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A fourth nasal phoneme is postulated for the phones[?, ?] and the nasalization of a preceding vowel [?]. Before velar and palatal stops, there is variation between these; e.g. [m]~[m] ('ask for'), [t?ko]~[t?ko] ('swing').
Stops occurring at first members of clusters followed by consonants other than /?, j, ?/ are unreleased; they are optionally unreleased in final position. The absence of release entails deaspiration of voiceless stops.
Intervocalically and with murmuring of vowels, the voiced aspirated stops /, d?, b?/ have voiced spirantallophones[?, ð, ?]. Spirantization of non-palatal voiceless aspirates has been reported as well, including /p?/ being usually realized as [f] in the standard dialect.
The two voiced retroflex plosives /, ?/ and the retroflex nasal /?/ have flapped allophones [, ?, ]. The plosives /, ?/ are unflapped initially, geminated, and after nasal vowels; and flapped intervocalically, finally, and before or after other consonants. The nasal /?/ is unflapped before retroflex plosives and intervocalically, and in final position varies freely between flapped and unflapped.
The distribution of sibilants varies over dialects and registers.
Some dialects only have [s], others prefer [?], while another system has them non-contrasting, with [?] occurring contiguous to palatal segments. Retroflex [?] still appears in clusters in which it precedes another retroflex: [sp] ('clear').
Some speakers maintain [z] as well for Persian and English borrowings. Persian's /z/'s have by and large been transposed to /d?/ and /d/: /d?ind?i/ ('life') and /t?id/ ('thing'). The same cannot be so easily said for English: /t?iz/ ('cheese').
Lastly, a colloquial register has [s], or both [s] and [?], replaced by voiceless [h]. For educated speakers speaking this register, this replacement does not extend to Sanskrit borrowings.
Biconsonantal initial clusters beginning with stops have /?/, /j/, /?/, and /l/ as second members. In addition to these, in loans from Sanskrit the clusters /?n/ and /k?/ may occur. The occurrence of /?/ as a second member in consonantal clusters is one of Gujarati's conservative features as a modern Indo-Aryan language. For example, languages used in Asokan inscriptions (3rd century BC) display contemporary regional variations, with words found in Gujarat's Girnar inscriptions containing clusters with /?/ as the second member not having /?/ in their occurrence in inscriptions elsewhere. This is maintained even to today, with Gujarati /t?/ corresponding to Hindi/t/ and /tt/.
Initially, s clusters biconsonantally with /?, j, ?, n, m/, and non-palatal voiceless stops.
Triconsonantal initial clusters include /st?, sp?, sm?/ - most of which occur in borrowings.
Geminates were previously treated as long consonants, but they are better analyzed as clusters of two identical segments. Two proofs for this:
The u in geminated ucc?r "pronunciation" sounds more like the one in clusteredudg?r ('utterance') than the one in shorteneduc ('anxiety').
Geminates behave towards (that is, disallow) [?]-deletion like clusters do.
Gemination can serve as intensification. In some adjectives and adverbs, a singular consonant before the agreement vowel can be doubled for intensification. #VC? -> #VCC?.
Stress typically falls on the penultimate syllable of a word, however, if the penultimate vowel in a word with more than two syllables is schwa, stress falls on the preceding syllable.
Schwa-deletion, along with a-reduction and [?]-insertion, is a phonological process at work in the combination of morphemes. It is a common feature among Indo-Aryan languages, referring to the deletion of a stem's final syllable's /?/ before a suffix starting with a vowel.
Polysyllabic stem with /?/ in its final syllable, with a suffix starting with a vowel (verbal declension).
masculine plural, perfective
CVC?C + CV -> CVCCCV
Polysyllabic stem with /?/ in its final syllable, with a suffix starting with a semi-vowel (verbal declension).
masculine singular, imperfective
VC?C + CV -> VC?CCV
Suffix starting with a consonant.
2nd person singular, present
C?C + V -> C?CV
CVCC?C + VC -> CVCC?CVC
1st person plural, future
will wallow, roll
VCoC + VCV -> VCoCVCV
VC?C + V -> VCCV
Polysyllabic stem with /?/ in its final syllable, with a suffix starting with a vowel (adjectival marking).
at (the) time
CVC?C + V -> CVCCV
Sometimes yes -- e as a locative marker.
on (the) day
CVC?C + V -> CVC?CV
Sometimes no -- e as a locative marker.
CVC?C + V -> CVC?CV
Plural o number marker suffix.
CVC?C + V -> CVCCV
Polysyllabic stem with /?/ in its final syllable, with a suffix starting with a vowel (noun marking).
A stem's final syllable's /?/ will reduce to /?/ before a suffix starting with /?/. #?C(C) + ?# -> #eC(C)?#. This can be seen in the derivation of nouns from adjective stems, and in the formation of passive and causative forms of verb stems.
The table below compares declensions of the verbs [k?] ('to do') and [k?] ('to say'). The former follows the regular pattern of the stable root /k/ serving as a point for characteristic suffixations. The latter, on the other hand, is deviant and irregular in this respect.
The [k?] situation can be explained through murmur. If to a formal or historical root of /ke/ these rules are considered then predicted, explained, and made regular is the irregularity that is [k?] (romanized as kahev?).
Thus below are the declensions of [k?]/?/-possessing, murmur-eliciting root /ke/, this time with the application of the murmur rules on the root shown, also to which a preceding rule must be taken into account:
0. A final root vowel gets deleted before a suffix starting with a non-consonant.
However, in the end not all instances of /?/ become murmured and not all murmur comes from instances of /?/.
One other predictable source for murmur is voiced aspirated stops. A clear vowel followed by a voiced aspirated stop can vary with a pair gaining murmur and losing aspiration: #VC? #V?C.