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Hrodna Montage (2017).jpg
Flag of Grodno
Coat of arms of Grodno
Grodno is located in Belarus
Location of Hrodna in Belarus
Grodno is located in Europe
Grodno (Europe)
Coordinates: 53°40?N 23°50?E / 53.667°N 23.833°E / 53.667; 23.833Coordinates: 53°40?N 23°50?E / 53.667°N 23.833°E / 53.667; 23.833
Country Belarus
RegionGrodno Region
Officially Founded1128 (1127)
 o ChairmanMechislav Goy
 o Total142.11 km2 (54.87 sq mi)
137 m (449 ft)
 o Total373,547[1] Increase
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK)
Postal code
Area code+375-15
License plate4
WebsiteOfficial website

Grodno (Russian: ) or Hrodna[2] (Belarusian: ['?r?dna]), is a city in western Belarus. The city is located at the Nioman river, 300 km (186 mi) from Minsk, about 15 km (9 mi) from the Polish border and 30 km (19 mi) away from Lithuania. In 2019 the city had 373,547 inhabitants. Hrodna is the capital of Hrodna Region and Hrodna District.

Alternative names

In Belarusian Classical Orthography (Tara?kievica) the city is named as (Horadnia). In Latin it was also known as Grodna (-ae), in Polish as Grodno, in Lithuanian as Gardinas, in Latvian as Grod?a, in German as Garten, and in Yiddish as ? (Grodne).


Historical affiliations

Grand Duchy of Lithuania 1391-1569
part of GDL in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1569-1795
Russian Empire 1795-1917
Belarusian Democratic Republic 1918-1919
Republic of Poland 1919-1939
 Soviet Union 1939-1941
 Nazi Germany 1941-1944
 Soviet Union 1944-1991
/ Belarus 1991-present

The modern city of Hrodna originated as a small fortress and a fortified trading outpost maintained by the Rurikid princes on the border with the lands of the Baltic tribal union of the Yotvingians. The first reference to Hrodna dates to 1005.[3]

The official foundation year is 1127. In this year Hrodna was mentioned in the Primary Chronicle as Goroden and located at a crossing of numerous trading routes, this Lithuanian settlement,[4]

Along with Navahrudak, Hrodna was regarded as the main city on the western borderlands of Black Ruthenia[neologism?]. The border region neighboured the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It was often attacked by various invaders, especially the Teutonic Knights. In the 1240-1250s the Hrodna area, as well as the most of Black Ruthenia[neologism?], was controlled by princes of Lithuanian origin (Mindaugas and others) to form the Baltic state--Grand Duchy of Lithuania--on these territories, which since 1385 formed part of the Polish-Lithuanian union. After the Prussian uprisings a large population of Old Prussians sought refuge in the region. The famous Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas was the prince of Hrodna from 1376 to 1392, and he stayed there during his preparations for the Battle of Grunwald (1410). Since 1413, Hrodna had been the administrative center of a powiat in Trakai Voivodeship.[]

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

A 16th-century view of Hrodna

To aid the reconstruction of trade and commerce, the grand dukes allowed the creation of a Jewish commune in 1389. It was one of the first Jewish communities in the grand duchy. In 1441 the city received its charter, based on the Magdeburg Law.[]

As an important centre of trade, commerce, and culture, Hrodna was a notable royal city and was also one of the royal residences and political centers of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Old and New Castles were often visited by the Commonwealth monarchs including famous Stephen Báthory of Poland who made a royal residence there. Kings Casimir IV Jagiellon and Stephen Báthory died there. Hrodna was one of the places where the Sejms of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth were held, incl. the last Sejm in the history of the Commonwealth in 1793.

The New Castle in Hrodna used to be a summer residence of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth monarchs

The city was the site of two battles, Battle of Hrodna (1706) and Battle of Hrodna (1708) during the Great Northern War.[]

After the Second Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and a subsequent administrative reform of the remainder of the Commonwealth, Hrodna became the capital of the short-lived Grodno Voivodeship in 1793.[]

In 1795, Russia annexed the city in the Third Partition of Poland. It was in the New Castle on 25 November that year that the last Polish king and Lithuanian grand duke Stanis?aw August Poniatowski abdicated. In the Russian Empire, the city continued to serve its role as a seat of Grodno Governorate since 1801. The industrial activities started in the late 18th century by Antoni Tyzenhaus, continued to develop.[]

Count Aleksander Bisping was arrested and imprisoned here during the January Uprising (1863-1864) before his exile to Ufa.[5]

Like many other cities in Eastern Europe, Hrodna had a significant Jewish population before the Holocaust: according to Russian census of 1897, out of the total population of 46,900, Jews constituted 22,700 (around 48%, or almost half of the total population).[6]

World War I and interwar Poland

Ambulance carriage on narrow gauge railway, 1916

After the outbreak of World War I, Hrodna was occupied by Germany (3 September 1915) and ceded by Bolshevist Russia under the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918. After the war the German government permitted a short-lived state to be set up there, the first one with a Belarusian name--the Belarusian People's Republic. This declared its independence from Russia in March 1918 in Minsk (known at that time as Mensk), but then the BNR's Rada (Council) had to leave Minsk and fled to Hrodna. All this time the military authority in the city remained in German hands.[]

After the outbreak of the Polish-Bolshevik War, the German commanders of the Ober Ost feared that the city might fall to Soviet Russia, so on 27 April 1919 they passed authority to Poland, which just regained independence several months earlier. The city was taken over by the Polish Army the following day and Polish administration was established in the city. The city was lost to the Red Army on 20 July 1920 in what became known as the First Battle of Hrodna.[7] The city was also claimed by Lithuanian government, after it was agreed by the Soviet-Lithuanian Treaty of 1920 signed on 12 July 1920 in Moscow that the city would be transferred to Lithuania. However, Soviet defeat in the Battle of Warsaw made these plans obsolete, and Lithuanian authority was never established in the city. Instead, the Red Army organised its last stand in the city and the Battle of Neman took place there. On 23 September the Polish Army recaptured the city. After the Peace Treaty of Riga, Hrodna remained in Poland.[]

View of Hrodna in 1935

Initially, prosperity was reduced due to the fact that the city remained only the capital of a powiat, while the capital of the voivodeship was moved to Bia?ystok. However, in the late 1920s the city became one of the biggest Polish Army garrisons. This brought the local economy back on track. Also, the city was a notable centre of Jewish culture, with roughly 37% of the city's population being Jewish,[] while Poles constituted 60% of the inhabitants of Hrodna.

World War II

During the Polish Defensive War of September to October 1939 the garrison of Hrodna was mostly used for the formation of numerous military units fighting against the invading Wehrmacht. In the course of the Soviet invasion of Poland (initiated on 17 September 1939) heavy fighting took place in the city between Soviet and improvised Polish forces, composed mostly of march battalions and volunteers.[8] In the course of the Battle of Hrodna (20-22 September) the Red Army lost some hundred men (according to Polish sources; according to Soviet sources - 57 killed and 159 wounded) and also 19 tanks and 4 APCs destroyed or damaged. The Polish side suffered at least 100 killed in action, military and civil, but losses still remain uncertain in detail (Soviet sources claim 644 killed and 1543 captives with many guns and machine guns etc. captured). Over 300 captured Polish defenders of the city, including Polish Army officers and youth, were massacred afterwards by the Soviets.[9] After the Soviet forces surrounded the engaged Polish units, the escaping Polish units withdrew to Lithuania.[]

In accordance with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, the city was occupied by the Soviet Union and annexed into the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Several thousand of the city's Polish inhabitants were deported to remote areas of the Soviet Union. On 23 June 1941 the city came under German occupation that lasted until 16 July 1944. It was administered as part of the Bialystok District. Surviving inmates of the Hrodna prison were released and the scale of the NKVD prisoner massacres revealed.[10] In the course of the Operation Barbarossa in World War II, the majority of Jews were herded by the Nazis into the Hrodna Ghetto and subsequently killed in extermination camps.[11] The Germans also operated a Nazi prison in the city.[12]

New (2018) manhole cover with the name of the city of Grodno in Chinese, ?, City Center, Saviecka Street

Since 1945, the city has been a centre of one of the provinces of the Byelorussian SSR, now of the independent Republic of Belarus. Most of the Polish inhabitants were expelled or fled to Poland in 1944-1946 and 1955-1959. However nowadays Poles are still the second-most numerous nationality in the city (25%), after Belarusians (60%).[]

Jewish community

Jews began to settle in Hrodna in the 14th century after the approval given to them by the Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas.[13] During the next years, their status had changed several times and in 1495 the Jews were deported from the city and banned from settling in Hrodna (the ban was lifted in 1503). In 1560 there were 60 Jewish families in Hrodna. They were concentrated on the "Jewish street" with their own synagogue and "hospital". In the year 1578 the great synagogue of Hrodna was built by rabbi Mordehai Yaffe (Baal ha-Levush). The synagogue was severely damaged in a fire in 1599.[]

The community was not affected by the Khmelnytsky uprising but suffered during the 1655 Cossack uprising and during the war with Sweden (1703-1708). After Hrodna was annexed by the Russian empire in 1795 the Jewish population continued to grow and in 1907 there were 25,000 Jews out of a total population of 47,000.[]

In the period of independent Poland, a yeshiva had operated in the city (Shaar ha-Tora) under the management of Rabbi Shimon Shkop. Before the Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland there were about 25,000 Jews in Hrodna out of 50,000 total population.[14] During the German occupation of the town, on 1 November 1942 the Jews were concentrated in 2 ghettos. 15,000 men were confined to the old part of the city where the main synagogue was located. A high wall of 2 meters was built around the ghetto. The second ghetto was located in the Slovodka part of the city with 10,000 inhabitants. The head of the Judenrat was appointed Dr. Braur (or Brawer), the school's headmaster, who served in this duty until his execution in February 1943 during a roundup for a deportation to Treblinka.[15]

On 2 November 1942 the deportations to the death camps began and during 5 days in February 1943, 10,000 Jews were sent to Auschwitz. Later, on 13 February, 5,000 Jews were sent to Treblinka. During the deportations, many synagogues were looted and some people were murdered. The last Jews were deported in March 1943. By the end of the war, only one Jew had remained in the ghetto. However, a few hundred survived in the camps or in hiding in the area. Perhaps as many as 2000 survived, including those who fled or were deported to the USSR.[16]

After the war, the Jewish community was revived. Most of the Jews emigrated after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Today there are several hundred Jews in the city with most of the community's activity centralized in the main synagogue that had been returned to the community by the authorities in the 1990s.[13] The head of the community is Rabbi Yitzhak Kaufman.[]

A memorial plaque, commemorating the 25,000 Jews who were exterminated in the two ghettos in the city of Hrodna was placed on a building in Zamkavaja vulica, where the entrance to the ghetto once was.[17]


The following rivers flow through the city: the Nioman River, the Lasosna River[18] and the Haradni?anka River with its branch the Yurysdyka River.


The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Dfb" (Warm Summer Continental Climate).[19]

Climate data for Grodno
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.8
Average high °C (°F) -1.1
Daily mean °C (°F) -3.5
Average low °C (°F) -5.8
Record low °C (°F) -33.7
Average precipitation mm (inches) 34
Average rainy days 10 7 10 12 15 15 15 13 14 14 13 11 149
Average snowy days 16 17 11 3 0.1 0 0 0 0.03 1 8 15 71
Average relative humidity (%) 87 85 80 72 71 74 74 74 81 85 89 89 80
Mean monthly sunshine hours 39 59 140 177 235 261 262 240 174 94 38 29 1,748
Percent possible sunshine 16 22 38 42 48 52 51 52 46 29 15 13 39
Source 1:[20]
Source 2: Belarus Department of Hydrometeorology (sun data from 1948-1949 and 1951-1984)[21]

Modern city

Lenin Square

The city has one of the largest concentrations of Roman Catholics in Belarus. It is also a centre of Polish culture, with a significant number of Poles living in Belarus residing in the city and its surroundings.

The Eastern Orthodox population is also widely present. The city's Catholic and Orthodox churches are important architectural treasures.

Fountain in Central Park

The city houses the Hrodna State Medical University where many students from different parts of Belarus acquire academic degrees, as do a number of foreign students. Other higher educational establishments are Yanka Kupala State University of Hrodna (the largest education centre in Hrodna Province) and Hrodna State Agrarian University. To support the Polish community, a Polish school was built in 1995, where all subjects are taught in Polish and students are able to pass exams to get accepted into Polish universities.


The town was planned to be dominated by the Old Hrodna Castle, first built in stone by Grand Duke Vytautas and thoroughly rebuilt in the Renaissance style by Scotto from Parma at the behest of Stefan Batory, who made the castle his principal residence. Batory died at this palace seven years later (December 1586) and originally was interred in Hrodna. (His autopsy there was the first to take place in Eastern Europe.) After his death, the castle was altered on numerous occasions, although a 17th-century stone arch bridge linking it with the city still survives. The Wettin monarchs of Poland were dissatisfied with the old residence and commissioned Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann to design the New Hrodna Castle, whose once sumptuous Baroque interiors were destroyed during World War II.


The oldest extant structure in Hrodna is the Kalozha Church of Sts. Boris and Gleb (Belarusian: ). It is the only surviving monument of ancient Black Ruthenian architecture, distinguished from other Orthodox churches by prolific use of polychrome faceted stones of blue, green or red tint which could be arranged to form crosses or other figures on the wall.[22]

The church was built before 1183 and survived intact until 1853, when the south wall collapsed, due to its perilous location on the high bank of the Neman. During restoration works, some fragments of 12th-century frescos were discovered in the apses. Remains of four other churches in the same style, decorated with pitchers and coloured stones instead of frescos, were discovered in Hrodna and Va?kavysk. They all date back to the turn of the 13th century, as do remains of the first stone palace in the Old Castle.


Baroque landmarks of Grodno
Jesuit Cathedral (1678-1705)
Bridgettine convent (1642)

The Cathedral of St. Francis Xavier stands on Batory Square (now: Soviet Square). The cathedral was a Jesuit church until 1773. This specimen of high Baroque architecture, exceeding 50 metres in height, was started in 1678. Due to wars that rocked Poland-Lithuania at that time, the cathedral was consecrated only 27 years later, in the presence of Peter the Great and Augustus the Strong. Its late Baroque frescoes were executed in 1752.

The extensive grounds of the Bernardine monastery (1602-18), renovated in 1680 and 1738, display all the styles flourishing in the 17th century, from Gothic to Baroque. The interior is considered a masterpiece of so-called Vilnius Baroque. Other monastic establishments include the old Franciscan cloister (1635), Basilian convent (1720-51, by Giuseppe Fontana III), the church of the Bridgettine cloister (1642, one of the earliest Baroque buildings in the region) with the wooden two-storey dormitory (1630s) still standing on the grounds, and the 18th-century buildings of the Dominican monastery (its cathedral was demolished in 1874).

Other sights in Hrodna include the Orthodox cathedral, a polychrome Russian Revival extravaganza from 1904; the botanical garden, the first in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, founded in 1774; a curiously curved building on the central square (1780s); a 254-metre-high TV tower (1984); and Stanis?awów, a summer residence of the last Polish king.


A trolleybus on route 1 in 2016

The city is served by Hrodna Airport located 18 km south-east of Hrodna.[23] Some seasonal international and charter flights are available throughout the year.

The city's public transport includes trolleybuses, which began operating in Hrodna on 5 November 1974.[24] The trolleybus system is operated by the city, and in 2009 it had 12 routes and carried around 66.5 million passengers per year.[25] Additional routes have been opened subsequently, including routes 21 and 22 in November 2019.[26]


The main sport venues of the city are: Neman Stadium official CSC Nyoman[27] (8800 seats), based teams: FC Neman Hrodna, FHC Ritm (Hrodna); Hrodna Ice Sports Palace[28] (2539 seats), based teams: HC Neman Hrodna,[29] HC Nyoman-2 (Hrodna);[30] Hrodna Indoor ice rink in Pyshki; Sport complex "Viktoryya", based teams: basketball club Hrodna-93, women basketball club Alimpiya, handball club Kronan, women handball club Haradnichanka


Hrodna State University named after Yanka Kupala, Hrodna State Medical University, Hrodna State Agrarian UniversityHrodna State Agrarian University - The information website for foreign students, Hrodna Higher Theological Seminary ? , many colleges, 41 middleschools (or secondary schools).


Hrodna Regional Drama Theatre

In 21 club municipal office more than 220 collectives, circles and also studios of amateur performances work. In them about 6500 children and adults are engaged.[31] From 83 on-stage performance groups the rank "national" is carried 39, "exemplary" -- 43, "professional" -- 1.[31]

Since 1996 the biggest in Belarus Festival of National Cultures is hold in Hrodna Every two years the Festival of National Cultures invites many guests into the city.[32]

Various festivals, national holidays and ceremonies are held annually in Hrodna, among them "Student's spring", an international celebration of piano music or the republican festival of theatrical youth.[31]

In 2001 the Hrodna regional executive committee founded Alexander Dubko's award -- the governor of Grodnenshchina -- for the best creative achievements in the sphere of culture.[33] 84 persons have been awarded this prize.[34]

Visa-free entrance to Hrodna

From 26 October 2016 residents of 77 countries can travel to Hrodna and the Hrodna District without a visa and stay there for up to 10 days.[35][36][37]

Notable people

Born in the town
Active in Hrodna
Died in Hrodna

International relations

Twin towns - sister cities

Hrodna is twinned with:[40]

Former twin towns:

In March 2022, the Polish cities of Augustów, Bia?ystok and S?upsk terminated their partnership with Hrodna as a consequence of Belarus's involvement in the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.

Significant depictions in popular culture

See also


  1. ^ " ?. ? ? ? 1 ? ? ? 1996 2019./Population of Grodno and rayons of the Grodno region" (in Russian). 1 January 2019.
  2. ^ official transliteration
  3. ^ ? 1964 . The Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1965, pg. 271. The name derives from the Old East Slavic verb gorodit, i.e., to enclose, to fence (see "grad" for details) or Lithuanian 'gardas', i.e., "a fence"(see Lithuanian language dictionary for details), both from an old Indo-European word.
  4. ^ "Gardinas". Visuotin? lietuvi? enciklopedija (in Lithuanian).
  5. ^ Anderson, F.L.M., 1864, Seven Months' Residence in Russian Poland in 1863, London: Macmillan and Co.
  6. ^ Joshua D. Zimmerman, Poles, Jews, and the Politics of Nationality, Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2004, ISBN 0-299-19464-7, Google Print, p.16
  7. ^ Witold ?awrynowicz (April 1, 2002). "The Defense of Grodno. July 17 - 20, 1920". Tanks E-Magazine. (5). Archived from the original on August 11, 2014. Retrieved .
  8. ^ The Fate of Poles in the USSR 1939-1989, by Tomasz Piesakowski ISBN 0-901342-24-6 Page 36
  9. ^ Agresja sowiecka na Polsk? i okupacja wschodnich terenów Rzeczypospolitej 1939-1941 (in Polish). Bia?ystok-Warszawa: IPN. 2019. p. 9. ISBN 978-83-8098-706-7.
  10. ^ Institute of National Remembrance, Lato 1941 - polski dramat (Summer of 1941 - the Polish drama).[permanent dead link] Special Issue, 22 June 2011. PDF file, 1.63 MB.
  11. ^ Felix Zandman, J. Szwarc and A. May, eds. (2016). "Liquidation of the Ghettos and the Deportations to the Camps (November 2, 1942 - March 12, 1942)". The German Occupation - 4. Lost Jewish Worlds.
  12. ^ "Gefängnis Hrodna". (in German). Retrieved 2022.
  13. ^ a b 2005.
  14. ^ The Holocaust in Grodno.
  15. ^ Megargee, Geoffrey (2012). Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos. Bloomington, Indiana: University of Indiana Press. p. Volume 2, page 892. ISBN 978-0-253-35599-7.
  16. ^ Megargee, Geoffrey (2012). Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos. Bloomington, Indiana: University of Indiana Press. p. 893. ISBN 978-0-253-35599-7.
  17. ^ " ? ? ". . Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 2013.
  18. ^ "NUKAT | Prosto do informacji - katalog zbiorów polskich bibliotek naukowych". Retrieved 2020.
  19. ^ "Grodno, Belarus Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 2020.
  20. ^ "Weather and Climate- The Climate of Grodno" (in Russian). Weather and Climate ( ? ). Retrieved 2015.
  21. ^ " . II 2.1. ? (? ?) ? . " (in Russian). Department of Hydrometeorology. Archived from the original on 26 April 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  22. ^ Roberts, Nigel (May 2015). Belarus (3 ed.). Bucks, England: Bradt Travel Guides. p. 220. ISBN 9781841629667. Retrieved 2017.
  23. ^ "Grodno Branch of BELAERONAVIGATSIA Republican Unitary Air Navigation Services Enterprise". BELAERONAVIGATSIA Republican Unitary Air Navigation Services Enterprise. Retrieved 2019.
  24. ^ Murray, Alan (2000). World Trolleybus Encyclopaedia. Yateley, Hampshire, UK: Trolleybooks. p. 74. ISBN 0-904235-18-1.
  25. ^ Thrun, Volker (November-December 2010). "The Trolleybuses of Grodno". Trolleybus Magazine. Vol. 46, no. 294. UK: National Trolleybus Association. pp. 122-130. ISSN 0266-7452. OCLC 62554332.
  26. ^ "Trolleynews [regular news section]". Trolleybus Magazine. Vol. 56, no. 349. UK: National Trolleybus Association. January-February 2020. p. 26. ISSN 0266-7452.
  27. ^ "? /About CSC Neman" (in Russian). CSC Neman.
  28. ^ "? ? /About Hrodna Ice Sports Palace" (in Russian). HC Nyoman (Hrodna).
  29. ^ "? /About HC Nyoman Hrodna" (in Russian). HC Nyoman (Hrodna).
  30. ^ " ? -2/Roster of HC Nyoman-2 Hrodna" (in Russian). HC Nyoman (Hrodna).
  31. ^ a b c " ? ". ?. Archived from the original on 2014-05-02. Retrieved .
  32. ^ " ?". Retrieved 2020.
  33. ^ ? 2008, p. 96.
  34. ^ ? 2008, p. 97.
  35. ^ "Grodno visa-free in Belarus". How to come to Grodno, the Awgustow Channel and Grodno District
  36. ^ "Visiting Belarus without visas". Thirty-day visa-free travel to Belarus and ten-day visa-free regime to visit two tourist zones of Belarus
  37. ^ "Visa-free travel". Visa-free travel (general information)
  38. ^ "DZIANIS IVASHYN journalist". Retrieved 2022.
  39. ^ ?esnulis, Vytautas (27 September 2014). "Kun. F. Nevieros k?rybinio palikimo papildymas" (PDF). Voruta (in Lithuanian). 13 (803).
  40. ^ " ". (in Russian). Grodno. Retrieved .
  41. ^ "Augustów zerwa? wspó?prac? z bia?oruskimi miastami" (in Polish). Retrieved 2022.
  42. ^ "Wojna na Ukrainie. Bia?ystok zrywa wspó?prac? z miastami partnerskimi w Rosji i Bia?orusi" (in Polish). Retrieved 2022.
  43. ^ "S?upsk zrywa z miastami partnerskimi z Rosji i Bia?orusi" (in Polish). Retrieved 2022.
  44. ^ "Lithuania (M2TW-K-TC faction)". Retrieved 2019.

Further reading

Published in the 18th-19th centuries
  • William Coxe (1784). "Grodno". Travels into Poland, Russia, Sweden and Denmark. London: Printed by J. Nichols, for T. Cadell. OCLC 654136. OL 23349695M.
  • "Grodno". Hand-book for Travellers in Russia, Poland, and Finland (2nd ed.). London: John Murray. 1868.
Published in the 20th century

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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