Foreign Relations of Panama
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Foreign Relations of Panama

Panama's foreign relations are conventional in outlook, with Panama being especially aligned with United States since the 1989 US invasion to topple the regime of General Manuel Noriega. The United States cooperates with the Panamanian government in promoting economic, political, security, and social development through U.S. and international agencies.

Diplomatic relations list

Countries with diplomatic relations with Panama

Panama has established diplomatic relations with following countries:[1]

# Country Date
1  United States 13 November 1903
2  France 18 November 1903
3  Russia 21 November 1903
4  Costa Rica 29 December 1903
5  Italy 15 January 1904
6  Venezuela 3 February 1904
7  Cuba 7 April 1904
8  Netherlands 10 April 1904
9   Switzerland 6 May 1904
10  Spain 10 May 1904
11  Portugal 21 May 1904
12  Uruguay 28 October 1904
13  Japan 7 January 1904
14  Honduras 18 September 1907
15  Belgium 15 February 1908
16  Chile 1 March 1908
17  Peru 2 March 1908
18  Brazil 3 March 1908
19  United Kingdom 9 April 1908
20  Ecuador 1908
21  El Salvador 9 March 1909
22  Argentina 5 November 1920
23  Republic of China
 People's Republic of China
2 January 1922-12 June 2017
12 June 2017
24  Mexico 29 May 1923
-   Holy See 21 September 1923
25  Colombia 9 July 1924
26  Guatemala 25 January 1937
27  Dominican Republic 17 March 1937
28  Sweden 3 July 1937
29  Denmark 30 July 1937
30  Norway 31 July 1937
31  Nicaragua 13 December 1938
32  Bolivia 28 August 1942
33  Paraguay 31 October 1942
34  Haiti 11 October 1945
35  Lebanon 30 April 1946
-  Sovereign Order of Malta 2 August 1948
36  Philippines 4 July 1946[2]
37  Turkey 14 April 1950
38  Germany 17 December 1951
39  Serbia 26 March 1953
40  Austria 18 October 1955
41  Greece 17 May 1956
42  Egypt 21 February 1958
43  Madagascar 20 September 1960[3]
44  Canada 11 August 1961
45  India 1 July 1962
46  South Korea 30 September 1962
47  Jamaica 18 August 1966
48  Ethiopia 17 August 1967
49  Pakistan 7 November 1967
50  Cyprus 1 April 1971
51  Romania 5 October 1971
52  Bangladesh 5 June 1972
53  Algeria 9 February 1973
54  Guyana 16 March 1973
55  Bulgaria 29 March 1973
56  Libya 29 March 1973
57  Guinea 29 March 1973
58  Poland 15 August 1973
59  Philippines 28 September 1973
60  Guinea-Bissau 16 October 1973
61  Australia 20 February 1974
62  Grenada 18 November 1974
63  Iran 7 January 1975
64  Bahrain 27 February 1975
65  Kiribati 25 June 1975[3]
66  Hungary 5 August 1975
67  Vietnam 28 August 1975
68  Syria 17 February 1976
69  Finland 19 February 1976
70  Malta 19 February 1976
71  Sri Lanka 8 March 1976
72  Kuwait 23 March 1976
73  Iraq 8 June 1976
74  Israel 18 June 1976
75  Morocco 15 February 1977
76  Albania 20 August 1978
77  Indonesia 27 March 1979
78  Suriname 1 May 1979
-  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 1 June 1979
79  Equatorial Guinea 13 May 1981
80  Belize 1 December 1981
81  Myanmar 15 July 1982
82  Singapore 6 August 1982
83  Thailand 20 August 1982
84  Barbados 3 March 1983
85    Nepal 15 February 1984
86  Luxembourg 12 November 1985
87  Senegal 27 August 1987
88  Sudan 13 September 1988
89  Angola 16 February 1989
90  Maldives 19 February 1989
91  Ghana 24 February 1989
92  Bahamas 1 May 1991
93  Lithuania 19 November 1992
94  Saint Kitts and Nevis 19 November 1992
95  Czechia 15 February 1993
96  Moldova 15 February 1993
97  Slovakia 15 February 1993
98  United Arab Emirates 9 March 1993
99  New Zealand 22 March 1993
100  Seychelles 21 May 1993
101  Ukraine 21 May 1993
102  Malaysia 24 July 1993
103  Jordan 7 February 1994
104  Oman 25 February 1994
105  Latvia 22 March 1994
106  Trinidad and Tobago 24 May 1994
107  Laos 9 September 1994[4]
108  South Africa 10 January 1995
109  Estonia 13 January 1995
110  Azerbaijan 6 April 1995
111  Slovenia 10 May 1995
112  Saint Lucia 10 July 1995
113  Kazakhstan 28 July 1995
114  Cambodia 15 February 1996
115  Papua New Guinea 5 March 1996
116  Brunei 28 March 1996
117  Croatia 12 July 1996
118  Andorra 16 July 1996
119  Antigua and Barbuda 27 September 1996
120  Armenia 7 August 1998
121  Belarus 22 October 1998
122  Georgia 18 November 1998
123  Iceland 4 June 1999
124  Nigeria 12 February 2001
125  Ireland 14 February 2001
126  Qatar 8 February 2002
127  North Macedonia 18 April 2002
128  Namibia April 2002[5]
129  Afghanistan 3 May 2002
130  San Marino 22 January 2004
131  Bosnia and Herzegovina 31 March 2004
132  Benin 20 September 2005
133  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 17 July 2006
134  Tunisia 15 June 2007
135  Montenegro 29 May 2008
136  Yemen 29 June 2009[6]
137  Burkina Faso 29 July 2009
138  Botswana 15 December 2009
139  Djibouti 15 December 2009
140  Monaco 22 November 2010
141  Cameroon 14 August 2011
142  Liechtenstein 3 January 2012
143  Mongolia 17 January 2012
144  Dominica 13 March 2012
145  Palau 18 April 2012
146  Solomon Islands 11 September 2012
147  Fiji 9 November 2012[7]
-  Kosovo 27 August 2013[8]
148  Saudi Arabia 15 January 2015[9]
149  Turkmenistan 28 July 2015[10]
150  Ivory Coast 29 April 2016[11]
151  Tajikistan 26 May 2018[12]
152  Togo 28 March 2019[13]
153  Kenya 26 September 2019[14]

Bilateral relations

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 5 November 1920
 Armenia 7 August 1998 See Armenia-Panama relations
 Azerbaijan 6 April 1995[15] Both countries established bilateral relations on 6 April 1995.[15]
 Belize 1 December 1981
  • Belize has an honorary consulate in Panama City.
  • Panama has an embassy in Belize City.
 Bolivia 28 August 1942
  • Bolivia has an embassy in Panama City.
  • Panama has an embassy in La Paz.
 Brazil 3 March 1908
 Canada 11 August 1961[1] See Canada-Panama relations
 China 2 January 1909[1] See China-Panama relations

Panama established a diplomatic relationship with the Qing Dynasty in 1909. After the Xinhai Revolution, Panama recognized the establishment of the Republic of China (ROC), and has retained diplomatic ties with the ROC. In 2009, after President Ricardo Martinelli took office, Panama wished to switch diplomatic relations from the ROC to the People's Republic of China (PRC), but this was rejected by the PRC government based on violation of PRC's viewpoint on the One-China policy. Martinelli reaffirmed its commitment to Taiwan in the diplomatic arena, clearing doubts he could establish official ties with PRC; he also thanked the Taiwanese for cooperation and expressed the hope that cooperation and investments would intensify. "Panama reaffirms its determination to strengthen diplomatic ties with the Republic of China (Taiwan), as well as strengthening trade ties with the People's Republic of China (PRC)," said Foreign Minister Juan Carlos Varela, at a meeting in the Council of Taiwan Affairs.[18] On June 12, 2017, President Juan Carlos Varela announced that Panama has established a diplomatic relationship with People's Republic of China, and Panama has severed diplomatic relationship with the Republic of China (Taiwan).

 Chile 1 March 1908
  • Chile has an embassy in Panama City.
  • Panama has an embassy in Santiago and consulate-general in Valparaíso.
 Colombia 9 July 1924
 Costa Rica 29 December 1903
  • Costa Rica has an embassy in Panama City and a consulate in David.
  • Panama has an embassy in San José.
 Cuba 7 April 1904
  • Cuba has an embassy in Panama City.
  • Panama has an embassy in Havana.
 Dominican Republic 17 March 1937
  • Dominican Republic has an embassy in Panama City.
  • Panama has an embassy in Santo Domingo.
 Ecuador 1908
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Panama City.
  • Panama has an embassy in Quito and a consulate-general in Guayquil.
 El Salvador 9 March 1909
  • El Salvador has an embassy in Panama City.
  • Panama has an embassy in San Salvador.
 France 18 November 1903
  • France has an embassy in Panama City.
  • Panama has an embassy in Paris and a consulate-general in Marseille.
 Greece 17 May 1956 See Greece-Panama relations
 Guatemala 25 January 1937
  • Guatemala has an embassy in Panama City.
  • Panama has an embassy in Guatemala City.
 Haiti 11 October 1945
  • Haiti has an embassy in Panama City.
  • Panama has an embassy in Port-au-Prince.
 Honduras 18 September 1907
  • Honduras has an embassy in Panama City.
  • Panama has an embassy in Tegucigalpa.
 India 1 June 1962[1] See India-Panama relations

Panama is the first country in Central America where India established a resident embassy in 1973. Bilateral commercial and trade relations are steadily growing between India and Panama, with Panama seen as the gateway for expansion into Latin America.[19]

 Kosovo 27 August 2013[8]

Panama officially recognised the independence of the Republic of Kosovo on 16 January 2009.[23] Kosovo and Panama established diplomatic relations on 27 August 2013, following the establishment of diplomatic relations Kosovo announced it would be opening an embassy in Panama and that this embassy would be Kosovo's 'gateway to Latin America'.[24]

Kosovo has an embassy in Panama City.[25] Both countries enjoy excellent relationships.

 Mexico 29 May 1923[1] See Mexico-Panama relations
 Nicaragua 13 December 1938
  • Nicaragua has an embassy in Panama City.
  • Panama has an embassy in Managua.
 Paraguay 31 October 1942
  • Panama has an embassy in Asunción
  • Paraguay has an embassy in Panama City.
 Peru 2 March 1908
  • Panama has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Panama City.
 Poland 15 August 1973
  • Panama has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Panama City.
 Russia 21 November 1903[1] See Panama-Russia relations
  • Panama has an embassy in Moscow.[28]
  • Russia has an embassy in Panama city.[29]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 1 June 1979[1] See Panama-Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic relations

Panama was the first Latin American country on recognizing the SADR in 1978, during the military rule of Omar Torrijos. [30] Panama also has the oldest Sahrawi embassy in Latin America. Relations are suspended from 20 November 2013.

 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2006[1]
 Serbia 1953[1]
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations in 1953.[32]
  • A number of bilateral agreements have been concluded and are in force between both countries.[33]
 South Africa 1995[1]
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 January 1995.[1][34]
  • Panama has an embassy Pretoria.
  • South Africa is accredited to Panama from its embassy in Lima, Peru.[34]
 South Korea 30 September 1962[1] See Panama-South Korea relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on Sep 30, 1962.

  • Panama has an embassy in Seoul.[35]
  • South Korea has an embassy in Panama City.[36][37][38]
 Spain 10 May 1904[1] See Panama-Spain relations
 Thailand 20 August 1982
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 August 1982.[1][34]
  • Panama has an embassy in Bangkok.
  • Thailand is accredited to Panama from its embassy in Santiago, Chile.[34]
 Trinidad and Tobago 24 May 1994
  • Panama has an embassy in Port of Spain.
  • Trinidad and Tobago has an embassy in Panama City.
 Turkey April 14, 1950[41] See Panama-Turkey relations
  • Panama has an embassy in Ankara.[42]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Panama.[43]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 260.9 million USD in 2019 (Panamanian exports/imports: 12.1/248.8 million USD).[44]
 United States 13 November 1903
3 April 1964[1]
See Panama-United States relations

The United States cooperates with the Panamanian government in promoting economic, political, security, and social development through U.S. and international agencies. Cultural ties between the two countries are strong, and many Panamanians go to the United States for higher education and advanced training. In 2007, the U.S. and Panama partnered to launch a regional health worker training center. The center provides training to community healthcare workers in Panama and throughout Central America. About 25,000 American citizens reside in Panama, many retirees from the Panama Canal Commission and individuals who hold dual nationality. There is also a rapidly growing enclave of American retirees in the Chiriqui Province in western Panama.

 Uruguay 28 October 1904
  • Panama has an embassy in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Panama City.
 Venezuela 3 February 1904
  • Panama has an embassy in Caracas.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Panama City.

Multilateral relations

Panama is a member of the UN General Assembly (and most major UN agencies) and has served three terms in the UN Security Council. In November 2006, it was elected to serve a two-year term on the Security Council, beginning January 1, 2007. It maintains membership in several international financial institutions, including the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the International Monetary Fund.

Panama is a member of the Organization of American States and was a founding member of the Rio Group. Although it was suspended from the Latin American Economic System -- known informally both as the Group of Eight and the Rio Group -- in 1988 due to its internal political system under Manuel Noriega, Panama was readmitted in September, 1994 as an acknowledgment of its present democratic credentials.

Panama is also one of the founding members of the Union of Banana Exporting Countries and belongs to the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission. Panama is a member of the Central American Parliament (PARLACEN) as well as the Central American Integration System (SICA). Panama joined its six Central American neighbors at the 1994 Summit of the Americas in signing the Alliance for Sustainable Development known as the Conjunta Centroamerica-USA or CONCAUSA to promote sustainable economic development in the region.

Panama is also a member of the International Criminal Court with a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for the US-military (as covered under Article 98).

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "RELACIONES DIPLOMÁTICAS DE LA REPÚBLICA DE PANAMÁ" (PDF). p. 195. Retrieved 2016.
  2. ^ Marcos Diplomacy, Guide to Philippine Bilateral Relations. 1983. Foreign Service Institute, Manila Philippines. Page no. 472
  3. ^ a b "03. ANEXO" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020.
  4. ^ "List of states which the Lao PDR has established diplomatic relations since 1950" (PDF). MFA of Laos. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 2018.
  5. ^ "Namibia muestra interés en fortalecer lazos con Panamá". mire.gob.pa (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020.
  6. ^ "Decrees establishing diplomatic relations with Panama, Venezuela". Retrieved 2018.
  7. ^ "Formal diplomatic relations list" (PDF). Retrieved 2018.
  8. ^ a b "Panamá puerta de entrada de Kosovo a América Latina" (in Spanish). 27 August 2013. Archived from the original on 17 September 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  9. ^ "Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Republic of Panama sign agreement on establishment of diplomatic relations". 15 January 2015. Retrieved 2018.
  10. ^ "Turkmenistan, Panama establish diplomatic relations". 28 July 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  11. ^ d'Ivoire, Côte (29 April 2016). "Diplomatic Relations Between Cote D'Ivoire and Panama as of 29 Apr. 2016". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 2018. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  12. ^ "Panama establishes diplomatic relations with Tajikistan". 26 May 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  13. ^ "Relations diplomatiques entre le Togo et le Panama". Retrieved 2019.
  14. ^ "Panamá establece relaciones con la República de Kenia". La Estrella de Panamá (in Spanish). Retrieved 2019.
  15. ^ a b "Panama". mfa.gov.az. Retrieved .
  16. ^ Embassy of Canada in Panama City (in English, French and Spanish)
  17. ^ Embassy of Panama in Ottawa (in English and Spanish)
  18. ^ "WikiLeaks: China rejects Panama's wish for ties". 27 March 2015.
  19. ^ "India-Panama Relations" (PDF). Ministry of External Affairs. Retrieved 2014.
  20. ^ Indian Embassy in Panama
  21. ^ Indian mission in Panama
  22. ^ Panama Embassy in India
  23. ^ Panama recognised independent state of Kosovo, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo, 2009-01-16
  24. ^ Panamá puerta de entrada de Kosovo a América Latina Archived 2016-09-17 at the Wayback Machine, Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de la República de Panamá, 2013-08-27 (in Spanish)
  25. ^ Panama, Ministria e Punëve të Jashtme-Ambasada e Republikës së Kosovës në. "Ministria e Punëve të Jashtme - Ambasada e Republikës së Kosovës në Panama". Ministria e Punëve të Jashtme - Ambasada e Republikës së Kosovës në Panama. Retrieved .
  26. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Panama City (in Spanish)
  27. ^ Embassy of Panama in Mexico City (in Spanish) Archived November 29, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ "Embassy of Panama in Moscow (in Spanish)". Archived from the original on 2018-03-07. Retrieved .
  29. ^ "Embassy of Russia in Panama City (in Russian and Spanish)". Archived from the original on 2009-06-24. Retrieved .
  30. ^ "Panamá y la república Saharaui". Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved .
  31. ^ [1]
  32. ^ [2]
  33. ^ [3]
  34. ^ a b c d "Panama (Republic of)".
  35. ^ https://search.naver.com/search.naver?where=nexearch&sm=top_sug.pre&fbm=1&acr=1&acq=%EC%A3%BC%ED%95%9C%ED%8C%8C%EB%82%98&qdt=0&ie=utf8&query=%EC%A3%BC%ED%95%9C+%ED%8C%8C%EB%82%98%EB%A7%88+%EB%8C%80%EC%82%AC%EA%B4%80
  36. ^ "? ? ".
  37. ^ http://www.mofa.go.kr/ENG/countries/latinamerica/countries/20070803/1_24568.jsp?menu=m_30_30
  38. ^ "Korea-Panama Relations".
  39. ^ Embassy of Panama in Madrid (in Spanish)
  40. ^ Embassy of Spain in Panama City (in Spanish)
  41. ^ "Relations between Turkey and Panama".
  42. ^ "Relations between Turkey and Panama".
  43. ^ "Relations between Turkey and Panama".
  44. ^ "Relations between Turkey and Panama".
  45. ^ Embassy of Panama in Washington, DC
  46. ^ "Embassy of the United States in Panama City (in English and Spanish)". Archived from the original on 2009-06-14. Retrieved .

30. Embassy of Japan in Panama [4]


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