitza /uti'liz?/ (this can also be found in some speakers in Catalonia)
  • Preservation of final consonant clusters like in Standard Valencian: alt /'alt/, tomb /'tomp/
    • Complex final clusters followed by /s/ can optionally be simplified: sants /'san(t)s/
  • Replacement of /?/ with /i?/: vall /'bai?/ (avoid transcribing ieisme in local and general transcriptions)
Vowels
  • Existence of a stressed /?/, similar to the sound "bird" in RP: sec /'s?k/, què /'k?/,
  • Occurrence of unstressed /o/ in most of Majorca: oratge /o'?ad/
Standard Catalan in Alghero (A)
Algherese, the Eastern Catalan dialect spoken in the town of Alghero (in the island of Sardinia, Italy), uses the same pronunciation as Standard Catalan (see C above), although there are some differences to be used in the transcription of Algherese names:
Consonants
  • Distinction of /b/ and /v/, like in Standard Valencian: bell /'bel/, vell /'vel/, avanç /a'vans/
    • Frequent usage of final ?v? /f/: viv /'vif/
    • Non-lenition of /b/: abans /a'bans/
  • Elision and preservation of final /?/ in cases where other Eastern dialects would have different rules: fer /'fe/, but ésser /'esa?/
  • Distinction of /?/ and /j/ (only between vowels): balla /'ba?a/, baia /'bai?a/
  • Tendency to depalatalize final ?ll? /?/ and ?ny? /?/: ball /'bal/ and any /'an/
  • General usage of the affricate /d?/ for ?j? and ?g?, like in Standard Valencian: joc /'dk/
  • Preservation of final consonant clusters like in Standard Valencian: alt /'alt/, tomb /'tomp/
  • Replacement of the geminate ?tll? /?:/ by ?tl? /l:/ like in Valencian: vetla /'v?l:a/
Vowels
  • Tendency to avoid the distinction between open ?è? /?/ and ?ò? /?/ and close ?é? /e/ and ?ó? /o/
  • The most frequent unstressed vowels are /a, u, i/ instead of /?, u, i/
    • Initial ?a? is silent in some cases: abella. In other cases it may appear an initial epenthetic /a/: [a]copiar
    • Unstressed ?e? can be pronounced as /a/ (les /las/), /i/ (estiu /is'tiu?/) or fluctuate between /a/ and /i/ (respecte /ras'p?kta/ or /ris'p?kta/). In other cases it maintains the original open or closed pronunciation found in Italian (benefici /b?ne'fisi/). In the vowel group ?ei? before ?x?, as well as certain verbal forms ?e? is silent (eixir /i'?i?/, riuen /'riun/)
    • Unstressed ?i? is pronounced with /a/ in words that begin with his-, im-, in-: història, imaginar, innocent
    • Unstressed ?o? is generally pronounced as /u/ (bolet /bu'l?t/), like in Standard Catalan; but there are few cases where /o/ is found, normally due to Italian influence: foto /'foto/. The ?o? in words like hospital, moment and obscur is pronounced with /a/

Other transcriptions

Standard Catalan in Northern Catalonia (N)
Northern, also known as Roussillonese, is a dialect of the Eastern Catalan branch. It uses the same pronunciation pattern as Standard Catalan (see C above), but there are some differences that should be used in the transcription of names of Roussillon (former Northern Catalonia):
Consonants
  • Tendency to replace final /t?/ ?ig? and/or /?/ ?ix? with /i?/: raig /'rai?/, calaix /k?'lai?/ (do not transcribe this in local and general transcriptions, use standard forms only)
  • Replacement of /?/ with /i?/: vall /'bai?/ (avoid transcribing ieisme in local and general transcriptions)
Vowels
  • Existence of some instances of historic stressed /o/ that has changed to /u/: Canigó /kani'?u/
  • Tendency to avoid the distinction between open ?è? /?/ and ?ò? /?/ and close ?é? /e/ and ?ó? /o/
  • Further usage of /y/ and /oe/ in some areas: but /'byt/ and fulles /'foej?s/
Standard Catalan in Western Catalonia (Catalonia / NW)
Northwestern, a continuous dialect of the Western Catalan branch, uses the same pronunciation pattern as Standard Valencian (see V above), but there are some differences that should be used in the transcription of names of Western Catalonia as well as the Aragonese border:
Consonants
  • Betacism, that is the confusion of /b/ and /v/ like in Standard Catalan: bell and vell /'be?/
    • Lenition of /b/: avanç and abans [a'?ans]
  • General elision of final /?/, like in Standard Catalan: fer /'fe/
  • Usage of the geminate ?tll? /?:/ like in Central Catalan: vetlla /'be?:?/
  • Deaffrication of /d?/: joc /'k/
  • Maintenance of /dz/ in the suffix -itzar and derivates, like in Standard Catalan: utilitza /uti'lidza/
  • Elision of final consonant clusters like in Standard Catalan: alt /'al/, tomb /'tom/
Vowels
  • Neutralization of final /a/ into /?/ (corda /'kð?/, tela /'t?l?/)

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Obstruents assimilate to the voicing of the following consonant. In syllables produced in utterance-final position (i.e. the coda), voiced obstruents become devoiced (Carbonell & Llisterri (1999:63), Wheeler (2005:147-149)).
  2. ^ While betacism (that is, the merging of /b/ and /v/ into one phoneme) is common in most speakers of Catalan and in Valencia, several dialects still contrast the two sounds (usually represented as ?b? and ?v? respectively in Catalan orthography). The contrast is also maintained in Standard Valencian (Carbonell & Llisterri (1999:61), Wheeler (2005:13)).
  3. ^ a b c d Voiced stops /b, d, ?/ become lenited [?, ð, ?] (that is, approximants or fricatives of the same place of articulation) when in the syllable onset and after a continuant. Otherwise they are pronounced as voiced or devoiced stops, similar to English b, d, g and p, t, k. Exceptions include /d/ after a lateral consonant, and /b/ after /f/. In traditional non-betacist dialects, /b/ usually fails to lenite (Carbonell & Llisterri (1999:63), Wheeler (2005:10, 310-326)).
  4. ^ a b Catalan orthography distinguishes between ?ll? (representing /?/) and l? (representing a geminated /l:/). In regular speech gemination of l? is ignored altogether. Some dialects as well as young speakers can merge /?/ with the glide in a process similar to Spanish yeísmo.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g The sonorants /l/ and /n/ assimilate to the place of articulation of a following consonant (Rafel (1999:14), Wheeler (2005:166-204)). Before palatals, /l/ is and /n/ is . Before velars, /n/ becomes and before labial consonants, /n/ becomes . The labiodental appears before /f/ and /v/.
  6. ^ a b The rhotic consonants ?r? /?/ and ?rr? /r/ only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ?r? with occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, and in compounds; and after hard plosives, the soft spirants [?, ð, ?], and /f/. Syllable-final /?/ varies according to dialect, emphasis, morpheme and the following sound. In all Catalan dialects, except most of Valencian, /?/ is lost in coda position in suffixes of nouns and adjectives denoting the masculine singular and in the infinitive suffixes of verbs, except when the following morpheme begins with a vowel, although this may vary (Carbonell & Llisterri (1999:63-64), Wheeler (2005:24-25)).
  7. ^ Other than in loanwords and interjections, the letter ?h? is always silent.
  8. ^ The semivowels /j/ and /w/ can be combined with most vowels to form diphthongs and triphthongs (Carbonell & Llisterri (1999:62), Wheeler (2005:90-91)). For a list with all the combinations, see Catalan phonology § Diphthongs and triphthongs.
  9. ^ Many words that have /?/ in Standard Catalan have /e/ in Standard Valencian. The latter is the historical pronunciation.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g In unstressed position, the vowel contrast is reduced in all dialects.
    • Eastern Catalan: [a, ?, e] merge to [?], whereas [?, o, u] merge to [u], leaving only [?, i, u] in most unstressed syllables.
    • Western Catalan: [?, e] merge to [e] and [?, o] merge to [o]. Exceptionally there are some cases where unstressed ?e? and ?o? may merge with [a] and [u] respectively (Carbonell & Llisterri (1999:62-63), Wheeler (2005:52-77)).
    In Standard Eastern Catalan, unstressed [e] and [o] appear only in some words such as ídem ['idem], oceans [use'ans], ego ['e?o] and mouré [mow'?e]. In other cases, they merge with [?] and [u] (Wheeler (2005:61-72)).
    In Standard Valencian, unstressed [?] and [?] occur in the process known as vowel harmony (e.g. corda ['kð?] and tela ['t?l?]). In North-western, there are cases where only [?] is found in final unstressed syllables: tela ['t?l?].
  11. ^ The vowel /y/ is usually replaced by /u/ or /i/.

Bibliography

  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1999), "Catalan", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 61-65, ISBN 978-0-521-63751-0
  • Rafel, Joaquim (1999), Aplicació al català dels principis de transcripció de l'Associació Fonètica Internacional (PDF) (3rd ed.), Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans, ISBN 84-7283-446-8
  • Wheeler, Max W. (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-925814-7

External links


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Help:IPA/Catalan
 



 



 
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