Get Hangzhou essential facts below. View Videos or join the Hangzhou discussion. Add Hangzhou to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.

Hangchow, Hang Tsei, Hangchou
Official seal of Hangzhou
Location of Hangzhou City jurisdiction in Zhejiang
Location of Hangzhou City jurisdiction in Zhejiang
Hangzhou is located in Zhejiang
Location of the city center in Zhejiang
Hangzhou is located in China
Location of the city center in China
Coordinates (Zhejiang People's Government): 30°16?01?N 120°09?11?E / 30.267°N 120.153°E / 30.267; 120.153Coordinates: 30°16?01?N 120°09?11?E / 30.267°N 120.153°E / 30.267; 120.153
Country China
Municipal seatShangcheng District
 o TypeSub-provincial city
 o BodyHangzhou Municipal People's Congress
 o CCP SecretaryLiu Jie
 o Congress ChairmanLi Huolin
 o MayorLiu Xin[1]
 o CPPCC ChairmanMa Weiguang
 o Prefecture-level and sub-provincial city16,821.1 km2 (6,494.7 sq mi)
 o Urban
8,259.9 km2 (3,189.2 sq mi)
 o Metro
8,107.9 km2 (3,130.5 sq mi)
(2020 census)[2]
 o Prefecture-level and sub-provincial city11,936,010
 o Density710/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
 o Urban
 o Urban density1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)
 o Metro
 o Metro density1,600/km2 (4,200/sq mi)
 o National rank
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
ISO 3166 codeCN-ZJ-01
GDP (Nominal)2021[3]
 - TotalCN¥1.811 trillion
(US$280.76 billion)
 - Per capitaCN¥151,717
 - GrowthIncrease 8.5%
 - Metro (2018)CN¥2.6517 trillion[4]
(US$400.7 billion)
Licence plate prefixes?A
Regional varietyWu: Hangzhou dialect
City tree
Camphor laurel (Cinnamomum camphora)
City flower

Sweet Osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans)
Hangzhou (Chinese characters).svg
"Hangzhou" in Chinese characters
Literal meaning
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese

Hangzhou ([5][6] or , HANG-joe;[7] Chinese: , Hangzhounese pronunciation: [.tse], Standard Mandarin pronunciation: [xǎ?.ó?] ), also romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang, China. It is located in the northwestern part of the province, sitting at the head of Hangzhou Bay, which separates Shanghai and Ningbo. Hangzhou grew to prominence as the southern terminus of the Grand Canal and has been one of China's most renowned and prosperous cities for much of the last millennium. It is a major economic and e-commerce hub within China, and the second biggest city in Yangtze Delta after Shanghai. Hangzhou is classified as a sub-provincial city and forms the core of the Hangzhou metropolitan area, the fourth-largest in China after Guangzhou-Shenzhen Pearl River agglomeration, Shanghai-Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou conurbation and Beijing. As of the 2020 Chinese census, it had a total population of 11,936,010 inhabitants. However, its metropolitan area, populated by 13.035 million people over an area of 8,107.9 km2 (3,130.5 sq mi), consists of all urban districts in Hangzhou and 3 urban districts of the city of Shaoxing.[2]

Hangzhou has been repeatedly rated as the best commercial city in mainland China by Forbes, and it boasts the eight largest GDP among cities in mainland China with a GDP of around 1.8 trillion RMB ($280 billion). Home to the headquarters of large global tech companies such as the Alibaba Group, Ant Group and NetEase, Hangzhou is known for attracting professionals and entrepreneurs who work in information technology. Since 2014, its rapid population growth has led to a steady increase in local housing prices. According to the 2020 Hurun Global Rich List, Hangzhou ranks 11th in the world and 6th in China (after Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Guangzhou) in the number of resident billionaires.

Hangzhou is a major city for scientific research in China. It hosts several notable universities, including Zhejiang University, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Zhejiang A&F University, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University and China Jiliang University. In September 2015, Hangzhou was awarded the 2022 Asian Games. Its West Lake, a UNESCO World Heritage Site west of the city, is among its best-known attractions. A study conducted by PwC and China Development Research Foundation ranked Hangzhou first among "Chinese Cities of Opportunity". According to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC), the city is classified as Beta (global second-tier) city, together with Chongqing, Nanjing and Tianjin in China. Hangzhou is also one of the world's top 100 financial centers, according to the Global Financial Centres Index. It will be the third Chinese city to host the Asian Games, after Beijing 1990 and Guangzhou 2010. Hangzhou also hosted the 11th G20 summit in 2016.


Early history

A ceremonial jade cong of the Liangzhu culture.

The celebrated neolithic culture of Hemudu is known to have inhabited Yuyao, 100 km (62 mi) south-east of Hangzhou, as far back as seven thousand years ago.[8] It was during this time that rice was first cultivated in southeast China.[9] Excavations have established that the jade-carving Liangzhu culture (named for its type site just northwest of Hangzhou) inhabited the area immediately around the present city around five thousand years ago.[10] The first of Hangzhou's present neighborhoods to appear in written records was Yuhang, which probably preserves an old Baiyue name.[11]

Hangzhou was made the seat of the prefecture of Hang in , entitling it to a city wall which was constructed two years later. By a longstanding convention also seen in other cities like Guangzhou and Fuzhou, the city took on the name of the area it administered and became known as Hangzhou. Hangzhou was at the southern end of China's Grand Canal which extends to Beijing. The canal evolved over centuries but reached its full length by 609.[12]

Tang dynasty

In the Tang dynasty, Bai Juyi was appointed governor of Hangzhou.[13] Already an accomplished poet, his deeds at Hangzhou have led to his being praised as a great governor. He noticed that the farmland nearby depended on the water of West Lake, but due to the negligence of previous governors, the old dyke had collapsed, and the lake so dried out that the local farmers were suffering from severe drought. He ordered the construction of a stronger and taller dyke, with a dam to control the flow of water, thus providing water for irrigation and mitigating the drought problem. The livelihood of local people of Hangzhou improved over the following years. Bai Juyi used his leisure time to enjoy the West Lake, visiting it almost daily. He then had willows and other trees planted along the dyke, making it a beautiful landmark.

It is listed as one of the Seven Ancient Capitals of China. It was first the capital of the Wuyue Kingdom from 907 to 978 during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Named Xifu () at the time,[14] it was one of the three great bastions of culture in southern China during the tenth century, along with Nanjing and Chengdu.[15] Leaders of Wuyue were noted patrons of the arts, particularly of Buddhist temple architecture and artwork. The dyke built to protect the city by KingQian Liu gave the Qiantang its modern name.[16] Hangzhou also became a cosmopolitan center, drawing scholars from throughout China and conducting diplomacy with neighboring Chinese states, and also with Japan, Goryeo, and the Khitan Liao dynasty.

Song dynasty

In 1089, while another renowned poet Su Shi (Su Dongpo) was the city's governor, he used 200,000 workers to construct a 2.8 km (1.7 mi) long causeway across West Lake. The lake was once a lagoon tens of thousands of years ago. Silt then blocked the way to the sea and the lake was formed. A drill in the lake-bed in 1975 found the sediment of the sea, which confirmed its origin. Artificial preservation prevented the lake from evolving into a marshland. The Su Causeway built by Su Shi a Tang dynasty poet who was once the governor of Hangzhou, built out of mud dredged from the lake bottom. The lake is surrounded by hills on the northern and western sides. The Baochu Pagoda sits on the Baoshi Hill to the north of the lake.

Arab merchants lived in Hangzhou during the Song dynasty, due to the fact that the oceangoing trade passages took precedence over land trade during this time.[17] There were also Arabic inscriptions from the 13th century and 14th century. During the later period of the Yuan dynasty, Muslims were persecuted through the banning of their traditions, and they participated in revolts against the Mongols.[18] The Fenghuangshi mosque was constructed by an Egyptian trader who moved to Hangzhou.[19] According to Odoric of Pordenone, Hangzhou was the greatest city in the world. It was heavily populated and filled with large family estates. It had twelve thousand bridges. Bread, pork, rice, and wine were abundant despite the large population.[20]

Hangzhou was chosen as the new capital of the Southern Song dynasty in 1132,[21] when most of northern China had been conquered by the Jurchens in the Jin-Song wars.[22] The surviving imperial family had retreated south from its original capital in Kaifeng after it was captured by the Jurchens in the Jingkang Incident of 1127.[23][24] Emperor Gaozong moved to Nanjing, then to modern Shangqiu, then to Yangzhou in 1128, and finally to Hangzhou in 1129.[23] The Song government intended it to be a temporary capital, but over the decades Hangzhou grew into a major commercial and cultural center of the Song dynasty, rising from being a middling city of no special importance to being one of the world's largest and most prosperous.[25] Once the prospect of retaking northern China had diminished, government buildings in Hangzhou were extended and renovated to better befit its status as a permanent imperial capital. The imperial palace in Hangzhou, modest in size, was expanded in 1133 with new roofed alleyways, and in 1148 with an extension of the palace walls.[26] The city walls were built with tamped earth and stone and was 30 feet high and 10 feet thick at its base. There were 13 gates and several towers on the walls. The walls covered the city by four miles north to south and only one mile east to west.[27]

From 1138 until the Mongol invasion of 1276, Hangzhou remained the capital of the Southern Song dynasty and was known as Lin'an (). It served as the seat of the imperial government, a center of trade and entertainment, and the nexus of the main branches of the civil service. During that time the city was a gravitational center of Chinese civilization: what used to be considered "central China" in the north was taken by the Jin, an ethnic minority dynasty ruled by Jurchens.

Numerous philosophers, politicians, and men of literature, including some of the most celebrated poets in Chinese history such as Su Shi, Lu You, and Xin Qiji came here to live and die. Hangzhou is also the birthplace and final resting place of the scientist Shen Kuo (1031-1095 AD), his tomb being located in the Yuhang district.[28]

During the Southern Song dynasty, commercial expansion, an influx of refugees from the conquered north, and the growth of the official and military establishments, led to a corresponding population increase and the city developed well outside its 9th-century ramparts. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, Hangzhou had a population of over 2 million at that time, while historian Jacques Gernet has estimated that the population of Hangzhou numbered well over one million by 1276. (Official Chinese census figures from the year 1270 listed some 186,330 families in residence and probably failed to count non-residents and soldiers.) It is believed that Hangzhou was the largest city in the world from 1180 to 1315 and from 1348 to 1358.[29][30]

Because of the large population and densely crowded (often multi-story) wooden buildings, Hangzhou was particularly vulnerable to fires. Major conflagrations destroyed large sections of the city in 1208, 1229, 1237, and 1275. The 1237 fire alone destroyed 30,000 dwellings. However, the worst was the 1208 fire which burned for 4 days in a 3-mile diameter and burnt 58,097 houses as well as killing 59 people. To combat this threat, the city constructed storage buildings that were rented out to merchants where watchmen patrolled by night and was enclosed by water on all sides.[27] Besides this, the government established an elaborate system for fighting fires, erected watchtowers, devised a system of lantern and flag signals to identify the source of the flames and direct the response, and charged more than 3,000 soldiers with the task of putting out fire.

Yuan dynasty

Hangzhou was besieged and captured by the advancing Mongol armies of Kublai Khan in 1276, three years before the final collapse of the Southern Song.[31] Historian Patricia Buckley Ebrey noted that the Mongol Yuan dynasty treated the Jurchen Wanyan royal family harshly, butchering them by the hundreds as well as the Tangut emperor of Western Xia when they defeated him earlier. However Patricia also noted the Mongols were totally lenient on the Han Chinese Zhao royal family of the Southern Song explicitly unlike the Jurchens during the Jingkang incident, sparing both the Southern Song royals in the capital Hangzhou like the Emperor Gong of Song and his mother as well as sparing the civilians inside it and not sacking the city, allowing them to go about their normal business, rehiring Southern Song officials. The Mongols did not take the southern Song palace women for themselves but instead had Han Chinese artisans in Shangdu marry the palace women.[32] The capital of the new Yuan dynasty was established in the city of Dadu (Beijing), but Hangzhou remained an important commercial and administrative center for their southern territory.

Foreign descriptions

Yuan China was very open to foreign visitors, and several returned west describing Hangzhou--under the names Khinzai,[33] Campsay,[34] etc.[note 1]--as one of the foremost cities in the world. The Venetian merchant Marco Polo supposedly visited Hangzhou in the late 13th century. In his book, he records that the city was "greater than any in the world"[25] and that "the number and wealth of the merchants, and the amount of goods that passed through their hands, was so enormous that no man could form a just estimate thereof." The manuscripts of Polo's account greatly exaggerate the city's size, although it has been argued that the "hundred miles" of walls would be plausible if Chinese miles were intended instead of Italian ones[37] and that the "12,000 stone bridges" might have been a copyist error born from the city's 12 gates.[38] In the 14th century, the Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta arrived; his later account concurred that al-Khans? was "the biggest city I have ever seen on the face of the earth."[39][40][41] He visited Hangzhou in 1345 and noted its charm and described how the city sat on a beautiful lake and was surrounded by gentle green hills.[42] He was particularly impressed by the large number of well-crafted and well-painted Chinese wooden ships with colored sails and silk awnings in the canals. He attended a banquet held by Qurtai, the Yuan Mongol administrator of the city, who according to Ibn Battuta, was fond of the skills of local Chinese conjurers.[43]

Modern history

Hangzhou CBD

The city remained an important port until the middle of the Ming dynasty era, when its harbor slowly silted up. Under the Qing, it was the site of an imperial army garrison.[44]

In 1856 and 1860, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom occupied Hangzhou. The city was heavily damaged during its conquest, occupation, and eventual reconquest by the Qing army.

Hangzhou was ruled by the Republic of China government under the Kuomintang from 1927 to 1937. From 1937 to 1945, the city was occupied by Japan. The Kuomintang returned in 1945, and governed until 1949. On May 3, 1949, the People's Liberation Army entered Hangzhou and the city came under Chinese Communist Party (CCP) control. After Deng Xiaoping's reformist policies began in the end of 1978, Hangzhou took advantage of being situated in the Yangtze Delta to bolster its development. It is now one of China's most prosperous major cities.

During the Cultural Revolution, Hangzhou was stage to a series of labor unrest and factional fighting known as the Hangzhou incident.

In September 2015, Hangzhou was awarded the 2022 Asian Games. It will be the third city in China to host the Asian Games after Beijing 1990 and Guangzhou 2010.[45] It also hosted the eleventh G20 summit in 2016.[46]

In February 2020, the city was under curfew measures due to the outbreak of coronavirus beginning in Wuhan that spread across China.[47][48]


A satellite image of the Yangtze River Delta. The Yangtze's natural sediment discharge can be seen.

Hangzhou is located in northwestern Zhejiang province, at the southern end of the Grand Canal of China, which runs to Beijing, in the south-central portion of the Yangtze River Delta. Its administrative area (sub-provincial city) extends west to the mountainous parts of Anhui province, and east to the coastal plain near Hangzhou Bay. The city center is built around the eastern and northern sides of the West Lake, just north of the Qiantang River.


Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)

Hangzhou's climate is humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa) with four distinctive seasons, characterised by long, very hot, humid summers and chilly, cloudy and drier winters (with occasional snow). The mean annual temperature is 17.0 °C (62.6 °F), with monthly daily averages ranging from 4.6 °C (40.3 °F) in January to 28.9 °C (84.0 °F) in July. The city receives an average annual rainfall of 1,438 mm (56.6 in) and is affected by the plum rains of the Asian monsoon in June. In late summer (August to September), Hangzhou suffers typhoon storms, but typhoons seldom strike it directly. Generally they make landfall along the southern coast of Zhejiang, and affect the area with strong winds and stormy rains.[49] Extremes since 1951 have ranged from -9.6 °C (15 °F) on 6 February 1969 up to 41.6 °C (107 °F) on 9 August 2013;[50] unofficial readings have reached -10.5 °C (13 °F), set on 29 December 1912 and 24 January 1916, up to 42.1 °C (108 °F), set on 10 August 1930.[51] With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 30% in March to 51% in August, the city receives 1,709.4 hours of sunshine annually.

Climate data for Hangzhou (1981-2010 normals, extremes 1951-present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.4
Mean maximum °C (°F) 17.4
Average high °C (°F) 8.3
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.6
Average low °C (°F) 1.8
Mean minimum °C (°F) -3.9
Record low °C (°F) -8.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 79.8
Average precipitation days 12.4 12.1 15.3 14.5 13.8 14.6 12.4 13.8 11.7 9.0 9.3 8.5 147.4
Average relative humidity (%) 75 75 75 74 74 80 76 78 79 76 74 72 76
Mean monthly sunshine hours 102.0 97.2 116.4 140.6 164.7 136.6 212.7 193.0 143.9 144.6 129.0 128.7 1,709.4
Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days and sunshine 1971-2000)[52][53]


A mansion in Nanshan Road, Hangzhou

Hangzhou is a city in China and had a population of 5,162,039 (including Xiaoshan and Yuhang) at the 2010 census, an increase of 4.8% per year since the 2000 census.[54] The most recent estimates of the city's urban area population are between 6,658,000 and 6,820,000.[55][56]

During the 2010 Chinese census, the metropolitan area held 21.102 million people over an area of 34,585 km2 (13,353 sq mi).[4] Hangzhou prefecture had a registered population of 9,018,000 in 2015.[57] The entire province had a population of 8,700,373,[58] and the encompassing urban agglomeration (including Shaoxing) is estimated to have population of 8,450,000.[59]

The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as of 2010, a population of 13.4 million,[60] although other sources put the figure at over 21 million. The Hangzhou metropolitan area includes the major cities of Shaoxing, Jiaxing and Huzhou.[4][61]



Danghui.svg National Emblem of the People's Republic of China (2).svg National Emblem of the People's Republic of China (2).svg Charter of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) logo.svg
Title Party Committee Secretary HMPC Chairperson Mayor Hangzhou CPPCC Chairman
Name Liu Jie Liu Huolin Liu Xin Ma Weiguang
Ancestral home Danyang, Jiangsu Taizhou, Zhejiang Xi'an, Shaanxi Shaoxing, Zhejiang
Born January 1970 (age 52) November 1961 (age 60) January 1965 (age 57) October 1962 (age 59)
Assumed office December 2021 February 2021 April 2020 January 2022

Administrative divisions

Hangzhou is classified as a sub-provincial city[62] and forms the core of the Hangzhou metropolitan area,[4] the fourth-largest in China.[63] It is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China.[64] Hangzhou comprises 10 districts, 1 county-level city, and 2 counties. The ten urban districts occupy 8,292.31 km2 (3,201.68 sq mi) and have a population of 8,241,000, in which there are six central urban districts and four suburban districts. The central urban districts occupy 706.27 km2 (272.69 sq mi) and have a population of 3,780,000 and the suburban districts occupy 7,586.04 km2 (2,928.99 sq mi) and have a population of 4,461,000.

In the early 90s, the urban districts of Hangzhou only comprises Shangcheng, Xiacheng, Gongshu, Jianggan.

On December 11, 1996, Binjiang District was established. On March 12, 2001, Xiaoshan and Yuhang, formerly two county-level cities under the administration of Hangzhou prefecture-level city, were re-organized as two districts. On December 13, 2014, and in July 2017, Fuyang and Lin'an, formerly two county-level cities under the administration of Hangzhou prefecture-level city, were re-organized as two districts. On April 9, 2021, Linping District and Qiantang District was established.[65][66]

Subdivision Chinese Pinyin Population (2020) Area (km2) Density
Central Urban Districts
Shangcheng District Shàngchéng Q? 1,323,467 119.68 13,238.68
Gongshu District G?ngshù Q? 1,120,985 98.58 8,288.81
Xihu District X?hú Q? 1,112,992 309.41 2,876.44
Binjiang District B?nji?ng Q? 503,859 72.22 5,427.86
Suburban Districts
Xiaoshan District Xi?osh?n Q? 2,011,659 1000.64 1,212.42
Yuhang District Yúháng Q? 1,226,673 942.38 1,304.94
Linping District Línpíng Q? 1,175,841 286.03 17,933.86
Qiantang District Qiántáng Q? 769,150 523.57 5,930.00
Fuyang District Fùyáng Q? 832,017 1,821.03 407.46
Lin'an District Lín'?n Q? 634,555 3,118.77 190.14
Tonglu County Tónglú Xiàn 453,106 1,829.59 236.12
Chun'an County Chún'?n Xiàn 328,957 4,417.48 81.04
County-level City
Jiande City Jiàndé Shì 442,709 2,314.19 192.72


Zhejiang Stock Exchange in the Qianjiang Central Business District
Alibaba Group Headquarters

Hangzhou's economy has rapidly developed since its opening up in 1992. It is an industrial city with many diverse sectors such as light industry, agriculture, and textiles. It is considered an important manufacturing base and logistics hub for coastal China.[67]Additionally, the city is an e-commerce and technology hub.[68] The 2001 GDP of Hangzhou was RMB 156.8 billion, which ranked second among all of the provincial capitals after Guangzhou. The city has more than tripled its GDP since then, increasing from RMB 156.8 billion in 2001 to RMB 1.3509 trillion in 2018 and GDP per capita increasing from US$3,020 to $21,184.[67][69]

A study conducted by PwC and China Development Research Foundation saw Hangzhou ranked first among "Chinese Cities of Opportunity".[70] Hangzhou is also considered a World City with a "Beta+" classification according to GaWC.[71] Hangzhou ranked 89 in the Global Financial Centres Index in 2018.[72] Hangzhou ranks 11th in the world and 6th in China (after Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Guangzhou) in terms of the number of billionaires according to the Hurun Global Rich List 2020.[73]


Hangzhou is the headquarters of several technology companies including Alibaba Group, Ant Group, NetEase and HikVision. As a result of its internet industry, many programmers from other cities such as Shanghai or Beijing have come to Hangzhou.[74] The city has developed many new industries, including medicine, information technology, heavy equipment, automotive components, household electrical appliances, electronics, telecommunication, fine chemicals, chemical fibre and food processing.[75]

Economic and Technological Development Zones

Hangzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone was established and approved as a national development zone by the State Council in 1993. It covers an area of 104.7 km2 (40.4 sq mi). Encouraged industries include electronic information, biological medicine, machinery and household appliances manufacturing, and food processing.[76] Hangzhou Export Processing Zone was established on April 27, 2000, upon approval of the State Council. It was one of the first zones and the only one in Zhejiang Province to be approved by the government. Its total planned area is 2.92 km2 (1.13 sq mi). It is located close to Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport and Hangzhou Port.[77]

Hangzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was set up with approval from the State Council as a state-level high-tech Industrial Development Zone in March 1991. The HHTZ is composed of three parts, with the main regions being the Zhijiang Sci-Tech Industrial Park and Xiasha Sci-Tech Industrial Park. HHTZ has become one of the most influential high-tech innovation and high-tech industry bases in Zhejiang Province. As of 2013, HHTZ hosts more than 1,100 software developers and BPO enterprises. Major companies such as Motorola, Nokia and Siemens have established R&D centers in the zone. In 2011, the GDP of the zone rose by 13.1 percent, amounting to RMB 41.63 billion. This accounted for 5.9 percent of Hangzhou's total GDP. The HHTZ positions itself as the "Silicon Valley" of China. The Alibaba Group is headquartered in the zone.[78][79]


West Lake at night
Hu Xueyan Residence, a historic mansion in Hangzhou

Hangzhou is known for its historic relics and natural environment. Although Hangzhou has been through many recent urban developments, it still retains its historical and cultural heritage. Today, tourism remains an important factor for Hangzhou's economy.[80] One of Hangzhou's most popular sights is West Lake, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The West Lake Cultural Landscape covers an area of 3,323 ha (8,210 acres) and includes some of Hangzhou's most notable historic and scenic places. Adjacent to the lake is an area which includes historical pagodas, cultural sites, as well as the natural environment of the lake and hills, including Phoenix Mountain. There are two causeways across the lake.[80]

Other places of interest
  • Grand Canal, also a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The part of the Canal in Hangzhou was built in 610 AD. The core historical sites are accessible by Hangzhou Metro Line 5's The Grand Canal station or East Gongchen Bridge station.
  • The world's largest tidal bore races up the Qiantang River through Hangzhou reaching up to 12 m (39 ft) in height.
  • The residence of Hu Xueyan () located on Yuanbao Street was built in 1872 by Hu Xueyan, a native of Anhui, a very successful businessman. It was restored and opened to the public in 2001.
  • Xixi National Wetland Park. Established with the aim of preserving the wetland ecological system, it covers an area of about 10 km2 (4 sq mi). Fish ponds and reed beds have been restored and it is home to many types of birds. It holds a temple and several historic rural houses.
  • Hangzhou Botanical Garden
  • Hangzhou Zoo
  • Old China Street on He Fang Street (He Fang Jie or Qing He Fang, literally 'neighbourhood along the river'), which offers various souvenirs.
  • Jade Springs (Yu Quan)
  • Yuefei Temple A temple constructed during the Song Dynasty in 1221 to commemorate Yue Fei, which is located near the West Lake.
  • West Lake Cultural Square is one of the tallest buildings in the city centre (about 160 m (520 ft)) and houses the Zhejiang Natural History Museum and Zhejiang Museum of Science and Technology.
  • Qiandao Lake is a man-made lake with the largest number of islands in Chun'an County, under administration of the Hangzhou prefecture-level city. These islands are different in size and shape, and have distinctive scene.
  • Longjing tea fields, west of the lake.[81]
  • Qiantang River is the largest river in Zhejiang Province, China. Every year during August 15 to August 18 of the lunar month in China, the Qiantang Tide occurs. It is called "the Biggest Tide in the World"

In March 2013 the Hangzhou Tourism Commission started an online campaign via Facebook, the 'Modern Marco Polo' campaign. Over the next year nearly 26,000 participants applied from around the globe, in the hopes of becoming Hangzhou's first foreign tourism ambassador. In a press conference in Hangzhou on 20 May 2014, Liam Bates was announced as the successful winner and won a $55,000 contract, being the first foreigner ever to be appointed by China's government in such an official role.[82]


Chenghuangmiao located on Wushan, Hangzhou

Scenic places near West Lake

  • Jingci Temple is located just south of West Lake.
  • Lingyin Temple (Soul's Retreat) is located about 2 km (1.2 mi) west of West Lake. This is believed to be the oldest Buddhist temple in the city, which has gone through numerous destruction and reconstruction cycles.
  • Baochu Pagoda is located just north of West Lake on Precious Stone Hill ()
  • Yue-Wang Temple (King Yue's Temple) or Yue Fei Miao is on the northwest shore of West Lake. It was originally constructed in 1221 in memory of General Yue Fei, who died due to political persecution.
  • Leifeng Pagoda, located on Sunset Hill south of West Lake.

Other religious buildings


In 1848, during the Qing dynasty, Hangzhou was described as the "stronghold" of Islam in China, the city containing several mosques with Arabic inscriptions.[84] A Hui from Ningbo also told an Englishman that Hangzhou was the "stronghold" of Islam in Zhejiang province, containing multiple mosques, compared to his small congregation of around 30 families in Ningbo for his mosque.[85] Within the city of Hangzhou are two notable mosques: New Hangzhou Great Mosque and the Phoenix Mosque


As late as the latter part of the 16th and early 17th centuries, the city was an important center of Chinese Jewry, and may have been the original home of the better-known Kaifeng Jewish community.[86]

There was formerly a Jewish synagogue in Ningbo, as well as one in Hangzhou, but no traces of them are now discoverable, and the only Jews known to exist in China were in Kaifeng.[87]


Two of the Three Pillars of Chinese Catholicism were from Hangzhou. There was persecution of Christians in the early 21st century in the city.[88]


Gilt silver H?ky?int? Unearthed from Leifeng Pagoda Site, now in the Zhejiang Provincial Museum

The native residents of Hangzhou, like those of Zhejiang and southern Jiangsu, speak the Hangzhou dialect, which is a Wu dialect. However, Wu Chinese varies throughout the area where it is spoken, hence, Hangzhou's dialect differs from those of regions in southern Zhejiang and southern Jiangsu. As the official language defined by China's central government, Mandarin is the dominant spoken language.

There are several museums located in Hangzhou with regional and national importance. China National Silk Museum (?), located near the West Lake, is one of the first state-level museums in China and the largest silk museum in the world. China National Tea Museum (?) is a national museum with special subjects as tea and its culture. Zhejiang Provincial Museum () features collection of integrated human studies, exhibition and research with its over 100,000 collected cultural relics.

Many theaters in Hangzhou host opera shows. Yue opera, originated from Shengzhou, Zhejiang Province, is the second-largest opera form in China. Also, there are several big shows themed with the history and culture of Hangzhou like Impression West Lake and the Romance of Song Dynasty.

Hangzhou has historically been an important hub for artists and scholars. In modern times, Hangzhou was home to the China Academy of Art and prominent painters such as Lin Fengmian and Fang Ganmin.

Tea is an important part of Hangzhou's economy and culture. Hangzhou is best known for originating Longjing, a notable variety of green tea, the most notable type being Longjing Tea.[89] Known as the best type of Long Jing tea, Xi Hu Long Jing is grown in Longjing village[81] near West Lake in Hangzhou, hence its name.[]

The local government of Hangzhou heavily invests in promoting tourism and the arts, with emphasis placed upon silk production, umbrellas, and Chinese hand-held folding fans.


Xihu Longjing (?), Longjing tea planted near the West Lake

Hangzhou's local cuisine is often considered to be representative of Zhejiang provincial cuisine, which is claimed as one of China's eight fundamental cuisines. The locally accepted consensus among Hangzhou's natives defines dishes prepared in this style to be "fresh, tender, soft, and smooth, with a mellow fragrance."

Generally, Hangzhou's cuisines tend to be sweeter rather than savoury. Owing to the fact that Hangzhou is located near the Yangtze river, where the climate is mild, the local people enjoy a light diet incorporating river fishes. The rich history of the city provides the local people with stories revolving around the origins of local dishes.

Dishes such as Pian Er Chuan Noodles (), West Lake Vinegar Fish (?), Dongpo Pork (), Longjing Shrimp (?), Beggar's Chicken (), Steamed Rice and Pork Wrapped by Lotus Leaves(), Braised Bamboo Shoots (), Lotus Root Pudding () and Sister Song's Fish Soup (?) are some of the better-known examples of Hangzhou's regional cuisine.

The famous and signature[] restaurants in Hangzhou include Xin Feng restaurant (?), Zhi Wei Guan (), Grandma's Home (), Green Tea Restaurant (?), etc. These restaurants create the advanced food and dishes of the traditional Hangzhou cuisine, and combine with the western cooking methods[].

Longjing tea is the most famous green tea and rank first among top ten famous teas in China. Those planted by the West Lake is the best Longjing tea.


Hangzhou trolleybus
Hangzhou BRT Line 4 (Closed)
Shanghai-Hangzhou Railway (Original route to Hangzhou Station)


The Port of Hangzhou is a small river port with a cargo throughput that exceeds 100 million tons annually.[90]


Hangzhou is served by the Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport, which provides direct service to many international destinations such as Thailand, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Vietnam, Singapore, Netherlands,[91] Qatar, Portugal and the United States. Regional routes reach Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau. It has an extensive domestic route network within the PRC and is consistently ranked top 10 in passenger traffic among Chinese airports. Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport has two terminals, Terminal A and Terminal B. The smaller Terminal A serves all international and regional flights while the larger Terminal B solely handles domestic traffic. The airport is located just outside the city in the Xiaoshan District with direct bus service linking the airport with Downtown Hangzhou. The ambitious expansion project will see the addition of a second runway and a third terminal which will dramatically increase capacity of the fast-growing airport that serves as a secondary hub of Air China. A new elevated airport express highway is under construction on top of the existing highway between the airport and downtown Hangzhou. The second phase of Hangzhou Metro Line 1 has a planned extension to the airport.


Hangzhou sits on the intersecting point of some of the busiest rail corridors in China. The city's main station is Hangzhou East station (colloquially "East Station" , official national rail translation: Hangzhoudong Station). It is one of the biggest rail traffic hubs in China, consisting of 15 platforms that house the High Speed services to Shanghai, Nanjing, Changsha, Ningbo, and beyond. The metro station beneath the rail complex building is a stop along the Hangzhou Metro Line 1 and Line 4. There are frequent departures for Shanghai with approximately 20-minute headways from 6:00 to 21:00. Non-stop CRH high-speed service between Hangzhou and Shanghai takes 50 minutes and leaves every hour (excluding a few early morning/late night departures) from both directions. Other CRH high-speed trains that stop at one or more stations along the route complete the trip in 59 to 75 minutes. Most other major cities in China can also be reached by direct train service from Hangzhou. The Hangzhou railway station (colloquially the "City Station" Chinese: ) was closed for renovation in mid 2013 but has recently opened again.

A second high-speed rail channel through Hangzhou is operational along with another major station, Hangzhou West,opened on September 22,2022.[92]

Direct trains link Hangzhou with more than 50 main cities, including 12 daily services to Beijing and more than 100 daily services to Shanghai; they reach as far as Ürümqi. The China Railway High-Speed service inaugurated on October 26, 2010. The service is operated by the CRH 380A(L), CRH 380B(L) and CRH380CL train sets which travel at a maximum speed of 350 km/h (220 mph), shortening the duration of the 202 km (126 mi) trip to only 45 minutes.[93]


Central (to the east of the city centre, taking the place of the former east station), north, south, and west long-distance coach stations offer frequent coach service to nearby cities/towns within Zhejiang province, as well as surrounding provinces.


Hangzhou has an efficient bus network, consisting of a modern fleet of diesel, hybrid and electric buses, as well as trolleybuses. Hangzhou was once known for its extensive bus rapid transit network expanding from downtown to many suburban areas through dedicated bus lanes on some of the busiest streets in the city. However, as of mid-2021, all but one BRT routes and feeding routes had closed or been transformed to regular routes. Only route B1 is still in operation.

Cycle hire

Bicycles and electric scooters are very popular, and major streets have dedicated bike lanes throughout the city. Hangzhou has an extensive public bike rental system, the Hangzhou Public Bicycle system. A dock-and-station system similar to those in Paris and London is adopted and users can hire a bicycle with IC card or mobile phone application. Journeys within 60 minutes are free of charge.


Hangzhou Metro has a network of 323 km as of mid-2021, not including the Hangzhou-Haining Intercity Railway which has a length of 46 km. Major expansion plans continue. It is the 17th city in China to have a rapid rail transit system. In 2018, the State Council approved the planning for 15 metro lines, including extensions to the three existing lines, scheduled to open in time for the 2022 Asian Games.[94] By then the Hangzhou Metro system is projected have a network of 617 km (383 mi) .[95]

The construction of the Metro started in March 2006, and Line 1 opened on November 24, 2012.[96] Line 1 connects city centre with suburbs. It run from Xianghu to Wenze Road with a branch to Lingping, which would later become part of Line 9. By June 2015, the southeast section of Line 2 (starts in Xiaoshan District, ends to the south of the city centre) and a short part of Line 4 (fewer than 10 stations, connecting Line 1 and Line 2) were completed. The system is expected to have 15 lines upon completion; most lines are still under construction. The extensions of Line 2 (city centre and northwest Hangzhou) and Line 4 (east of Binjiang District) opened in 2018. Line 5/6/7/8 opened their first parts in 2019 and 2020


Taxis are also popular in the city, with the newest line of Hyundai Sonatas and Volkswagen Passats, and tight regulations. In early 2011, 30 electric taxis were deployed in Hangzhou; 15 were Zotye Langyues and the other 15 were Haima Freemas. In April, however, one Zoyte Langyue caught fire, and all of the electric taxis were taken off the roads later that day. The city still intends to have a fleet of 200 electric taxis by the end of 2011.[97] In 2014, a large number of new electric taxis produced by Xihu-BYD (Xihu (westlake) is a local company which produced televisions in the past) were deployed.

Education and Research


Hangzhou hosts many universities, most notably the Zhejiang University, which is one of the world's top 100th comprehensive public research universities.[98][99][100] Hangzhou has a large student population with many higher education institutions based in the city. Public universities include Zhejiang University, Zhejiang University of Technology, and Hangzhou Normal University etc. Xiasha, located near the east end of the city, and Xiaoheshan, located near the west end of the city, are college towns with a cluster of several universities and colleges. The universities in Hangzhou include:

Primary and secondary schools

Provincial key Public high schools in Hangzhou include Hangzhou No. 4 High School, Hangzhou No. 14 High School, Hangzhou NO.2 High School, Hangzhou Foreign Language School, High School Attached to Zhejiang University, High School attached to Hangzhou Normal university, Hangzhou No. 1 High School and Hangzhou Xuejun High School.

Private high schools in Hangzhou include Hangzhou Green Town Yuhua School, Hangzhou Chinese International School, Hangzhou International School and Hangzhou Japanese School (?) (nihonjin gakk?).


Hangzhou is a major city for scientific research in China, ranking 23rd globally by the Nature Index as of 2021.[102]

Twin towns - sister cities

Hangzhou is twinned with:

City Division Country Since
Sayama  Saitama Prefecture  Japan 1978
Gifu  Gifu Prefecture  Japan 1979
Weert  Limburg  Netherlands Unknown
Boston  Massachusetts  United States 1982
Baguio N/A[103]  Philippines 1982
Leeds West Yorkshire  United Kingdom 1988
Fukui  Fukui Prefecture  Japan 1989
Nice  Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur  France 1994
Galway County Galway  Ireland 1996
Paramaribo Paramaribo District  Suriname 1988
Budapest N/A[104]  Hungary 1999
Cape Town Western Cape  South Africa 2005
Curitiba  Paraná  Brazil 2007
Dresden  Saxony  Germany 2009
Indianapolis  Indiana  United States 2009
Oulu Northern Ostrobothnia  Finland 2011
Atlanta  Georgia  United States 2012
Hamamatsu  Shizuoka Prefecture  Japan 2012
Lugano  Ticino   Switzerland 2012[105]
Dnipro  Dnipropetrovsk Oblast  Ukraine 2013
El Calafate  Santa Cruz  Argentina 2013
Split Split-Dalmatia County  Croatia 2014
Queenstown  Otago  New Zealand 2015[106]
Maribor City Municipality of Maribor  Slovenia 2017[107]
Heidelberg  Baden-Württemberg  Germany 2018[108]
Kota Kinabalu  Sabah  Malaysia 2019[109][110][111]
Tallinn Harju County  Estonia Unknown
Middlesbrough North Yorkshire  United Kingdom Unknown

Ancient proverbs about Hangzhou

An ancient Chinese proverb about Hangzhou and Suzhou is:

Paradise above, Suzhou and Hangzhou below. (?,?)

This phrase has a similar meaning to the English phrases "Heaven on Earth". Marco Polo in his accounts described Suzhou as "the city of the earth" while Hangzhou is "the city of heaven".[112] The city presented itself as "Paradise on Earth" during the G20 summit held in the city in 2016.[113]

Another saying about Hangzhou is:

Be born in Suzhou, live in Hangzhou, eat in Guangzhou, die in Liuzhou. (?,?,?,?)

The meaning here lies in the fact that Suzhou was renowned for its beautiful and highly civilized and educated citizens, Hangzhou for its scenery, Guangzhou for its food, and Liuzhou (of Guangxi) for its wooden coffins which supposedly halted the decay of the body (likely made from the camphor tree).

Notable residents

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ For a discussion of the many sources and variant spellings of the names, see Moule.[35] The ultimate Chinese source of these names has been variously given as J?ngsh? (, "the Capital"); Xingzai, an abbreviated form of Xíngzàisu? (?, "the Place of Temporary Residence"), which had formerly been a byname for the Song capital from the hope that the court would eventually return north to Kaifeng; and Hangtsei, the Hangzhounese pronunciation of the town's name.[36]



  1. ^ "Liu Xin was elected mayor of Hangzhou Municipal People's Government".
  2. ^ a b "China: Zhèji?ng (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map".
  3. ^ "The city's GDP increased on an annual basis by 8.5%! Hangzhou showed the "transcript" of economic development in 2021" GDP?8.5%! ?2021"". January 22, 2022. Archived from the original on January 26, 2022. Retrieved 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d Economic and Social Development Report of Hangzhou Metropolitan Circles (2007-2012) (in Simplified Chinese). Social Sciences Academic Press(China). October 1, 2012. Archived from the original on May 12, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  5. ^ "Hangzhou". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  6. ^ "Hangzhou". The Britannica Dictionary.
  7. ^ "Hangzhou". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on May 18, 2021.
  8. ^ Yan Wenming. "The Beginning of Farming", p. 36, in The Formation of Chinese Civilization: An Archaeological Perspective, pp. 27-42. Yale University Press (New Haven), 2005. ISBN 978-0-300-09382-7.
  9. ^ Fuller, Dorian; et al. (2009). "The Domestication Process and Domestication Rate in Rice: Spikelet bases from the Lower Yangtze" (PDF). Science. 323 (5921): 1607-1610. Bibcode:2009Sci...323.1607F. doi:10.1126/science.1166605. PMID 19299619. S2CID 21357179. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 22, 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  10. ^ Shanghai Qingpu Museum. "[museum.shqp.gov.cn/gb/content/2009-02/23/content_237435.htm Migration of the Tribe and Integration into the Han Chinese]". Accessed 24 July 2014.
  11. ^ . Shanghai: Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. p. 1516.
  12. ^ Ebrey, Cambridge Illustrated History of China, 114: "[...] the Grand Canal, dug between 605 and 609 by means of enormous levies of conscripted labour."
  13. ^ Waley (1941), 131
  14. ^ Zhou, Feng () (1997). ? (in Simplified Chinese). University of California: ? [Zhejiang People's Press]. p. 32. ISBN 9787213015052. Archived from the original on April 29, 2016. Retrieved 2014.
  15. ^ Worthy 1983, p. 19.
  16. ^ Barmé, Germeie R. (2012), "Glossary: Tides Chao ?", China Heritage Quarterly, vol. No. 29, Australian National University College of Asia & the Pacific, archived from the original on January 13, 2019, retrieved 2019.
  17. ^ Piper Rae Gaubatz (1996). Beyond the Great Wall: urban form and transformation on the Chinese frontiers (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 210. ISBN 0-8047-2399-0. Archived from the original on May 27, 2013. Retrieved 2011.
  18. ^ Greville Stewart Parker Freeman-Grenville, Stuart C. Munro-Hay (2006). Islam: an illustrated history (illustrated, revised ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 228. ISBN 0-8264-1837-6. Archived from the original on May 27, 2013. Retrieved 2011.
  19. ^ Zhongguo guo ji mao yi cu jin wei yuan hui (1991). China's foreign trade. the University of California: China Council for the Promotion of International Trade. p. 98. Archived from the original on April 25, 2016. Retrieved 2011.
  20. ^ Yule 2002, p. 128.
  21. ^ Coblin, Weldon South (2002). "Migration History and Dialect Development in the Lower Yangtze Watershed". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 65 (3): 533. doi:10.1017/s0041977x02000320.
  22. ^ Holcombe, Charles (2011). A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-521-51595-5.
  23. ^ a b Mote, Frederick W. (2003). Imperial China: 900-1800. Harvard University Press. pp. 292-3. ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7.
  24. ^ Franke, Herbert (1994). Denis C. Twitchett; Herbert Franke; John King Fairbank (eds.). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 6, Alien Regimes and Border States, 710-1368. Cambridge University Press. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-521-24331-5.
  25. ^ a b Mote, Frederick W. (2003). Imperial China: 900-1800. Harvard University Press. p. 461. ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7.
  26. ^ Gernet, Jacques (1962). Daily Life in China, on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion, 1250-1276. Stanford University Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-8047-0720-6.
  27. ^ a b Gernet, Jacques (1959). Daily life in China, on the eve of the Mongol invasion, 1250-1276. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. pp. 26, 37. ISBN 9780804707206.
  28. ^ Yuhang Cultural Network (October 2003). Shen Kuo's Tomb Archived May 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine The Yuhang District of Hangzhou Cultural Broadcasting Press and Publications Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-05-06.
  29. ^ "Largest Cities Through History". Geography.about.com. March 2, 2011. Archived from the original on February 18, 2001. Retrieved 2011.
  30. ^ Janet L. Abu-Lughod, Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250-1350, "All the Silks of China" (Oxford University Press US) 1991, p. 337
  31. ^ Gernet, 15.
  32. ^ Ebrey, Patricia Buckley (2016). "9 State-Forced Relocations in China, 900-1300 THE MONGOLS AND THE STATE OF YUAN". In Ebrey, Patricia Buckley; Smith, Paul Jakov (eds.). State Power in China, 900-1325 (illustrated ed.). University of Washington Press. pp. 325, 326. ISBN 978-0295998480. Archived from the original on June 13, 2021.
  33. ^ Wassaf, The Allocation of Cities. (in Persian)
  34. ^ Odoric of Pordenone, Travels. (in Latin)
  35. ^ Moule, Arthur Christopher (1957), Quinsai, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, pp. 2-4, ISBN 9781107621909.
  36. ^ Moule (1957), p. 4.
  37. ^ Dent, J.M. (1908), "Chapter LXVIII: On the Noble and Magnificent City of Kin-Sai", The travels of Marco Polo the Venetian, pp. 290-310, archived from the original on April 2, 2016, retrieved 2016
  38. ^ Childress, Diana (January 2013). Marco Polo's Journey to China. ISBN 9781467703796. Archived from the original on December 16, 2018. Retrieved 2016.
  39. ^ Dunn, Ross E. (2005). The Adventures of Ibn Battuta. University of California Press. p. 260. ISBN 978-0-520-24385-9.
  40. ^ Elliott, Michael (July 21, 2011). "The Enduring Message of Hangzhou". Time.com. Archived from the original on January 17, 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  41. ^ Battutah, Ibn (2002). The Travels of Ibn Battutah. London: Picador. pp. 268, 323. ISBN 9780330418799.
  42. ^ Elliott, Michael (July 21, 2011). "Summer Journey 2011". Archived from the original on January 17, 2012. Retrieved 2011 – via www.time.com.
  43. ^ The Travels of Ibn Battuta Volume 4 pp. 904, 967 (The Hakluyt Society 1994, British Library)
  44. ^ Cassel, Pär (2003), "Excavating Extraterritoriality: The "Judicial Sub-Prefect" as a Prototype for the Mixed Court in Shanghai", Late Imperial China, vol. 24, pp. 156-182.
  45. ^ "Hangzhou of China selected to host 2022 Asian Games". Xinhua. September 16, 2015. Archived from the original on November 25, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  46. ^ "China to host 2016 G20 summit in Hangzhou". PRC Central Government Official Website. 2015. Archived from the original on November 18, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  47. ^ "China locks down Hangzhou, mega-city far from epicentre of coronavirus outbreak". South China Morning Post. February 6, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  48. ^ "More Chinese cities shut down as novel coronavirus death toll rises". CNA. February 5, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  49. ^ Hangzhou Archived August 26, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. China Today. Retrieved August 22, 2006.
  50. ^ "". Archived from the original on March 18, 2013. Retrieved 2015.
  51. ^ "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Archived from the original on August 4, 2014. Retrieved 2013.
  52. ^ ? - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese (China)). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2020.
  53. ^ ?(1971-2000?). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved 2010.
  54. ^ "China: Provinces and Major Cities - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information". www.citypopulation.de. Archived from the original on December 9, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  55. ^ "The World's Cities in 2016" (PDF). United Nations. 2016. p. 11. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 1, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  56. ^ "Demographia World Urban Areas, 13th Annual Edition" (PDF). April 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 26, 2017.
  57. ^ 2015?1%-?. www.zj.stats.gov.cn. Archived from the original on March 31, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  58. ^ "Hángzh?u Shì (Sub-provincial City, China) - Population Statistics, Charts, Map and Location". www.citypopulation.de. Archived from the original on December 9, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  59. ^ "Major Agglomerations of the World - Population Statistics and Maps". www.citypopulation.de. Archived from the original on December 9, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  60. ^ OECD Urban Policy Reviews: China 2015, OECD READ edition. OECD iLibrary. OECD Urban Policy Reviews. OECD. April 18, 2015. p. 37. doi:10.1787/9789264230040-en. ISBN 9789264230033. ISSN 2306-9341. Archived from the original on March 27, 2017. Retrieved 2017. Linked from the OECD here Archived December 9, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
  61. ^ "Hangzhou City Profile 2017" (PDF). Jones Lang LaSalle IP, Inc. 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 9, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  62. ^ ?. [1995]5?. . February 19, 1995. Archived from the original on May 29, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  63. ^ 20127 (in Simplified Chinese). Shanghai Jiaotong University. July 2, 2012. Archived from the original on February 28, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  64. ^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Region". PRC Central Government Official Website. 2001. Archived from the original on March 11, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  65. ^ . "". ?. Retrieved 2021.
  66. ^ "" (PDF).
  67. ^ a b "Industries of Hangzhou". Hzindus.gov.cn. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  68. ^ "China's tech hub Hangzhou sees surge in job-hopping: newspaper". Reuters. March 21, 2019. Retrieved 2022.
  69. ^ GDP-?-. hangzhou.com.cn. Archived from the original on April 11, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  70. ^ "Chinese Cities of Opportunities 2018 Report". PricewaterhouseCoopers. Archived from the original on December 30, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  71. ^ "The World According to GaWC 2020". GaWC - Research Network. Globalization and World Cities. Retrieved 2020.
  72. ^ "The Global Financial Centres Index 28" (PDF). Long Finance. September 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  73. ^ "Shimao Shenkong International Center·Hurun Global Rich List 2020". Hurun Report. February 26, 2020.
  74. ^ -?. hangzhou.zjol.com.cn. Archived from the original on June 5, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  75. ^ "Hangzhou Economy". China-window.com. Archived from the original on January 8, 2009. Retrieved 2011.
  76. ^ Hangzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone|China Industrial Space Archived March 23, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Rightsite.asia. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
  77. ^ Hangzhou Export Processing Zone|China Industrial Space Archived April 17, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Rightsite.asia (2000-04-27). Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
  78. ^ Hangzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone|China Industrial Space Archived March 22, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Rightsite.asia. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
  79. ^ "Hangzhou Development Zones". China Briefing. Archived from the original on May 7, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  80. ^ a b Hangzhou Today: Tourism. China Pages. Retrieved August 22, 2006. Archived March 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  81. ^ a b "the tea fields of Longjing". Minor Sights. Retrieved 2015.
  82. ^ "Modern-Day Marco Polo for Hangzhou, China". NBC NEWS. Archived from the original on December 5, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  83. ^ ?--?. www.fjnet.com. Archived from the original on April 27, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  84. ^ Samuel Wells Williams (1848). The Middle kingdom: a survey of the ... Chinese empire and its inhabitants ... (3 ed.). Wiley & Putnam. p. 98. Archived from the original on April 29, 2016. Retrieved 2011.
  85. ^ The Chinese repository, Volume 13. Printed for the proprietors. 1844. p. 32. Archived from the original on April 28, 2016. Retrieved 2011.
  86. ^ "The Lost Jews of Kaifeng". Jewish-holiday.com. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  87. ^ Walter Macon Lowrie, Presbyterian church in the U.S.A. Board of foreign missions (1854). Memoirs of the Rev. Walter M. Lowrie: missionary to China. Presbyterian board of publication. p. 256. Retrieved 2011. mosque ningpo.
  88. ^ Fan, Maureen (October 1, 2006). "In China, Churches Challenge the Rules". Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 18, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  89. ^ Cummings, Joe and Robert Storey (1991). China, Volume 10. Lonely Planets Publications. p. 345. ISBN 0-86442-123-0.
  90. ^ "Hangzhou Port cargo throughput exceeds 100 mln tons". Hangzhou Weekly. October 26, 2016. Archived from the original on January 1, 2015. Retrieved 2014.
  91. ^ KLM launched its first flight to Hangzhou in China Archived October 9, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Schiphol (2010-05-08). Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
  92. ^ "-". m.news.cn. Retrieved 2022.
  93. ^ xinhuanet (October 26, 2010). "China unveils Shanghai-Hangzhou high-speed railway; eyes network extension". Archived from the original on October 29, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  94. ^ "10 - ? - ". Archived from the original on April 18, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  95. ^ []?2? 22(?). news.sina.com.cn (in Simplified Chinese). Sina News. July 5, 2017. Archived from the original on October 20, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  96. ^ ?:? 124 (in Simplified Chinese). Xinhua Zhejiang. Archived from the original on June 17, 2013. Retrieved 2012.
  97. ^ "Hangzhou Halts All Electric Taxis as a Zotye Langyue (Multipla) EV Catches Fire". ChinaAutoWeb. Archived from the original on June 18, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  98. ^ "Zhejiang University". Top Universities. July 16, 2015. Retrieved 2020.
  99. ^ "Zhejiang University". Times Higher Education (THE). September 18, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  100. ^ "Institution outputs | Nature Index". www.natureindex.com. Retrieved 2020.
  101. ^ "Zhejiang University surpasses Tsinghua as top university of China". China.org.cn. Archived from the original on April 1, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  102. ^ "Nature Index 2021 Science Cities | Supplements | Nature Index". www.natureindex.com. Retrieved 2021.
  103. ^ Baguio City, as a highly urbanized city, is directly administered.
  104. ^ Budapest constitutes its own county.
  105. ^ "Lugano".
  106. ^ "Sister city link gains traction". Otago Daily Times. October 28, 2018. Archived from the original on September 23, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  107. ^ "Prijateljska in partnerska mesta" [Friendly and partner cities]. maribor.si (in Slovenian). Archived from the original on May 12, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  108. ^ "Stadtporträt Hangzhou" [portrait of the city of Hangzhou]. heidelberg.de (in German). Retrieved 2020.
  109. ^ "Kota Kinabalu, Hangzhou to ink MoU to enhance friendship ties". The Borneo Post. November 12, 2016. Archived from the original on March 16, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  110. ^ "Remarks by Consul-General CHEN Peijie At the National Day Reception". Consulate General of the People's Republic of China in Kota Kinabalu. September 23, 2016. Archived from the original on March 16, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  111. ^ "KK-Hangzhou friendship city pact". Daily Express. September 21, 2019. Archived from the original on September 23, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  112. ^ J.M. Dent (1908), "Chapter LXVIII: On the Noble and Magnificent City of Kin-Sai", The travels of Marco Polo the Venetian, p. 289, archived from the original on April 2, 2016, retrieved 2016
  113. ^ Hannah Beech (September 2, 2016). "China's Hanghzou Clears Out Pests--and People--as It Prepares to Host the G20 Summit". Archived from the original on October 17, 2016. Retrieved 2016.


  •  This article incorporates text from The Middle kingdom: a survey of the ... Chinese empire and its inhabitants ..., by Samuel Wells Williams, a publication from 1848, now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The middle kingdom: a survey of the geography, government, education, social life, arts, religion, etc. of the Chinese empire and its inhabitants, Volume 2, by Samuel Wells Williams, John William Orr, a publication from 1848, now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Chinese repository, Volume 13, a publication from 1844, now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Baptist missionary magazine, Volume 29, by American Baptist Missionary Union. Executive Committee, Baptist General Convention. Board of Managers, a publication from 1849, now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from My holidays in China: An account of three houseboat tours, from Shanghai to Hangehow and back via Ningpo; from Shanghai to Le Yang via Soochow and the Tah Hu; and from Kiukiang to Wuhu; with twenty-six illustrations (from photographs), by William R. Kahler, a publication from 1895, now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Reports from the consuls of the United States, Issues 124-127, by United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce, a publication from 1891, now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Memoirs of the Rev. Walter M. Lowrie: missionary to China, by Walter Macon Lowrie, Presbyterian church in the U.S.A. Board of foreign missions, a publication from 1854, now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Darkness in the flowery land: or, Religious notions and popular superstitions in north China, by Michael Simpson Culbertson, a publication from 1857, now in the public domain in the United States.
  • Yule, Henry (2002), The Travels of Friar Odoric
  • Economic profile for Hangzhou at HKTDC

Further reading

External links

Preceded by Capital of China (as Lin'an)
Succeeded by
Dadu (present Beijing)

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes