The Republic of Nicaragua elects on national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature. The President of Nicaragua and his or her vice-president are elected on one ballot for a five-year term by the people.
The National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional) has 92 members: 90 deputies elected for a five-year term by proportional representation, the outgoing president, and the runner-up in the last presidential election. Should the president be reelected (not originally planned for in the Nicaraguan constitution), the outgoing vice president takes the seat reserved for him instead.
National Congress (November)
National Congress (November)
|President and vice president||None||President and vice president|
|National Congress||All seats||None||All seats|
|Provinces, cities and municipalities||All positions||None||All positions|
National Congress (January)
National Congress (January)
|10 January||None||10 January|
|National Congress||10 January||None||10 January|
|Provinces, cities and municipalities||10 January||None||10 January|
|Daniel Ortega||Sandinista National Liberation Front||1,806,651||72.44|
|Maximino Rodríguez||Constitutionalist Liberal Party||374,898||15.03|
|José Alvarado||Independent Liberal Party||112,562||4.51|
|Saturnino Cerrato||Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance||107,392||4.31|
|Erick Cabezas||Conservative Party||57,437||2.30|
|Carlos Canales||Alliance for the Republic||35,002||1.40|
|Source: CSE, BBC|
|Sandinista National Liberation Front||1,590,316||65.86||14||1,608,395||66.46||56||70||+7|
|Constitutionalist Liberal Party||369,342||15.30||3||375,432||15.51||10||13||+11|
|Independent Liberal Party||162,043||6.71||1||117,626||4.86||1||2||-25|
|Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance||137,541||5.70||1||137,078||5.66||1||2||+2|
|Alliance for the Republic||49,329||2.04||0||70,939||2.93||1||1||+1|
|Source: CSE, El 19 Digital|
In the 2017 municipal election voters elected Municipal Councils in 153 municipalities nationwide, with around 53% turnout. The final results for the elections were:
The eighth autonomous elections on the Caribbean Coast took place on March 3, 2019. The voters elected 45 members to each Regional Council in the RACCN and the RACCS.
(These results are preliminary, as voting is still being counted by the Supreme Electoral Council).
Total votes for all participating parties:
The 1984 election took place on November 4. Of the 1,551,597 citizens registered in July, 1,170,142 voted (75.41%). The null votes were 6% of the total. The national averages of valid votes for president were:
The pro-Sandinista magazine, Envio claimed that this election was considered to have the "most freedom of choice" in the nation's history and was approved by international advocates of free elections.
The historical election of 1990 took place on February 25. The total registered voters were 1,752,088 and the abstentions 241,250 or 13.7%. The United Nicaraguan Opposition coalition of those who opposed the ruling Sandinista National Liberation Front was victorious, winning 55% of the vote. Violeta Chamorro became president. The national averages of valid votes for president were:
In presidential elections, Arnoldo Alemán of the Liberal Alliance-Liberal Constitutionalist Party defeated Daniel Ortega of the Sandinista National Liberation Front. A record number of 24 parties and alliances participated in these elections.
|Enrique Bolaños||Constitutionalist Liberal Party||1,228,412||56.31|
|Daniel Ortega||Sandinista National Liberation Front||922,436||42.28|
|Alberto Saborío||Conservative Party||30,670||1.41|
|Source: IPADE, La Nacion|
|Daniel Ortega||Sandinista National Liberation Front||854,316||38.07|
|Eduardo Montealegre||Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance||650,879||29.00|
|José Rizo Castellón||Constitutionalist Liberal Party||588,304||26.21|
|Edmundo Jarquín||Sandinista Renovation Movement||144,596||6.44|
|Edén Pastora||Alternative for Change||6,120||0.27|
|Daniel Ortega||Sandinista National Liberation Front||1,569,287||62.46|
|Fabio Gadea Mantilla||Independent Liberal Party||778,889||31.00|
|Arnoldo Alemán||Constitutionalist Liberal Party||148,507||5.91|
|Édgar Enrique Quiñónez Tuckler||Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance||10,003||0.40|
|Róger Antonio Guevara Mena||Alliance for the Republic||5,898||0.23|
The 1984 parliamentary election was held together with the presidential election on November 4. The percentages for National Assembly representatives were very similar to those the parties had received for their presidential candidate. The electoral quotient needed to win one of the 90 National Assembly seats was obtained by dividing the number of valid votes in each region by the number of representatives that had been assigned to each region, proportional to its population.
Each party's "left over" votes--those insufficient to earn it a seat in a given region--were then added together and re-tallied nationally. The seats earned in this second count went to the next candidate on the party's slate in the regions where it had come closest to winning on the first round. In addition, any party getting at least 1% of the presidential vote (which all six losing parties did) was allowed a seat for its defeated presidential candidate. The final composition of the National Assembly was thus:
The 1990 parliamentary election was held together with the presidential election on February 25. The final composition of the National Assembly in 1990 was:
Note: The 1990 Assembly members are joined by any presidential candidate who receives over 1% of the vote
The 1996 elections for the National Assembly took place together with the Presidential election on October 20. The final composition of the National Assembly in 1996 was:
|Constitutionalist Liberal Party||1,144,182||53.23||11||1,132,876||52.60||41||52|
|Sandinista National Liberation Front||905,589||42.13||9||901,254||41.84||28||37|
|Multiethnic Party for Coast Unity||3,520||0.16||0||0|
|Rio San Juan||34.96%||59.40%||5.64%||0.00%|
|Source: Constituency Level Elections Archive|
|Party||First round||Second round||Total|
|Sandinista National Liberation Front||840,851||37.59||8||847,565||37.90||30||38||+1|
|Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance||597,709||26.72||4||596,281||26.66||18||22||New|
|Constitutionalist Liberal Party||592,118||26.47||8||591,805||26.46||17||25||-27|
|Sandinista Renovation Movement||194,416||8.69||0||188,335||8.42||5||5||New|
|Alternative for Change||12,053||0.54||0||12,354||0.55||0||0||New|
|Source: IFES, Election Passport, Psephos|
|Sandinista National Liberation Front||1,583,199||60.85||13||1,595,470||60.64||49||62||+11|
|Independent Liberal Party||822,023||31.59||6||824,180||31.33||20||26||New|
|Constitutionalist Liberal Party||167,639||6.44||1||173,306||6.59||1||2||-23|
|Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance||19,658||0.76||0||24,870||0.95||0||0||-22|
|Alliance for the Republic||9,317||0.36||0||13,063||0.50||0||0||New|
The 1990 municipal election was held together with the presidential and the parliamentary elections on February 25. Municipal Councils were elected in 131 municipalities nationwide. The final results for the elections were:
A great expectation in the 1996 municipal elections was the participation for the first (and last) time of what the Electoral Law terms "popular subscription associations". According to the Electoral Law, to be formed, an association needed, among other things, to present to the Supreme Electoral Council a "written request signed by a minimum of 5% of the citizens on the electoral rolls corresponding to the respective electoral area". A total of 53 associations participated in the municipal elections. One of them (the Civic Association of Potosí) won the mayor's post.
Despite winning only one municipality, an important number of association candidates finished in second or third place. In the nation's capital, Managua, two independent candidates; Pedro Solórzano of the Viva Managua Movement association and Herty Lewites of the Sol (sun) association competed against the AL and FSLN official candidates. ALN's Roberto Cedeño got the 28% of the votes followed closely by Solórzano with 26%, Carlos Guadamúz from the FSLN with 25.7% and Herty Lewites who became Managua's mayor four years later came in fourth place with 12.3%.
The 1996 municipal election took place together with the Presidential election on October 20. Municipal Councils were elected in 145 municipalities nationwide. The final results for the elections were:
In the 2000 municipal election 1,532,816 voters elected Municipal Councils in 151 municipalities nationwide. It was the first time that the Presidential and Municipal elections were held separately. The final results for the elections were:
In the 2004 municipal election 1,664,243 voters elected Municipal Councils in 152 municipalities nationwide, with nearly a 56% abstention. The final results for the elections were:
The 2004 municipal elections represented a huge Sandinista victory. The FSLN-Convergence won 14 of the 17 departmental capitals, 87 of the 152 municipalities --including 5 of the 6 that make up Managua's greater metropolitan area-- and 25 of Nicaragua's 42 largest cities. In total it will govern a little over 4 million inhabitants, nearly 71% of the national population.
The Sandinista victory was attributed to the success of the FSLN-Convergence alliance. Of the 87 mayors elected on the FSLN ticket, 17 come from these allies: 5 are independents, 3 are from the Resistance, 3 belong to the Sandinista Renovation Movement (MRS), 2 are Conservatives, 2 are Liberals, 1 is from the Christian Unity Movement (MUC) and 1 is a Social Christian. Of the deputy mayors who ran with an FSLN mayoral candidate, 28 are Liberals, 16 are independent, 14 are from the MUC, 9 are Conservatives, 9 are from the MRS, 3 are from the Resistance and 1 is a Social Christian. These allied candidates allowed the FSLN to win 12 municipal governments for the first time.
The first autonomous elections on the Caribbean Coast took place in 1990 together with the presidential, parliamentary and municipal election on February 25. The voters elected the 45 Regional Council members in what was officially called the North Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAN) and the 45 in the South Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAS). The abstention was 21%, only 7% higher than the national average:
Note: National Assembly representatives also have a seat.
With an abstention of 34%, the inhabitants of the Atlantic Coast elected the 45 Regional Council members in what is officially called the North Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAN) and the 45 in the South Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAS) on February 27:
With an abstention of 40%, the inhabitants of the Atlantic Coast elected the 45 Regional Council members in what is officially called the North Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAN) and the 45 in the South Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAS) on March 1.:
With an overall abstention of 50-60%, inhabitants of the Atlantic Coast elected 90 Regional Council members on March 3:
The fifth autonomous elections on the Caribbean Coast took place on March 5. The abstention was a record-high 55%. The voters elected the 45 Regional Council members in what was officially called the North Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAN) and the 45 in the South Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAS):
Three other parties didn't pull enough votes to win a seat in the Regional Council; the regional Multiethnic Party for Coast Unity (PAMUC), the Sandinista Renovation Movement (MRS) alliance, and Alliance for the Republic (APRE).
The sixth autonomous elections on the Caribbean Coast took place on March 7. The abstention rate was 60%. The voters elected 45 Regional Council members in the RAAN and 45 in the RAAS:
The seventh autonomous elections on the Caribbean Coast took place on March 2. The abstention rate was 59%. The voters elected 45 members to each Regional Council in the newly renamed North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region (RACCN) and South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region (RACCS):