Group 9 Element
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Group 9 Element
Group 9
IUPAC group number 9
Name by element
CAS group number
(US, pattern A-B-A)
part of VIIIB
old IUPAC number
(Europe, pattern A-B)
part of VIII

Period
4
Image: Cobalt, electrolytic made, 99,9%
Cobalt (Co)
27 Transition metal
5
Image: Rhodium, powder, pressed, remelted 99,99%
Rhodium (Rh)
45 Transition metal
6
Image: Pieces of pure iridium
Iridium (Ir)
77 Transition metal
7 Meitnerium (Mt)
109 unknown chemical properties

Legend

primordial element
synthetic element
Atomic number color:
black=solid

Group 9 is a group (column) of chemical elements in the periodic table. Members are cobalt (Co), rhodium (Rh), iridium (Ir) and meitnerium (Mt).[1][page needed] These are all transition metals in the d-block.

Like other groups, the members of this family show patterns in electron configuration, especially in the outermost shells, resulting in trends in chemical behavior; however, rhodium deviates from the pattern.

"Group 9" is the modern standard designation for this group, adopted by the IUPAC in 1990.[1]

In the older group naming systems, this group was combined with group 8 (iron, ruthenium, osmium, and hassium) and group 10 (nickel, palladium, platinum, and darmstadtium) and called group "VIIIB" in the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) "U.S. system", or "VIII" in the old IUPAC (pre-1990) "European system" (and in Mendeleev's original table).

Chemistry

Z Element No. of electrons
per shell
M.P. B.P. Year of
Discovery
Discoverer
27 cobalt 2, 8, 15, 2 1768 K
1495 °C
3200 K
2927 °C
~1735 Georg Brandt
45 rhodium 2, 8, 18, 16, 1 2237 K
1964 °C
3968 K
3695 °C
1803 W. H. Wollaston
77 iridium 2, 8, 18, 32, 15, 2 2719 K
2446 °C
4403 K
4130 °C
1803 S. Tennant
109 meitnerium 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 15, 2[*] -- -- 1982 P. Armbruster and
G. Münzenberg

[*] Predicted.

The first three elements are hard silvery-white metals:

Cobalt is a metallic element that can be used to turn glass a deep blue color.

Rhodium can be used in jewelry as a shiny metal.

Iridium is mainly used as a hardening agent for platinum alloys.

All known isotopes of meitnerium are radioactive with short half-lives. Only minute quantities have been synthesized in laboratories. It has not been isolated in pure form, and its physical and chemical properties have not been determined yet.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Leigh, G. J. Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry: Recommendations 1990. Blackwell Science, 1990. ISBN 0-632-02494-1.

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Group_9_element
 



 



 
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