Elections in El Salvador
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Elections in El Salvador

The government of El Salvador is a presidential representative democratic republic.

El Salvador elects its head of state – the President of El Salvador – directly through a fixed-date general election whose winner is decided by absolute majority. If an absolute majority (50% + 1) is not achieved by any candidate in the first round of a presidential election, then a run-off election is conducted 30 days later between the two candidates who obtained the most votes in the first round. The presidential period is five years. Consecutive re-election is not permitted, though previously elected presidents may run for a second, non-consecutive term.

Salvadorans also elect a single-chamber, unicameral national legislature – the Legislative Assembly of El Salvador – composed of 84 members (deputies). They are elected by open-list proportional representation for three-year terms, with the possibility of immediate re-election. All 84 seats in the Legislative Assembly are elected on the basis of 14 multi-member constituencies (corresponding to El Salvador's 14 departments). They range from 3-16 seats each according to department population size.

Political culture

El Salvador has a multi-party system. Two political parties, the Nationalist Republican Alliance (ARENA) and the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN) have tended to dominate elections. ARENA candidates won four consecutive presidential elections until the election of Mauricio Funes of the FMLN in March 2009.

Geographically, the departments of the Central region, especially the capital and the coastal regions, known as departamentos rojos, or red departments, are relatively Leftist. The departamentos azules, or blue departments in the east, western and highland regions are relatively conservative.

Schedule

Election

Position 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Type Gubernatorial (March)
National Congress (March)
None Presidential (March) National Congress (March)
Gubernatorial (March)
None
President and
vice president
None President and vice president None
National Congress All seats None All seats None
Provinces, cities and municipalities All positions None All positions None

Inauguration

Position 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Type Gubernatorial (June)
National Congress (June)
None Presidential (June)
National Congress (June)
None
President and
vice president
None 1 June None
National Congress 1 May None 1 May None
Provinces, cities and municipalities 1 May None 1 May None

Presidential elections

1915

Candidate Party Votes %
Carlos Meléndez Ramirez National Democratic Party 100
Invalid or blank votes -
Total 100
Registered voters/turnout ? ?
Source:

1919

Candidate Party Votes %
Jorge Meléndez National Democratic Party 185,492 100
Invalid or blank votes -
Total 185,492 100
Registered voters/turnout ? ?
Source:

1923

Candidate Party Votes %
Alfonso Quiñónez Molina National Democratic Party 100
Invalid or blank votes -
Total 100
Registered voters/turnout ? ?
Source:

1927

Candidate Party Votes %
Pío Romero Bosque National Democratic Party 192,860 100
Invalid or blank votes -
Total 192,860 100
Registered voters/turnout ? ?
Source:

1931

Candidate Party Votes %
Arturo Araujo Salvadoran Labor Party-National Republican Party 106,777 46.65
Alberto Gómez Zarate Zaratista Party 64,280 28.09
Enrique Córdova National Development Party 34,499 15.07
Antonio Claramount Lucero Progressive Fraternal Party 18,399 8.04
Miguel Tomás Molina Constitutional Party 4,911 2.15
Invalid or blank votes -
Total 228,866 100
Registered voters/turnout ? ?
Source:

1935

Candidate Party Votes %
Maximiliano Hernández Martínez National Pro Patria Party 329,555 100
Invalid or blank votes -
Total 329,555 100
Registered voters/turnout ? ?
Source:

1939

Candidate Party Votes %
Maximiliano Hernández Martínez National Pro Patria Party 210,810 100
Invalid or blank votes -
Total 210,810 100
Registered voters/turnout ? ?
Source:

1944

Candidate Party Votes %
Maximiliano Hernández Martínez National Pro Patria Party 100
Invalid or blank votes -
Total 100
Registered voters/turnout ? ?
Source:

1945

1950

Candidate Party Votes %
Óscar Osorio Revolutionary Party of Democratic Unification 345,139 56.45
José Asencio Menéndez Renovated Action Party 266,271 43.55
Invalid or blank votes 36,256 -
Total 647,666 100
Registered voters/turnout ? ?
Source:

1956

Candidate Party Votes %
José María Lemus Revolutionary Party of Democratic Unification 677,748 95.20
Rafael Carranza Anaya Authentic Constitutional Party 22,659 3.18
Enrique Magaña Menéndez Renovated Action Party 11,524 1.62
Invalid or blank votes -
Total 711,931 100
Registered voters/turnout ? ?
Source:

1962

Candidate Party Votes %
Julio Adalberto Rivera Carballo National Conciliation Party 368,801 100
Invalid or blank votes 31,317 -
Total 400,118 100
Registered voters/turnout ? ?
Source:

1967

Candidate Party Votes %
Fidel Sánchez Hernández National Conciliation Party 267,447 54.37
Abraham Rodríguez Portillo Christian Democratic Party 106,358 21.26
Fabio Castillo Figueroa Renovated Action Party 70,978 14.43
Alvaro Magaña Salvadoran Popular Party 47,111 9.58
Invalid or blank votes -
Total 491,894 100
Registered voters/turnout ? ?
Source:

1972

Candidate Party Votes %
Arturo Armando Molina National Conciliation Party 334,600 43.42
José Napoleón Duarte National Opposing Union 324,756 42.14
José Antonio Rodríguez Porth Salvadoran Popular Party 94,367 12.25
José Alberto Medrano United Independent Democratic Front 16,871 2.19
Invalid or blank votes 35,763 -
Total 806,357 100
Registered voters/turnout ? ?
Source:

1977

Candidate Party Votes %
Carlos Humberto Romero National Conciliation Party 812,281 67.30
Ernesto Antonio Claramount Roseville National Opposing Union 394,661 32.70
Invalid or blank votes -
Total 1,206,942 100
Registered voters/turnout ? ?
Source:

1982

Candidate Party Votes %
Álvaro Magaña Democratic Action-National Conciliation Party-Christian Democratic Party 36 60.00
Hugo César Barrera Nationalist Republican Alliance 17 28.33
Invalid or blank votes 7 -
Total 60 100
Registered voters/turnout ? ?
Source:

1984

Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
José Napoleón Duarte Christian Democratic Party 549,727 43.41 752,625 53.59
Roberto D'Aubuisson Nationalist Republican Alliance 376,917 29.77 651,741 46.41
José Francisco Guerrero National Conciliation Party 244,556 19.31
René Fortin Magaña Democratic Action 43,939 3.47
Francisco Quiñones Avila Popular Salvadoran Party 24,395 1.92
Roberto Escobar García Salvadoran Authentic Institutional Party 15,430 1.22
Juan Ramón Rosales Stable Republican Centrist Movement 6,645 0.52
Gilberto Trujillo Popular Orientation Party 4,677 0.37
Invalid/blank votes 153,217 - 119,713 -
Total 1,419,503 100 1,524,079 100
Registered voters/turnout ? ? ? ?
Source:

1989

Candidate Party Votes %
Alfredo Cristiani Nationalist Republican Alliance 505,370 53.8
Fidel Chávez Mena Christian Democratic Party 342,732 36.5
Rafael Morán Castañeda National Conciliation Party 38,218 4.1
Guillermo Ungo Democratic Convergence 35,642 3.8
Julio Adolfo Rey Prendes Authentic Democratic Christian Movement 9,300 1.0
Hugo Barrera Popular Union 4,609 0.5
Ricardo Molina Renovating Action Party 3,207 0.3
Invalid or blank votes 64,075 -
Total 1,003,153 100
Registered voters/turnout ? ?
Source:

1994

Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Armando Calderón Sol Nationalist Republican Alliance 641,108 49.0 818,264 68.3
Rubén Zamora Rivas Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front-Democratic Convergence 325,582 24.9 378,980 31.7
Fidel Chávez Mena Christian Democratic Party 214,277 16.4
Roberto Escobar García National Conciliation Party 70,504 5.4
Jorge Martínez Movement of Unity 31,502 2.4
Edgardo Rodríguez Engelhard Movement of National Solidarity 13,841 1.1
Rhina Victoria Escalante de Rey Prendes Authentic Democratic Christian Movement 10,843 0.8
Invalid/blank votes 103,663 - 48,976 -
Total 1,411,320 100 1,246,220 100
Registered voters/turnout ? ? ? ?
Source:

1999

2004

Candidate Party Votes %
Antonio Saca Nationalist Republican Alliance 1,314,436 57.71
Schafik Handal Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front 812,519 35.68
Héctor Silva Argüello Christian Democratic Party 88,737 3.90
José Rafael Machuca Zelaya National Conciliation Party 61,781 2.71
Invalid or blank votes 40,508 -
Total 2,277,473 100
Registered voters/turnout 3,442,330 67.30
Source:

2009

Candidate Party Votes %
Mauricio Funes Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front 1,354,000 51.32
Rodrigo Ávila Nationalist Republican Alliance 1,284,588 48.68
Invalid or blank votes 20,550 -
Total 2,638,588 100
Registered voters/turnout 4,294,849 61.90
Source: TSE 1, TSE 2 Archived 2009-03-25 at the Wayback Machine

2014

Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Salvador Sánchez Cerén Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front 1,315,768 48.93 1,495,815 50.11
Norman Quijano Nationalist Republican Alliance 1,047,592 38.96 1,489,451 49.89
Antonio Saca Unity Movement 307,603 11.44
René Rodriguez Hurtado Salvadoran Progressive Party 11,314 0.42
Óscar Lemus Salvadoran Patriot Fraternity 6,659 0.25
Invalid/blank votes 34,310 - 19,579 -
Total 2,723,246 100 3,004,845 100
Registered voters/turnout 4,955,107 54.96 4,955,107 60.64
Source: TSE[1][2]

2019

Candidate Party Votes %
Nayib Bukele Grand Alliance for National Unity 1,434,856 53.10
Carlos Calleja Nationalist Republican Alliance 857,084 31.72
Hugo Martínez Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front 389,289 14.41
Josué Alvarado Vamos 20,763 0.77
Invalid or blank votes 31,186 -
Total 2,733,178 100
Registered voters/turnout 5,268,411 51.88
Source: TSE

Legislative elections

1928

Summary of the January 1928 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
National Democratic Party (Partido Democrático Nacional) 100% 42 Steady 0
Totals 100.00% 42 --

1931

Summary of the 11-13 January 1931 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
Salvadoran Labor Party (Partido de Labor Salvadoreño)
National Republican Party (Partido de Republicano Nacional)
Zaratista Party (Partido Zaratista)
National Development Party (Partido de Desarrollo Nacional) 34,960 3.76 0
Progressive Fraternal Party (Partido Fraternal Progresivo)
Constitutional Party (Partido Constitucional)
Totals 100.00% 42 --

1932

The 1932 Salvadoran legislative election occurred between 3-5 January 1932 but the results were cancelled by President Maximiliano Hernández Martínez.[3] Further elections for 10-12 January were also cancelled.[4]

1936

The 1936 Salvadoran legislative election occurred in January 1936 but no results were published.[5]

1939

Summary of the January 1939 Salvadoran Constitutional Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
National Pro Patria Party (Partido Nacional Pro-Patria) 210,810 100% 42 Increase 42
Totals 210,810 100.00% 42 --

1944

The 1944 Salvadoran Constitutional Assembly election occurred in January 1944 but no results were published.[6]

1950

Summary of the 26-29 March 1950 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
Revolutionary Party of Democratic Unification (Partido Revolucionario de Unificación Democrática) 345,139 56.45% 38 Increase 38
Renovated Action Party (Partido de Acción Renovado) 266,271 43.55% 14 Increase 14
Totals 647,666 100.00% 52 Increase 10

1952

Summary of the March 1952 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
Revolutionary Party of Democratic Unification (Partido Revolucionario de Unificación Democrática) 700,979 100% 54 Increase 16
Totals 700,979 100.00% 54 Increase 2

1954

Summary of the March 1954 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
Revolutionary Party of Democratic Unification (Partido Revolucionario de Unificación Democrática) 100% 54 Steady 0
Totals 100.00% 54 -

1956

Summary of the 15 May 1956 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
Revolutionary Party of Democratic Unification (Partido Revolucionario de Unificación Democrática) 552,000 94.4% 54 Steady 0
National Action Party (Partido de Acción Nacional) 33,000 5.6% 0 Steady 0
Totals 585,000 100.00% 54 -

1958

Summary of the 23 March 1958 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
Revolutionary Party of Democratic Unification (Partido Revolucionario de Unificación Democrática) 450,000 100% 54 Steady 0
Totals 450,000 100.00% 54 -

1960

Summary of the 24 April 1960 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
Revolutionary Party of Democratic Unification (Partido Revolucionario de Unificación Democrática) 368,545 87.7% 54 Steady 0
National Action Party (Partido de Acción Nacional) 51,557 12.3% 0 Steady 0
Totals 420,102 100.00% 54 -

1961

Summary of the 17 December 1961 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
National Conciliation Party (Partido de Conciliación Nacional) 207,701 60.1% 54 Increase 54
Union of Democratic Parties (Unión de Partidos Democráticos) 64,916 18.8% 0 Steady 0
National Action Party (Partido de Acción Nacional) 49,300 14.3% 0 Steady 0
Authentic Constitutional Party (Partido Constitutcional Auténtico) 23,665 6.8% 0 Steady 0
Totals 345,582 100.00% 54 -

1964

Summary of the 8 March 1964 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
National Conciliation Party (Partido de Conciliación Nacional) 176,620 58.6% 32 Decrease 22
Christian Democratic Party (Partido Demócrata Cristiano) 77,315 26.1% 14 Increase 14
Renovating Action Party (Partido de Acción Renovando) 45,499 15.3% 6 Increase 6
Totals 269,434 100.00% 52 Decrease 2

1966

Summary of the 13 March 1966 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
National Conciliation Party (Partido de Conciliación Nacional) 207,586 53.6% 31 Decrease 1
Christian Democratic Party (Partido Demócrata Cristiano) 120,645 31.2% 15 Increase 1
Renovating Action Party (Partido de Acción Renovando) 26,661 6.9% 4 Decrease 2
Republican Party of National Evolution (Partido Republicano de Evolución Nacional) 22,960 5.9% 1 Increase 1
Salvadoran Popular Party (Partido Popular Salvadoreño) 9,303 2.4% 1 Increase 1
Totals 387,155 100.00% 52 -

1968

Summary of the 10 March 1968 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
National Conciliation Party (Partido de Conciliación Nacional) 212,661 47.7% 27 Decrease 4
Christian Democratic Party (Partido Demócrata Cristiano) 193,248 43.3% 19 Increase 4
Salvadoran Popular Party (Partido Popular Salvadoreño) 22,748 5.9% 4 Increase 3
National Revolutionary Movement (Movimiento Revolucionario Nacional) 17,449 3.9% 2 Increase 2
Totals 492,037 100.00% 52 -

1970

Summary of the 8 March 1970 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
National Conciliation Party (Partido de Conciliación Nacional) 315,560 59.8% 34 Increase 7
Christian Democratic Party (Partido Demócrata Cristiano) 142,659 27.0% 16 Decrease 3
Nationalist Democratic Union (Unión Democrático Nacional) 32,450 6.1% 1 Increase 1
Salvadoran Popular Party (Partido Popular Salvadoreño) 28,606 5.4% 1 Decrease 3
National Revolutionary Movement (Movimiento Revolucionario Nacional) 8,832 1.7% 0 Decrease 2
Totals 622,570 100.00% 52 -

1972

Summary of the 12 March 1972 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
National Conciliation Party (Partido de Conciliación Nacional) 353,775 67.4% 39 Increase 5
National Opposing Union (Unión Nacional de Opuesto) 119,194 22.8% 8 Decrease 9
Salvadoran Popular Party (Partido Popular Salvadoreño) 31,790 6.1% 4 Increase 3
United Independent Democratic Front (Frente Democrático Independiente Unido) 20,194 3.8% 1 Increase 1
Totals 634,651 100.00% 52 -

1974

Summary of the 10 March 1974 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
National Conciliation Party (Partido de Conciliación Nacional) 36 Decrease 3
National Opposing Union (Unión Nacional de Opuesto) 15 Increase 7
United Independent Democratic Front (Frente Democrático Independiente Unido) 1 Steady 0
Totals 100.00% 52 -

1976

Summary of the 14 March 1976 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
National Conciliation Party (Partido de Conciliación Nacional) 52 Increase 18
Totals 100.00% 52 -

1978

Summary of the 12 March 1978 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
National Conciliation Party (Partido de Conciliación Nacional) 766,673 90.3% 50 Decrease 2
Salvadoran Popular Party (Partido Popular Salvadoreño) 82,535 9.7% 4 Increase 4
Totals 849,208 100.00% 54 Increase 2

1982

Summary of the 28 March 1982 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
Christian Democratic Party (Partido Demócrata Cristiano) 590,644 40.2% 24 Increase 24
Nationalist Republican Alliance (Alianza Republicana Nacionalista) 430,205 29.3% 19 Increase 19
National Conciliation Party (Partido de Conciliación Nacional) 273,383 18.6% 14 Decrease 36
Democratic Action (Acción Democrático) 112,787 7.7% 2 Increase 2
Salvadoran Popular Party (Partido Popular Salvadoreño) 44,900 3.1% 1 Decrease 3
Popular Orientation Party (Partido de Orientación Popular) 17,378 7.7% 0 Steady 0
Totals 1,660,393 100.00% 60 Increase 6

1985

Summary of the 31 March 1985 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
Christian Democratic Party (Partido Demócrata Cristiano) 505,338 52.4% 33 Increase 9
Nationalist Republican Alliance (Alianza Republicana Nacionalista) 286,665 29.7% 13 Decrease 6
National Conciliation Party (Partido de Conciliación Nacional) 80,730 8.3% 12 Decrease 2
Salvadoran Authentic Institutional Party (Partido Institucional Auténtico Salvadoreño) 36,101 3.7% 1 Increase 1
Democratic Action (Acción Democrático) 35,565 3.7% 1 Decrease 1
Salvadoran Popular Party (Partido Popular Salvadoreño) 16,344 1.7% 0 Decrease 1
Renovating Action Party (Partido de Acción Renovando) 2,963 0.3% 0 Steady 0
Popular Orientation Party (Partido de Orientación Popular) 836 0.1% 0 Steady 0
Centrist Republican Stable Movement (Movimiento Centristo Republicano Estable) 689 0.1% 0 Steady 0
Totals 1,101,606 100.00% 60 -

1988

Summary of the 20 March 1988 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
Nationalist Republican Alliance (Alianza Republicana Nacionalista) 447,696 48.1% 31 Increase 18
Christian Democratic Party (Partido Demócrata Cristiano) 326,716 35.1% 22 Decrease 11
National Conciliation Party (Partido de Conciliación Nacional) 78,756 8.5% 7 Decrease 5
Liberation Party (Partido de Liberación) 34,960 3.8% 0 Steady 0
Salvadoran Authentic Institutional Party (Partido Institucional Auténtico Salvadoreño) 19,609 2.1% 0 Decrease 1
Democratic Action (Acción Democrático) 16,211 1.7% 0 Decrease 1
Renovating Action Party (Partido de Acción Renovando) 5,059 0.5% 0 Steady 0
Popular Orientation Party (Partido de Orientación Popular) 1,742 0.2% 0 Steady 0
Totals 1,150,934 100.00% 60 -

1991

Summary of the 10 March 1991 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
Nationalist Republican Alliance (Alianza Republicana Nacionalista) 466,091 44.3% 39 Increase 8
Christian Democratic Party (Partido Demócrata Cristiano) 294,029 28.0% 26 Increase 4
Democratic Convergence (Convergencia Democrática) 127,855 12.2% 8 Increase 8
National Conciliation Party (Partido de Conciliación Nacional) 94,531 9.0% 9 Increase 2
Authentic Democratic Christian Movement (Movimiento Cristiano Democrático Auténtico) 33,971 3.2% 1 Increase 1
Nationalist Democratic Union (Unión Democrática Nacionalista) 28,206 2.7% 1 Increase 1
Democratic Action (Acción Democrático) 6,798 0.7% 0 Steady
Totals 1,150,934 100.00% 84 Increase 24

1994

Summary of the 20 March 1994 Salvadoran Legislative Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats +/-
Nationalist Republican Alliance (Alianza Republicana Nacionalista) 605,775 45.03% 39 Steady 0
Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional) 287,811 21.39% 21 Increase 21
Christian Democratic Party (Partido Demócrata Cristiano) 240,451 17.87% 18 Decrease 8
National Conciliation Party (Partido de Conciliación Nacional) 83,520 6.21% 4 Decrease 5
Democratic Convergence (Convergencia Democrática) 59,843 4.45% 1 Decrease 7
Movement of Unity (Movimiento de Unidad) 33,510 2.49% 1 Increase 1
Movement of National Solidarity (Movimiento de Solidaridad Nacional) 12,827 0.95% 0 Steady 0
Authentic Democratic Christian Movement (Movimiento Cristiano Democrático Auténtico) 12,109 0.90% 0 Decrease 1
National Revolutionary Movement (Movimiento Revolucionario Nacional) 9,431 0.70% 0 Steady 0
Totals 1,453,299 100.00% 84 -

1997

2000

2003

2006

2009

2012

2012 Salvadoran legislative and local elections

2015

2018

2021

See also

References

  1. ^ "TSE El Salvador - Elecciones Presidenciales 2014 - Escrutinio Final". Archived from the original on March 6, 2014. Retrieved .
  2. ^ "TSE El Salvador - Segunda Elección Presidencial 2014 - Escrutinio Final". Archived from the original on March 16, 2014. Retrieved .CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  3. ^ Lungo Uclés, Mario (1996) El Salvador in the eighties: counterinsurgency and revolution Philadelphia: Temple University Press, p 114
  4. ^ Nohlen, D (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, p 277 ISBN 978-0-19-928357-6
  5. ^ Williams, Philip J. and Knut Walter (1997) Militarization and demilitarization in El Salvador's transition to democracy Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, p27
  6. ^ Williams, Philip J. and Knut Walter (1997) Militarization and demilitarization in El Salvador's transition to democracy Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, p27

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