|Designer||Goran Popovi? at Pininfarina|
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Sports car (S)|
|Body style||2-door berlinetta|
|Layout||Longitudinal, Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel drive|
|Engine||3.6 L (3,586 cc) Tipo F131 V8|
6-speed 'F1' Graziano automated manual
|Wheelbase||2,600 mm (102.4 in)|
|Length||4,477 mm (176.3 in)|
|Width||1,922 mm (75.7 in)|
|Height||1,214 mm (47.8 in)|
|Curb weight||1,493 kg (3,291 lb) (Modena)|
1,553 kg (3,424 lb) (Spider)
The Ferrari 360 (Type F131) is a two-seater, mid-engine, rear wheel drive sports car manufactured by Italian automotive manufacturer Ferrari from 1999 to 2005. It succeeded the Ferrari F355 and was replaced by the Ferrari F430 in 2004.
Ferrari partnered with Alcoa to produce an entirely new all-aluminium space-frame chassis that was 40% stiffer than its predecessor's which had utilized steel. The design was 28% lighter despite a 10% increase in overall dimensions. Along with a lightweight frame the new Pininfarina body styling deviated from traditions of the previous decade's sharp angles and flip-up headlights. The new V8 engine utilises a 3.6-litre capacity, a flat-plane crankshaft, and titanium connecting rods. The engine generates a power output of 400 PS (294 kW; 395 hp). According to Ferrari, weight was reduced by 60 kg (130 lb) and the 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) acceleration time improved from 4.7 to 4.5 seconds.
The first model to be produced was the 360 Modena, followed later by the 360 Spider and a special edition, the Challenge Stradale. The Challenge Stradale was the high-performance road-legal version of the 360 produced by the factory, featuring carbon ceramic brakes (from the Enzo), track-tuned suspension, aerodynamic gains, weight reduction, power improvements and revised gearbox software among its track-focused brief. There were 8,800 Modenas and 7,565 Spiders produced worldwide. There were 4,199 built for the US market--1,810 Modenas (coupes) and 2,389 Spiders (convertibles). Of those numbers, there were only 469 Modenas and 670 Spiders that were produced with a gated 6-speed manual transmission as opposed to the "F1" single-clutch automated manual transmission.
In addition to this were the low-volume factory race cars and a one-off Barchetta variant. The race cars were all derived from the 360 Modena and for the first time produced as a separate model in their own right (compared to being a retrofit kit in previous years). While the Barchetta was based on the Spider variant. The first race car was the 360 Modena Challenge, used in a one-make series; the factory-built racing cars were prepared by the official tuner, Michelotto, who also developed the 360 N-GT. The N-GT was a 360 Challenge car evolved even further to compete in the FIA N-GT racing class alongside other marques such as Porsche.
The first model of the 360 to be produced was the Modena, named after the town of Modena, the birthplace of Enzo Ferrari. Transmission choice ranges from 6-speed manual transmission, or the electrohydraulic-actuated "F1" automated manual transmission with a gearbox built by Graziano Trasmissioni.
The 360 Modena went into production in 1999 and remained in production until 2005 when it was replaced by the F430. The Modena was followed two years later by the 360 Spider, Ferrari's 20th road-going convertible which at launch overtook sales of the Modena. Other than weight, the Spider's specifications matched those of the Modena almost exactly.
The Ferrari 360 Spider was unveiled at the 2000 Geneva Motor Show.
The 360 was designed with a convertible variant in mind; since removing the roof of a coupe reduces the torsional rigidity, the 360 was built for strength in other areas. Ferrari designers strengthened the sills, stiffened the front of the floorpan and redesigned the windscreen frame. The rear bulkhead had to be stiffened to cut out engine noise from the cabin. The convertible's necessary dynamic rigidity is provided by additional side reinforcements and a cross brace in front of the engine. Passenger safety is ensured by a strengthened windscreen frame and roll bars.
The 360 Spider displays a curvilinear waistline. The fairings imply the start of a roof, and stable roll bars are embedded in these elevations. Due to use of light aluminium construction throughout, the Spider weighs in only 60 kg (130 lb) heavier than the coupé.
As with the Modena version, its 3.6 L (3,586 cc) V8 generating a power output of 400 PS (294 kW; 395 hp) is on display under a glass engine cover. The engine -- confined in space by the convertible's top's storage area -- acquires additional air supply through especially large side air intakes. The intake manifolds were moved towards the centre of the engine between the air supply conduits in the Spider's engine compartment, as opposed to lying apart as with the Modena. In terms of performance, the 0-97 km/h (60 mph) acceleration time was slightly slower due to the slight weight increase, and the top speed was reduced.
Despite the car's mid-mounted V8 engine, the electrically operated top is able to stow into the compartment when not in use. The convertible top was available in black, blue, grey and beige colours.
The Ferrari 360 Barchetta (serial number 120020)  is a one-off based on the Ferrari 360 Spider which was commissioned by Gianni Agnelli in 2000 as a wedding present for the then Fiat chairman and president of Ferrari, Luca Cordero di Montezemolo. The car bears heavy resemblance to its donor with the only differences being the removal of the soft top system and roll bars, different engine cover and the addition of a visor in place of a windshield for better airflow over the car. Performance of the car remains the same as its donor and the car features Argento Nurburgring exterior paint with red pinstriping. The interior is black leather with cream fabric and features fabric seats with matching stitching, the words 360 Barchetta embroidered on the dashboard and a paddle-shift gearbox.
Inspired by the 360 Modena Challenge racing car series, the Challenge Stradale is the track-focused iteration of the 360 Modena. The focus in development of the car was primarily on improving its track performance credentials by concentrating on handling, braking and weight reduction characteristics, which are essential in pure racing cars. Ferrari engineers designed the car from the outset with a goal of 20% track day use in mind and 80% road use. With only a small 25 PS (18 kW; 25 hp) improvement in engine power from the Modena (and boasting an improved power-to-weight ratio), the Challenge Stradale accelerates from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 4.1 seconds according to Ferrari. Systematic improvements were achieved to the setup and feel of the whole car; throttle response from the digital throttle was ratcheted up and feedback through the steering wheel was enhanced. Ceramic brakes borrowed from the Enzo, some lower weight parts and a FHP handling pack, enabled the Challenge Stradale to claim a 3.5 second improvement per lap of its Fiorano Circuit compared to the Modena.
In total, the Challenge Stradale is up to 110 kg (240 lb) lighter than the standard Modena if all the lightweight options are specified such as deleted radio, lexan (plexiglass) door windows and Alcantara fabric (instead of the leather option). As much as 74 kg (163 lb) was saved by lightening the bumpers, stripping the interior of its sound deadening and carbon mirrors and making the optional Modena carbon seats standard. Resin Transfer Moulding was utilised for the bumpers and skirts, a carry over from the Challenge cars which resulted in lighter bumpers than those on the Modena. The engine and transmission weight was lightened by 11 kg (24 lb) through the use of a smaller, lighter weight sports exhaust back box and valved exit pipes. The Challenge Stradale also got Brembo carbon ceramic brakes as standard (which later became standard fitment on the F430) which shaved 16 kg (35 lb) off the curb weight and improved handling by reducing unsprung weight and completely eliminating brake fade. Cars fitted with the centre console stereo option, sub speaker box behind the seats and glass side windows re-gained approximately 30 kg (66 lb) over the best selected options.
Based on the 360 Modena road car, the 360 Challenge was an extensively reworked, track-oriented model intended to compete in Ferrari's one-make racing series called the Ferrari Challenge. It was only available with the electrohydraulic-actuated automated manual transmission. At the time of launch, Ferrari claimed the 360 Challenge accelerated from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 3.9 seconds (0.6 seconds quicker than the standard 360 Modena F1) and could corner and brake significantly faster than the road car due to added aerodynamic elements. Brembo racing provided the upgraded Gold coloured calipers and larger floating 2-piece discs, while Bosch provided the race-oriented ABS software. The exhaust system was lightened substantially and was one of the main contributions to the increased power output over the standard engine (as ignition mapping was claimed to virtually be the same). For the road cars (even the Challenge Stradale) Ferrari used a valve system that made the car more socially acceptable at lower revs (and therefore able to pass drive-by noise tests).
Less than 200 were made and marketed by Ferrari as a pure race car, requiring purchasers to enter their Ferrari 360 Challenge into the Ferrari Challenge race series as a condition of sale.
Unlike the previous Challenge race series, which utilised an F355 road car with a dealer-installed 'challenge upgrade' kit, the 360 Challenge was a factory-built track car. The enhanced driving characteristics and substantial weight reduction meant the car could comfortably outperform its road-going counterpart even though power from the 3.6-litre engine was claimed to be similar.
The 360 Challenge featured a stripped-down race-oriented interior with the stereo, electric windows and locks, soundproofing, airbags, air-conditioning, and even the handbrake removed. The seats and restraints were replaced by a single carbon-fibre racing seat and FIA approved restraint harnesses, and a roll cage was fitted for safety along with a fire suppression system. The instrument cluster was reworked with a monochrome LCD to display vital engine data. The adaptive suspension of the road car was replaced by adjustable racing dampers, while larger brakes with extra cooling ducts were added.
The Ferrari 360 N-GT was a 360 Challenge race car tuned by Michellotto for the N-GT category of the FIA GT Championship. It was the fastest version of the Ferrari 360 with the engine generating a power output of over 547 PS (402 kW; 540 hp) when derestricted. The 360 N-GT was capable of a top speed of around 310 km/h (190 mph) with a 0–97 km/h (60 mph) acceleration time of around 3 seconds. It was the final car built through a Ferrari-Michelotto collaboration. The car is still raced internationally with success to this day. The most recent major victory achieved by a 360 Michelotto was by SB Race Engineering at the 2011 Britcar Championship, where the 360 N-GT, as on many occasions, outperformed the newer F430 GT.
In 2002, a 360 N-GT was driven in the Australian Nations Cup Championship for GT style cars. Run by Prancing Horse Racing to replace the teams 360 Challenge and driven by highly successful Australian race driver John Bowe, the car would eventually place 3rd in the 2002 championship. PHR then entered the Ferrari in the 2002 Bathurst 24 Hour race at the famous Mount Panorama Circuit, where Brad Jones put the 360 N-GT on pole position. After running in 2nd place behind the 7.0-litre Holden Monaro 427C which would go on to win the race outright, the 360 N-GT lost its oil pressure. PHR then did an engine change in just 3 hours, only to have the replacement engine also lose oil pressure just under 3 hours later ending their race. Bowe then finished 2nd in the 2003 Nations Cup Championship before the car was raced one last time in the 2003 Bathurst 24 Hour, where it was run by Austrian-based team BE Racing. Driven by David Brabham, Andrea Montermini, Klaus Engelhorn and Philipp Peter, the Ferrari qualified in 7th place and after running 3rd for a number of hours behind the Holden Monaros, was retired on lap 287.
The Ferrari 360 GT is a race version of the 360 Modena developed by the Ferrari Corse Clienti department in Maranello, in collaboration with Michelotto Automobili to compete in the FIA N-GT class. Team JMB Giesse raced the cars during the 2001 FIA GT Championship season and won the N-GT Cup for Drivers and the N-GT Cup for Teams.
From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced and sold 20 360 GTs to customers through their Corse Clienti department.
The 3.6-litre V8 engine was tuned to generate a power output of 436 PS (321 kW; 430 hp) which was a significant improvement over the 360 Challenge cars.
Significant additional weight reduction efforts were taken over the regular 360 Challenge cars such as lightening the wiring loom (saving 7 kg alone) as well as removing all unnecessary weight like air-conditioning brackets and doors which were now made from one-piece of carbon fibre along with the front compartment lid.
The Final results of all the weight reduction in the 360 GT's kerb weight was 91 kg (200 lb) over the 360 Challenge cars (1,070 kg or 2,354 lbs). Ballast was used to bring the car back up to the regulation limit of 1,100 kg (2,425 lb).
The Ferrari 360 GTC has been developed to replace the previous 360 GT. With a kerb weight of 1,100 kg (2,425 lb) (with ballast), it was built since 2004 by Ferrari Corse Clienti department in collaboration with Michelotto Automobili to compete in the N-GT class. It made use of recent evolutions successfully race tested on the Ferrari 360 GT, with a sequential six-speed gearbox and a further improved Magneti Marelli electronics package. The aerodynamics are substantially different from the 360 GT, given that the 360 GTC had been newly homologated by FIA/ACO from the Challenge Stradale, taking up from its basic elements: front bumper, side skirts, engine cover and double rear end. Wind tunnel research has led to a new system for the rear wing, with a notable improvement in vertical downforce. The performance of the 3,586.3 cc (3.6 L) 90-degree V8 engine has been improved in terms of fuel consumption.
In 2009, a privately owned Veloqx-Prodrive Racing 360 raced de-restricted, fully tuned variations of the GT-C in endurance races around the world including Silverstone, Sebring and Le-Mans.
The original 360GT's power output was 451 PS (332 kW; 445 hp) at 8,750 rpm, the GTC bettered that raising peak power to 479 PS (352 kW; 472 hp) while still breathing through the mandatory 30.8 mm (1.21 in) air restrictors. ][
Chris Harris reported that the 360 Modena press car was "ludicrously quick" (two seconds faster to 161 km/h (100 mph) than the customer car they tested) and sounded more like a racing car than a street car, but the other cars were different. While performance claims for the 360 were equal to or higher than the previous model, when Car and Driver tested a stock 360 it proved heavier and slower than its predecessor's claimed performance from five years before.