Haplology
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Haplology

Haplology (from Greek haplóos "simple" and lógos, "speech") is, in spoken language, the elision (elimination or deletion) of an entire syllable through dissimilation (a differentiating shift that affects two neighboring similar sounds). The phenomenon was identified by American philologist Maurice Bloomfield in the 20th century.[1] Linguists sometimes jokingly refer to the phenomenon as "haplogy".[2] As a general rule, haplology occurs in English adverbs of adjectives ending in "le", for example gentlely > gently; ablely > ably.

Examples

  • Basque: sagarrardo > sagardo ('apple cider')
  • German: Zaubererin > Zauberin (female 'wizard' or 'magician'; male: der Zauberer; female ending -in)
  • Dutch: narcissisme > narcisme ('narcissism')
  • French: fémininité > féminité ('femininity')
  • English:
    • Old English Engla land > Engle lond > England [1]
    • morphophonology > morphonology[3]
    • mono nomial > monomial
    • urine analysis > urinalysis
    • Colloquial (non-standard and eye dialect spellings signalled by *):
      • library (RP: /'la?br?r?/) > *libry /'la?br?/
      • particularly > *particuly
      • probably > *probly
      • February > *Febury
      • representative > * representive
      • authoritative > * authoritive
  • Latin:
    • nutritrix > nutrix 'nurse'
    • idololatria > idolatria (hence idolatry)
  • Biological Latin:
  • Homeric Greek: amphiphoreus (?) > amphoreus () 'two-handled pitcher, amphora'[5]
  • Arabic:
    • tataq?tal?na () > taq?tal?na () 'you are fighting each other'[6]
    • *?a?kulu (*) > kulu () 'I eat'
  • Spanish: impudicicia > impudicia 'lack of modesty' (i.e. the nominal form of impúdico, "immodest")[7]

Dittology

The reverse process is known as dittology. It is less common but encountered in some languages. For instance, in the Northern Kurdish or Kurmanji, numerals "du" ('two, 2') and "sê" ('three, 3') undergo a dittological process when used in counting:

  • du > didu
  • sê > sisê

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for February 6, 2008". Merriam-Webster Online. Retrieved .
  2. ^ U. Pani Shad; et al. (1971). "Glossary of linguistic terminology". In Zwicky, Arnold M.; Salus, Peter H.; Binnick, Robert I.; Vanek, Anthony L. (eds.). Studies out in Left Field: Defamatory essays presented to James D. McCawley on his 33rd or 34th birthday. Linguistic Research. p. 125. Reprinted as: U. Pani Shad; et al. (1992). "Glossary of linguistic terminology". In Zwicky, Arnold M.; Salus, Peter H.; Binnick, Robert I.; Vanek, Anthony L. (eds.). Studies out in Left Field: Defamatory essays presented to James D. McCawley on his 33rd or 34th birthday. John Benjamins. p. 125. doi:10.1075/z.63. ISBN 978-90-272-2111-7.
  3. ^ Trubetskoy, N.S. (1969). "Appendix II: Thoughts on Morphonology". In Baltaxe (transl.), Christiane A. M. (ed.). Principles of Phonology. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. p. 305. ISBN 0-520-01535-5. By morphonology or morphophonology we understand, as is well known, the study of the utilization in morphology of the phonological means of language. Translated from the German (Grundzüge der Phonologie, Prague, 1939).
  4. ^ "Mammal Species of the World - Browse: Nycteridae". bucknell.edu. Retrieved .
  5. ^ Hock, Hans Henrich (1986). "Sound change: Dissimilation, haplology, metathesis". Principles of Historical Linguistics. De Gruyter. p. 109. ISBN 3-11-010600-0.
  6. ^ Kaye, Alan (1987). "Arabic". In Bernard Comrie (ed.). The World's Major Languages. Oxford University Press. p. 567. ISBN 0-19-520521-9.
  7. ^ "DRAE entry for 'impudicicia'". Diccionario de la lengua española Vigésima tercera edición (in Spanish). Retrieved .

References

  • Crowley, Terry. (1997) An Introduction to Historical Linguistics. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press.

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Haplology
 



 



 
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