Glagolitic Alphabet
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Glagolitic Alphabet
Glagolitic
Glagolitic script.svg
Samples of text from "Kiev Missal" and "Reims Gospel"
Script type
CreatorSaints Cyril and Methodius
Time period
862 / 863 to the Middle Ages
Directionleft-to-right 
LanguagesOld Church Slavonic (round variant), Croatian (angular variant)
Related scripts
Parent systems
ISO 15924
ISO 15924Glag, 225 , ​Glagolitic
Unicode
Unicode alias
Glagolitic
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.
A page from the Zograf Codex with text of the Gospel of Luke

The Glagolitic script (,[1] , glagolitsa) is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. It is generally agreed to have been created in the 9th century by Saint Cyril, a monk from Thessaloniki. He and his brother, Saint Methodius, were sent by the Byzantine Emperor Michael III in 863 to Great Moravia to spread Christianity among the West Slavs in the area. The brothers decided to translate liturgical books into the contemporary Slavic language understandable to the general population (now known as Old Church Slavonic). As the words of that language could not be easily written by using either the Greek or Latin alphabets, Cyril decided to invent a new script, Glagolitic, which he based on the local dialect of the Slavic tribes from the Byzantine theme of Thessalonica.

After the deaths of Cyril and Methodius, the Glagolitic alphabet ceased to be used in Moravia for political or religious needs. In 885, Pope Stephen V (VI) issued a bull to restrict spreading and reading Christian services in languages other than Latin or Greek. On the other side, Svatopluk I followed the interests of the Frankish Empire and prosecuted the students of Cyril and Methodius. In 886, Kliment (also known as Clement of Ohrid), Naum, Gorazd, Angelarii and Sava arrived in the First Bulgarian Empire where they were warmly accepted by the Tsar Boris I of Bulgaria. Both Glagolitic and Cyrillic alphabet were used until 13th-14th century in Bulgaria. The Cyrillic alphabet (which borrowed some letters from the Glagolitic alphabet) was developed at the Preslav Literary School in the late 9th century. The Glagolitic alphabet was preserved only by the clergy of Croatia and Dalmatia to write Church Slavonic until the early 19th century. Glagolitic also spread in Bohemia with traces in Panonia, Moravia and Russia.

Name and etymology

The word glagolitic comes into English from the New Latin glagoliticus and Croatian glagoljica from the Old Church Slavonic ? (glagol?), meaning "utterance" or "word."[1] The name was not created until centuries after the script's creation. It has been speculated that the name glagolitsa developed in Croatia around the 14th century and was derived from the word glagoljati, meaning to deliver mass in Old Church Slavonic liturgy.[2][3]

In the languages spoken now where Glagolitic was once used, the script is known as (romanized as glagolitsa and glagolica, respectively) in Bulgarian and Macedonian; glagoljica in Croatian; hlaholice in Czech; g?agolica in Polish; hlaholika in Slovak; and glagolica in Slovene.

History

Origins

The Ba?ka tablet, found in the 19th century on Krk, conventionally dated to about 1100.[4]
The first page of the Gospel of Mark from the 10th-11th century Codex Zographensis, found in the Zograf Monastery in 1843.
The first page of the Gospel of John from the Codex Zographensis.
In a book printed in 1591, Angelo Rocca attributed the Glagolitic script to Saint Jerome.
Glagolitic script in the Zagreb Cathedral
The last Glagolitic entry in the baptismal register of the Omi?alj parish on the island of Krk by the parishioner Nicholas in 1817.

The creation of the characters is popularly attributed to Saints Cyril and Methodius, who may have created them to facilitate the introduction of Christianity.[5][6][7][8][9] It is believed that the original letters were fitted to Slavic dialects in geographical Macedonia specifically.[6][10]

The number of letters in the original Glagolitic alphabet is not known, but it may have been close to its presumed Greek model. The 41 letters known today include letters for non-Greek sounds, which may have been added by Saint Cyril, as well as ligatures added in the 12th century under the influence of Cyrillic, as Glagolitic lost its dominance.[10] In later centuries, the number of letters dropped dramatically, to fewer than 30 in modern Croatian and Czech recensions of the Church Slavic language. Twenty-four of the 41 original Glagolitic letters (see table below) probably derive from graphemes of the medieval cursive Greek small alphabet but have been given an ornamental design.

The source of the other consonantal letters is unknown. If they were added by Cyril, it is likely that they were taken from an alphabet used for Christian scripture. It is frequently proposed that the letters sha ?, tsi ?, and cherv ? were taken from the letters shin ? and tsadi ? of the Hebrew alphabet, and that ? zhivete derives from Coptic janja ?.[10][] However, Cubberley[10] suggests that if a single prototype were presumed, the most likely source would be Armenian. Other proposals include the Samaritan alphabet, which Cyril learned during his journey to the Khazars in Cherson.

For writing numbers, the Glagolitic numerals uses letters with a numerical value assigned to each based on their native alphabetic order. This differs from Cyrillic numerals, which inherited their numeric value from the corresponding Greek letter (see Greek numerals).[11]

The two brothers from Thessaloniki, who were later canonized as Saints Cyril and Methodius, were sent to Great Moravia in 862 by the Byzantine emperor at the request of Prince Rastislav, who wanted to weaken the dependence of his country on East Frankish priests. The Glagolitic alphabet, however it originated, was used between 863 and 885 for government and religious documents and books and at the Great Moravian Academy (Ve?komoravské u?ili?te) founded by the missionaries, where their followers were educated. The Kiev Missal, found in the 19th century in Jerusalem, was dated to the 10th century.

In 886 an East Frankish bishop of Nitra named Wiching banned the script and jailed 200 followers of Methodius, mostly students of the original academy. They were then dispersed or, according to some sources, sold as slaves by the Franks. However many of them, including Saints Naum, Clement, Angelar, Sava and Gorazd, reached Bulgaria and were commissioned by Boris I of Bulgaria to teach and instruct the future clergy of the state in the Slavic language. After the adoption of Christianity in Bulgaria in 865, religious ceremonies and Divine Liturgy were conducted in Greek by clergy sent from the Byzantine Empire, using the Byzantine rite. Fearing growing Byzantine influence and weakening of the state, Boris viewed the introduction of the Slavic alphabet and language into church use as a way to preserve the independence of the Bulgarian Empire from Byzantine Constantinople. As a result of Boris' measures, two academies, one in Ohrid and one in Preslav, were founded.

Spread

From there, the students travelled to other places and spread the use of their alphabet. Students of the two apostles who were expelled from Great Moravia in 886, notably Clement of Ohrid and Saint Naum, brought the Glagolitic alphabet to the First Bulgarian Empire on Balkans and were received and accepted officially by Boris I of Bulgaria. This led to the establishment of the two literary schools: the Preslav Literary School and the Ohrid Literary School.[12][13][14] Some went to Croatia (Dalmatia), where the squared variant arose and where Glagolitic remained in use for a long time. In 1248, Pope Innocent IV granted the Croatians of southern Dalmatia the unique privilege of using their own language and this script in the Roman Rite liturgy.[15] Formally granted to bishop Philip of Senj,[16] permission to use the Glagolitic liturgy (the Roman Rite conducted in the Slavic language instead of Latin, not the Byzantine rite), actually extended to all Croatian lands, mostly along the Adriatic coast. The Holy See had several Glagolitic missals published in Rome. Authorization for the use of this language was extended to some other Slavic regions between 1886 and 1935.[17] In missals, the Glagolitic script was eventually replaced with the Latin alphabet, but the use of the Slavic language in the Mass continued, until replaced by modern vernacular languages.

At the end of the 9th century, one of these students of Methodius – Naum, who had settled in Preslav, Bulgaria – is often credited, at least by supporters of glagolitic precedence, for the "creation" or wider adoption of the Cyrillic script,[18] which almost entirely replaced Glagolitic during the Middle Ages. The Cyrillic alphabet is derived from the Greek alphabet used at that time, with some additional letters for sounds peculiar to Slavic languages (like , , , , , ), likely derived from the Glagolitic alphabet. The decision by a great assembly of notables summoned by Boris in the year 893 in favor of Cyrillic created an alphabetical difference between the two literary centres of the Bulgarian state in Pliska and Ohrid. In the western part the Glagolitic alphabet remained dominant at first. However, subsequently in the next two centuries, mostly after the fall of the First Bulgarian Empire to the Byzantines, Glagolitic gradually ceased to be used there at all.[19] Nevertheless, particular passages or words written with the Glagolitic alphabet appeared in Bulgarian Cyrillic manuscripts till the end of the 14th century.[20] Some students of the Ohrid academy went to Bohemia where the alphabet was used in the 10th and 11th centuries, along with other scripts. It is not clear whether the Glagolitic alphabet was used in the Duchy of Kopnik before the Wendish Crusade, but it was certainly used in Kievan Rus'.

In Croatia, from the 12th century, Glagolitic inscriptions appeared mostly in littoral areas: Istria, Primorje, Kvarner, and Kvarner islands, notably Krk, Cres, and Lo?inj; in Dalmatia, on the islands of Zadar, but there were also findings in inner Lika and Krbava, reaching to Kupa river, and even as far as Me?imurje and Slovenia. The Hrvoje's Missal (Croatian: Hrvojev misal) from 1404 was written in Split, and it is considered one of the most beautiful Croatian Glagolitic books. The 1483 Missale Romanum Glagolitice was the first printed Croatian Glagolitic book.

It was believed that Glagolitsa in Croatia was present only in those areas. But, in 1992, the discovery of Glagolitic inscriptions in churches along the Orljava river in Slavonia totally changed the picture (churches in Brodski Drenovac, Lov?i?, and some others), showing that use of the Glagolitic alphabet was spread from Slavonia also.[21]

Sporadic instances aside, Glagolitic survived beyond the 12th century as a primary script in Croatia alone, although from there a brief attempt at reintroduction was made in the West Slavic area in the 14th century. The centre of influence appears to have been in the Kvarner Gulf, though the nature and extent of this influence remain subjects of debate. The early development of the Glagolitic minuscule script alongside the increasingly square majuscule is poorly documented, but before the advent of printing, a mutual relationship evolved between the two varieties; the majuscule being used primarily for inscriptions and higher liturgical uses, and the minuscule being applied to both religious and secular documents. Ignoring the problematic early Slavonian inscriptions, the use of the Glagolitic script at its peak before the Croatian-Ottoman wars corresponded roughly to the area that spoke the Chakavian dialect at the time, in addition to, to varying extents, the adjacent Kajkavian regions within the Zagreb bishopric. As a result, vernacular impact on the liturgical language and script largely stems from Chakavian sub-dialects.[]

Decline

The first major threat to Croatian Glagolitic since it attained stability was from the Ottoman excursions, though the extent of cultural damage varied locally depending on the course of war. In the 17th century, though, the first successful direct attack on the script since the 12th century was headed by the Bishop of Zagreb, and after the Magnate conspiracy left the script without secular protectors, its use was limited to the littoral region. In the meantime, printing gradually overtook handwriting for liturgical manuscripts, resulting in a decline of the majuscule script, which was absorbed for titular and sometimes initial use within for minuscule documents. It was not until the late 18th century and the onset of modernity that Glagolitic received significant further threats, and through western influence, especially secular, Glagolitic culture collapsed, so that by the mid 19th century, the script was purely liturgical, relying mostly on printed materials. By the time of the devastating Italianization movements under Fascist Italy in the early 20th century, numerous independent events had already greatly reduced the area of the liturgical use of Glagolitic.[22]

Versions of authorship and name

The tradition that the alphabet was designed by Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius has not been universally accepted. A once common belief was that the Glagolitic was created or used in the 4th century by St. Jerome (Latin: Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus), hence the alphabet is sometimes named Hieronymian.

It is also acrophonically called azbuka from the names of its first two letters, on the same model as "alpha" + "beta" (the same name can also refer to Cyrillic and in some modern languages it simply means "alphabet" in general). The Slavs of Great Moravia (present-day Slovakia and Moravia), Hungary, Slovenia and Slavonia were called Slov?ne at that time, which gives rise to the name Slovenish for the alphabet. Some other, rarer, names for this alphabet are Bukvitsa (from common Slavic word "bukva" meaning "letter", and a suffix "-itsa") and Illyrian.

Hieronymian version

In the Middle Ages, Glagolitsa was also known as "St. Jerome's script" due to a popular mediaeval legend (created by Croatian scribes in the 13th century) ascribing its invention to St. Jerome (342-429). The legend was partly based on the saint's place of birth on the border of Dalmatia and Pannonia. He was viewed as a "compatriot" and anachronistically as belonging to the same ethnic group; this helped the spread of the cult of the saint in Dalmatia and was later used to support the idea of the presence of Slavic communities in the Eastern Adriatic Coast from ancient times, but the legend was probably firstly introduced for other reasons, like giving a more solid religious justification for the use of this script and Slavic liturgy.[23] The theory nevertheless gained much popularity and spread to other countries before being resolutely[clarification needed] disproven.

Until the end of the 18th century, a strange but widespread opinion dominated that the Glagolitic writing system, which was in use in Dalmatia and Istria along with neighboring islands, including the translation of the Holy Scripture, owe their existence to the famous church father St. Jerome. Knowing him as the author of the Latin Vulgate, considering him - by his own words, born on the border between Dalmatia and Pannonia (remembering that the Dalmatian borders extended well into Istria at that time) - presumed to be an Illyrian, the self-styled Slavic intellectuals in Dalmatia very early began to ascribe to him the invention of glagolitsa, possibly with the intention of more successfully defending both Slavic writing and the Slavic holy service against prosecutions and prohibitions from Rome's hierarchy, thus using the opinion of the famous Latin Father of the Church to protect their church rituals which were inherited not from the Greeks Cyril and Methodius but unknown. We do not know who was the first to put in motion this unscientifically-based tradition about Jerome's authorship of the Glagolitic script and translation of the Holy Scripture, but in 1248 this version came to the knowledge of Pope Innocent IV. <...> The belief in Jerome as an inventor of the Glagolitic lasted many centuries, not only in his homeland, i.e. in Dalmatia and Croatia, not only in Rome, due to Slavs living there... but also in the West. In the 14th century, Croatian monks brought the legend to the Czechs, and even the Emperor Charles IV believed them.[24]

-- Jagi?, Vatroslav, Glagolitica. Würdigung neuentdeckter Fragmente, Wien, 1890

The epoch of traditional attribution of the script to Jerome ended probably in 1812.[25] In modern times, only certain marginal authors share this view, usually "re-discovering" one of the already-known mediaeval sources.[26]

Pre-Glagolitic Slavic writing systems

A hypothetical pre-Glagolitic writing system is typically referred to as cherty i rezy (strokes and incisions)[27] – but no material evidence of the existence of any pre-Glagolitic Slavic writing system has been found, except for a few brief and vague references in old chronicles and "lives of the saints". All artifacts presented as evidence of pre-Glagolitic Slavic inscriptions have later been identified as texts in known scripts and in known non-Slavic languages, or as fakes.[28] The well-known Chernorizets Hrabar's strokes and incisions are usually considered to be a reference to a kind of property mark or alternatively fortune-telling signs. Some "Ruthenian letters" found in one version of St. Cyril's life are explainable as misspelled "Syrian letters" (in Slavic, the roots are very similar: rus- vs. sur- or syr-), etc.

Characteristics

The Lord's Prayer shown in (from left) round, angular, and cursive versions of Glagolitic script.

The phonetical values of many of the letters are thought to have been displaced under Cyrillic influence or to have become confused through the early spread to different dialects, so the original values are not always clear. For instance, the letter yu ? is thought to have perhaps originally had the sound /u/ but was displaced by the adoption of the ligature ? under the influence of later Cyrillic o?, mirroring the Greek . Other letters were late creations after a Cyrillic model. It should also be noted that ? corresponds to two different Cyrillic letters (? and ?), present even in older manuscripts, and not to different later variants of the same Cyrillic letter in different times or places.

The following table lists each letter in its modern order, showing its Unicode representation, images of the letter in both the round and angular/squared variant forms, the corresponding modern Cyrillic letter, the approximate sound transcribed with the IPA, the name, and suggestions for its origin. The Old Church Slavonic names follow the scientific transliteration, while the mostly similar Church Slavonic ones follow an approach more familiar to a generic English speaking reader. Several letters have no modern counterpart. The column for the angular variant, sometimes referred to as Croatian Glagolitic, isn't complete and some of the letters weren't used following the Croatian recension of Old Church Slavonic.

Unicode Round Angular Cyrillic Sound OCS name CS name Meaning Origin
? Azu Azu ? /?/ Az? Az I Phoenician alphabet aleph ?‎ or the sign of the cross[29]
? Bouky Bouky ? /b/ Buky Buky letters Unknown,[29] possibly Hebrew bet [30] or Aramaic b?t ?[31]
? Vede Vede ? /?/ V?d? Vedi to know Possibly Latin V[29] or an inverted dobro ?[32]
? Glagolu Glagolu ?, ? /?/ Glagoli Glagoli to do/to speak Possibly cursive Greek gamma [29]
? Dobro Dobro ? /d/ Dobro Dobro kindness/good Greek delta ?[29]
? Jestu Jestu ?, ?, ?, ? /?/ Jest? Yest is/exists Possibly Samaritan ?y ?‎ or Greek sampi ?[29]
? Zhivete Zhivete ? /?/ ?iv?te Zhivete life/live Unknown,[29] possibly Coptic janja ?[] or astrological symbol for Pisces ?︎
? Dzelo Dzelo ? /d?z/ Dz?lo Zelo very Unknown,[29] possibly Armenian ja ?[33]
? Zemlja Zemlja ? /z/ Zemlja Zeml(j)a Earth/ground/soil Possibly a variant of Greek theta ?[29]
?, ? Izhe ?, ? /i/, /j/ I?e Izhe which is/the Possibly Greek upsilon Y[34] or Greek iota with dieresis ?[29]
? I I ? /i/, /j/ I/i?ei I/izhey and Possibly mimicking the shape of a fish[34]
? Gjerv Gjerv ?, ?, ? /d/ Djerv?, ?erv? Cherv, Djerv tree/wood Unknown[29]
? ? /k/ Kako Kako how/as Hebrew qoph ?‎‎[29]
? Ljudie , Ljudie Ljudie ?, ? /l/, /?/ Ljudie Lyudi people Possibly Greek lambda ?[29]
? Myslite Myslite ? /m/ Myslite Mislete thought/think Greek mu ?.[29] In squared glagolitic it was eventually replaced by a Latin/Cyrillic like form, partly due to its complexity[35]
? Na ,Nashi Nashi ?, ? /n/, /?/ Na Nash ours Unknown[29]
? Onu Onu ? /?/ On? On he Unknown[29]
? Pokoi Pokoi ? /p/ Pokoj Pokoy calmness/peace Possibly a variant of early Greek pi Greek Pi archaic.svg[29]
? Rici Rici ? /r/ R?ci Rtsi Speak!/ Pronounce! Possibly Greek rho ?[29]
? Slovo Slovo ? /s/ Slovo Slovo word/speech
? Tvrido Tvrido ? /t/ Tvr?do Tverdo solid/hard/surely Perhaps from crossbar of Greek tau ?[29]
? Uku Uku ? /u/ Uk? Uk Knowledgeable/ Enlightened Ligature of on? ? and izhitsa ?[29]
? Fritu Fritu ? /f/ Fr?t? Fert Variant of Greek phi ?[29]
? Heru Heru ? /x/ X?r? Kher Unknown, similar to glagoli ? and Latin h[29]
? Out Out ? /?/ Ot? Oht, Omega From Ligature of on? ? and its mirror image[29]
? Shta Shta ? /t?/, /t/ ?ta/a Shta/Shcha Ligature of sha ? over tvr?do ?[29]
? Ci Ci ? /t?s/ Ci Tsi Final form of Hebrew tsade ?[29]
? Chrivi Chrivi ?, ? /t/ ?r?v? Cherv worm Unknown, similar to shta ?;[29] perhaps non-final form of Hebrew tsade ?
? Sha Sha ? /?/ ?a Sha silence/quiet Hebrew shin ?‎‎[29]
? Jeru ? /?/ Jer? Yer, Yor Possibly modification of on? ?[29]
Jery ? /?/ Jery Yer? Ligature; digraph of either yer (?) or yer? (?), followed by either izhe (?, ?) or i (?).[29]
? Jeri ? /?/ Jer? Yer` Possibly modification of on? ?[29]
? Jati Jati ?, ? /æ/, /j?/ Jat? Yat, Ya Possibly epigraphic Greek alpha ?[29]
? Glagolitic capital letter Yo.svg ? /jo/ Unknown:[29] Hypothetical component of jons? ? below; /jo/ was not possible at the time
? Jou ? /ju/ Ju Yu Unknown[29]
? Ensu (small jousu) ? // [Ens?] [Small yus] Greek epsilon ?, also used to denote nasality[29]
? Jensu (small jousu) ? /j/ [Jens?] [Small iotated yus] Ligature of jest? ? and ens? ? for nasality[29]
? Onsu (big jousu) ? // [Ons?] [Big yus] Ligature of on? ? and ens? ? for nasality[29]
? Jonsu (big jousu) ? /j/ [Jons?] [Big iotated yus] Ligature of unknown letter and ens? ? for nasality[29]
? Thita ? /?/ [Thita] Fita Theta* Greek theta ?[29]
? Yzhica ? /?/, /i/ I?ica Izhitsa

In older texts, uk (?) and three out of four yuses (?, ?, ?) also can be written as digraphs, in two separate parts.

The order of izhe (?, ?) and i (?) varies from source to source, as does the order of the various forms of yus (?, ?, ?, ?).[36] Correspondence between Glagolitic izhe (?, ?) and i (?) with Cyrillic ? and ? is unknown.

The Proto-Slavic language did not have the phoneme /f/, and the letters fert (?) and fita (?) were used for transcribing words of Greek origin, and so was izhitsa (?) for the Greek upsilon.

Unicode

The Glagolitic alphabet was added to the Unicode Standard in March 2005 with the release of version 4.1.

The Unicode block for Glagolitic is U+2C00–U+2C5F.

Glagolitic[1]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+2C0x ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
U+2C1x ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
U+2C2x ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
U+2C3x ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
U+2C4x ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
U+2C5x ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 14.0

The Glagolitic combining letters for Glagolitic Supplement block (U+1E000-U+1E02F) was added to the Unicode Standard in June, 2016 with the release of version 9.0:

Glagolitic Supplement[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1E00x 𞀀 𞀁 𞀂 𞀃 𞀄 𞀅 𞀆 𞀈 𞀉 𞀊 𞀋 𞀌 𞀍 𞀎 𞀏
U+1E01x 𞀐 𞀑 𞀒 𞀓 𞀔 𞀕 𞀖 𞀗 𞀘 𞀛 𞀜 𞀝 𞀞 𞀟
U+1E02x 𞀠 𞀡 𞀣 𞀤 𞀦 𞀧 𞀨 𞀩 𞀪
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 14.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

In popular culture

Glagolitic script is the writing system used in the world of The Witcher books and video game series.[37] It is also featured, in various uses, in several of the point and click adventure games made by Cateia Games, a Croatian game studio.[38]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "glagolitic". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House. Retrieved 2021.
  2. ^ Corbett, Greville G.; Comrie, Bernard (2003). The Slavonic Languages. Milton Park, England: Routledge. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-136-86137-6.
  3. ^ "Hrvatski jezi?ni portal" [Croatian language portal]. Retrieved 2021.
  4. ^ Fu?i?, Branko (21 September 1971). "Najstariji glagoljski natpisi" [Oldest Glagolitic Inscriptions]. Slovo (in Croatian). 21: 227-254.
  5. ^ Alan Timberlake, A Reference Grammar of Russian, Cambridge University Press, 2004, p. 14
  6. ^ a b Florin Curta & Paul Stephenson, Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500-1250, Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 125
  7. ^ Simon Franklin, Writing, Society and Culture in Early Rus, c. 950-1300, Cambridge University Press, 2002, p. 93: "East Christian Slays used two alphabets, Glagolitic and Cyrillic. Just to confuse matters, the script devised by Cyril was probably Glagolitic, while Cyrillic--which came to predominate, emerged somewhat later."
  8. ^ Henri-Jean Martin, The History and Power of Writing, University of Chicago Press, 1995, p. 40
  9. ^ Jean W. Sedlar,East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500, University of Washington Press, 1994, p. 144
  10. ^ a b c d Paul Cubberley (1996) "The Slavic Alphabets". In Daniels, Peter T.; Bright, William, eds. (1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press, Inc. pp. 347. ISBN 978-0195079937.
  11. ^ Chrisomalis, Stephen (2010). Numerical Notation: A Comparative History. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 178-182. ISBN 978-1-139-48533-3. Retrieved .
  12. ^ Price, Glanville (2000-05-18). Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe. ISBN 9780631220398.
  13. ^ Parry, Ken (2010-05-10). The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity. ISBN 9781444333619.
  14. ^ Rosenqvist, Jan Olof (2004). Interaction and Isolation in Late Byzantine Culture. ISBN 9781850439448.
  15. ^ "Crkva u Hrvatskoj" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 November 2020.
  16. ^ Kraft Soi?, Vanda (2016). "OTPIS INOCENTA IV. SENJSKOM BISKUPU (1248.) POD PATRONATOM SV. JERONIMA I. Senjski privilegij iz godine 1248". Croatica Christiana periodica. 40 (77): 1-23. Retrieved 2021.
  17. ^ "The right to use the Glagolitic language at Mass with the Roman Rite has prevailed for many centuries in all the south-western Balkan countries, and has been sanctioned by long practice and by many popes..." Dalmatia, Catholic Encyclopedia; "In 1886 it arrived to the Principality of Montenegro, followed by the Kingdom of Serbia in 1914, and the Republic of Czechoslovakia in 1920, but only for feast days of the main patron saints. The 1935 concordat with the Kingdom of Yugoslavia anticipated the introduction of the Slavic liturgy for all Croatian regions and throughout the entire state..." The Croatian Glagolitic Heritage, Marko Japundzi?.
  18. ^ The A to Z of the Orthodox Church, Michael Prokurat, Alexander Golitzin, Michael D. Peterson, Rowman & Littlefield, 2010, ISBN 0810876027 p. 91.
  19. ^ Sedlar, Jean W. (1994). East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500. University of Washington Press. p. 146. ISBN 9780295972916. Retrieved .
  20. ^ ?, ?. ? . - , . 12, , 1999, 87-152.
  21. ^ (in Croatian) "Glagolja?ka ba?tina u Slavonskom Koba?u", Slavonskobrodska televizija, News from February 25, 2007.
  22. ^ Strohal, Rudolf (1915). Hrvatska glagolska knjiga [Croatian Glagolitic Book] (in Croatian). Zagreb: Merkur.
  23. ^ Ivi?, Ines (2018). "The "Making" of a National Saint: Reflections on the Formation of the Cult of Saint Jerome in the Eastern Adriatic". Il Capitale Culturale: Studies on the Value of Cultural Heritage. Supplementi 07/2018. doi:10.13138/2039-2362/1795.
  24. ^ XVIII ? , ? , ? , ? ? ? ? ? ? ? , ? ? ?, ? ? . . ? ? «», ?, ? , ? ? ? , ? , ?, ? ?, ? ? , ? ? ? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? . ? . ?, , ? 1248 ? ? ? IV. <...> ? ? , ?, ?. ?. ? ? , ? ?, ... ? . ? ? XIV -, ? ? ? ? IV. (Jagi? 1911, pp. 51-52)
  25. ^ P. Solari?'s "? i? i" (Three-alphabet Slavic Primer), Venice, 1812 mentions the version as a fact of science (see Jagi? 1911, p. 52; Vajs 1932, p. 23).
  26. ^ For example, K. ?egvi? in Nastavni vjesnik, XXXIX, sv. 9-10, 1931, refers to a work of Rabanus Maurus. (see Vajs 1932, p. 23).
  27. ^ Chernorizets Hrabar An Account of Letters; Preslav 895, Bulgaria; Oldest manuscript 1348
  28. ^ L. Niederle, "Slovanské staro?itnosti" (Slavic antiquities), III 2, 735; citation can be found in Vajs 1932, p. 4.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al Schenker, Alexander M. (1995). "Early Writing". The dawn of Slavic: an introduction to Slavic philology. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. 168-172. ISBN 978-0-300-05846-8.
  30. ^ ILIEVSKI, PETAR HR. (2002). "GLAGOLICA: An Iconic Script for Visual Evangelic Preaching". Illinois Classical Studies. 27/28: 153-164. ISSN 0363-1923. JSTOR 23065457.
  31. ^ Jung, Hakyung. "On the Origin of the Glagolitic Alphabet". Scripta. 5: 105-130.
  32. ^ Uspenskij, Boris (2013). "Glagolitic Script as a Manifestation of Sacred Knowledge": 7-27, 358. ProQuest 1550519312. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  33. ^ "Wiener slawistischer Almanach". periodika.digitale-sammlungen.de. Retrieved .
  34. ^ a b Kuznetsov, Anatoly Mikhailovich (2012). "" ...": ? ? ". Slavistica Vilnensis (in Russian). 57: 7-14. ISSN 2351-6895.
  35. ^ ?un?i?, Marica (1999). "Duktus tipaua glagoljskoga pisma" [Ductus of the types of Glagolitic script]. Filologija (in Croatian). Zagreb: Staroslavenski institut (32): 33.
  36. ^ Examples of glagolitic abecedaria, numeraria and alphabet acrostics with some considerations about the original order of letters can be found in Veder, William R. (2004). "The glagolitic alphabet as a text". Glagoljica I Hrvatski Glagolizam: Zbornik Radova S Meunarodnoga Znanstvenog Skupa Povodom 100 Obljetnice Staroslavenske Akademije I 50 Obljetnice Staroslavenskog Instituta, Zagreb-krk, 2.-6 Listopada 2002. Staroslavenski Institut. ISBN 9789536080052.
  37. ^ "Wied?mi?ski alfabet - o czym informuj? nas plakaty w grze Wied?min 3: Dziki Gon?". www.grynieznane.pl. Retrieved .
  38. ^ "About Us - Cateia Games". www.cateia.com. Retrieved .

Literature

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