Egerton Ryerson
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Egerton Ryerson
Egerton Ryerson
Adolphus Egerton Ryerson.jpg
Portrait of Ryerson by Théophile Hamel
Born
Adolphus Egerton Ryerson

(1803-03-24)24 March 1803
Died19 February 1882(1882-02-19) (aged 78)
Occupation
  • Educator
  • minister
Known forChampioning free schooling in Canada, influence in the design of the Canadian Indian residential school system
  • Hannah Aikman
    (m. 1828; died 1832)
  • Mary Armstrong
    (m. 1833)
Children4
Parents

Adolphus Egerton Ryerson (24 March 1803 - 19 February 1882) was a Canadian educator and Methodist minister who was a prominent contributor to the design of the Canadian public school system and the Canadian Indian residential school system. After a stint editing the Methodist denominational newspaper The Christian Guardian, Ryerson was appointed Chief Superintendent of Education for Upper Canada by Governor General Sir Charles Metcalfe in 1844. In that role, he supported reforms such as creating school boards, making textbooks more uniform, and making education free. Because of his contributions to education in Ontario, he is the namesake of Ryerson University, Ryerson Press, and Ryerson, Ontario.

Early years

Ryerson was born on 24 March 1803 in Charlotteville Township, Upper Canada, to Joseph Ryerson (1761-1854), a United Empire Loyalist, a Lieutenant in the Prince of Wales' American Volunteers[1] from Passaic County, New Jersey, and Sarah Mehetable Ryerson (née Stickney). He was one of six siblings.[]

Methodist

Egerton Ryerson, from an 1880 publication

He joined the Methodist Episcopal Church at 17, and was forced to leave home by his Anglican father. After leaving home, Ryerson worked as an usher in a London grammar school, before his father sent for him to return home. He did so and farmed for a small period of time before leaving again, this time to Hamilton to attend Gore District Grammar School. In Hamilton, he studied Latin and Greek with such fervour that he became ill with a fever that almost claimed his life. This enabled him to become a Methodist missionary or circuit rider. His first post was the York region surrounding Yonge Street. The circuit took four weeks to complete on foot or horseback, as it encompassed areas with roads in extremely poor condition. However, the experience gave Ryerson a first hand look at the life of the early pioneer.[2]

In 1826, sermons from John Strachan, Anglican Archdeacon of York, Upper Canada, were published asserting that the Anglican church was, by law, the established church of Upper Canada. Methodists were singled out as American and therefore disloyal. Money was requested of the crown to allow the Anglican church to maintain ties to Great Britain. As Ryerson was the son of a Loyalist, this was an abomination.[2] He emerged as Episcopal Methodism's most articulate defender in the public sphere by publishing articles (at first anonymously) and later books that argued against the views of Methodism's chief rival John Strachan and other members of the powerful Family Compact.

Ryerson was also elected (by one vote) to serve as the founding editor of Canadian Methodism's weekly denominational newspaper, the Christian Guardian, established in York, Upper Canada, in 1829 and which was also Canada's first religious newspaper.[3] Ryerson used the paper to argue for the rights of Methodists in the province and, later, to help convince rank-and-file Methodists that a merger with British Wesleyans (effected in 1833[4]) was in their best interest. Ryerson was castigated by the reformist press at that time for apparently abandoning the cause of reform and becoming, at least as far as they were concerned, a Tory. Ryerson resigned the editorship in 1835 only to assume it again at his brother John's urging from 1838 to 1840. In 1840 Ryerson allowed his name to stand for re-election one last time but was soundly defeated by a vote of 50 to 1.

Educator

In April 1831, Ryerson wrote in The Christian Guardian newspaper,

On the importance of education generally we may remark, it is as necessary as the light - it should be as common as water and as free as air. Education among the people is the best security of a good government and constitutional liberty; it yields a steady, unbending support to the former, and effectually protects the latter... The first object of a wise government should be the education of the people...Partial knowledge is better than total ignorance. If total ignorance be a bad and dangerous thing, every degree of knowledge lessens both the evil and the danger.[2]

This quote is a fore-telling of Ryerson's contribution to education in Upper Canada.

A stained glass window honours Ryerson at Central United Church in Weston, where he served in 1825

"Ryerson helped found the Upper Canada Academy in Cobourg in the 1830s. When it was incorporated in 1841 under the name Victoria College Ryerson assumed the presidency. Victoria College continues to exist as part of the University of Toronto. Ryerson also fought for many secularization reforms, to keep power and influence away from any one church, particularly the Church of England in Upper Canada which had pretensions to establishment. His advocacy of Methodism contributed to the eventual sale of the Clergy Reserves – large tracts of land that had been set aside for the "maintenance of the Protestant clergy" under the Constitutional Act of 1791. "In honour of his achievements on behalf of the Methodist Church, Egerton Ryerson received a Doctor of Divinity degree from the Wesleyan University in Connecticut and served as President of the Church in Canada from 1874 to 1878."[5]

Such secularization also led to the widening of the school system into public hands. Governor General Sir Charles Metcalfe asked him to become Chief Superintendent of Education for Upper Canada in 1844. It is in this role that Ryerson made his historical mark.

The Normal School at St. James Square was founded in Toronto in 1847, and became the province's foremost teacher's academy. It also housed the Department of Education as well as the Museum of Natural History and Fine Arts, which became the Royal Ontario Museum. The school operated by the Ontario Society of Artists at the Normal School would become the Ontario College of Art & Design. An agricultural laboratory on the site led to the later founding of the Ontario Agricultural College and the University of Guelph. St. James Square went through various other educational uses before it eventually became part of Ryerson University.

He was also a writer, farmer, and sportsman. He retired in 1876 and died on 19 February 1882 having left an indelible mark on Canada's education system. He is buried in Mount Pleasant Cemetery, Toronto.

Ryerson University (Toronto), Ryerson Press (McGraw-Hill Ryerson), and the Township of Ryerson in the Parry Sound District, Ontario, were named after him,[6] as well as the small park, Ryerson Park, in the city of Owen Sound, at the northeast corner of 8th Street East and 5th Avenue East. There is also an intersection of two small streets in Toronto, Egerton Lane and Ryerson Avenue, between Spadina and Bathurst north of Queen Street West.

Legislation

Common School Bill of 1846

Ryerson's study of educational systems elsewhere in the Western world led to three school acts, which would revolutionize education in Canada. His major innovations included libraries in every school, an educational journal and professional development conventions for teachers, a central textbook press using Canadian authors, and securing land grants for universities.

The Common School Bill of 1846, was an act that had established the First General School Board, where it would consist of Seven Members, that would each have their own responsibilities. Ryerson set the groundwork for compulsory education, which is what it has become today, he ensured that curriculums were made and that teaching and learning materials were provided and delivered to Schools, in the result of the best possible education. Ryerson did not believe that white and Aboriginal children should be taught in the same schools due to their different civilization and their upbringings.

Superintendent of Schools for Upper Canada

Ryerson observed that previous educational legislation, most notably the Common School Act of 1843, was ineffective due to the limited powers of authority of the Superintendent of Schools. By comparing the office of the Superintendent to a corresponding office in New York State, namely the "State Superintendent", he noted that the 1843 Act allowed the Superintendent to draw up rules and responsibilities but no one was required to follow them.[7] In his draft of the bill, he included several responsibilities of the Superintendent for Upper Canada: apportioning Legislature funds among the twenty district councils (in existence at that point in time), discouragement of unsuitable texts for classroom and school library usage (no common texts were the norm), provide direction for normal schools, prepare recommended plans for school houses and school libraries, dissemination of information, and annual reporting to the Governor General. This considerably expanded the role of Superintendent and placed significantly more responsibility upon the office.

Further, he established the first General Board of Education (the one established in 1823 was by order of the Lieutenant Governor not by legislation). The board consisted of the Superintendent and six other members nominated by the Governor General.[2]

District superintendents

The bill provided provision for a new office, that of the District Superintendent. Ryerson recommended, although it did not become part of the legislation that followed from the 1846 bill, that as a savings measure the offices of Clerk of the District and District Superintendent be combined.[7]

The District Superintendents became important civil servants, apportioning District School Funds in proportion of the number of students, teacher payment, visit all schools in their district; reporting on progress, advising teachers on school management, examining teachers' qualifications, revoking unqualified teachers, and preventing the use of unauthorized textbooks.[2]

Common textbooks

Ryerson advocated for uniform school textbooks across Upper Canada. Again, benchmarking the New York system, he noted that an Act passed in 1843 provided authority to the State Superintendent of Schools and county superintendents to reject any book in a school library. That system utilized University Regents to create a list of acceptable texts from which the schools purchased books. Ryerson did not propose absolute authority on book selection, rather, recommended that the Board of Education "make out a list of School Text Books, in each branch of learning that they would recommend, and another list they would not permit leaving Trustees to select from these lists."[7]

Free schools

With the intent of providing education for all children, Ryerson began lobbying for the idea of free schools in 1846. His convictions on the matter were strengthened after studying systems of education in New York State and Massachusetts where financial provision for education was a cardinal one. Proving his point that education was a necessity, he was able to show, for example, in Toronto alone, less than half of the 4,450 children in the city were regular school attendees.[2]

In his Circular to the County Municipalities, in 1846, he argued the following:

"The basis of this only true system of universal Education is two fold":

1. that every inhabitant of a Country is bound to contribute to the support of its Public Institutions, according to the property which he acquires, or enjoys, under the Government of the Country.

2. That every child born, or brought up in the Country, has a right to that education which will fit him for the duties of a useful citizen of the Country, and is not to be deprived of it, on account of the inability, or poverty, of his parents, or guardians."

Among other noble intentions, he was determined to provide education to those less privileged, as a means of improving the opportunities of all; or as he so eloquently described it as the "only effectual remedy for the pernicious and pauperizing system which is at present. Many children are now kept from school on the alleged grounds of parental poverty." Ryerson was persuasive in his arguments such that principle for free education, in a permission form, was embodied into the School Law of 1850. Subsequent debate followed until 1871 when free school provision was included in the Comprehensive School Act of 1871.[8]

Common School Act of 1850

The Common School Act updated 1847 legislation creating school boards across Canada West. It required that municipalities meet the funding needs stated by their local school board and allows for schools to be paid for through provincial and municipal funds alone, allowing individual boards to eliminate school fees but not making this compulsory. The Act also allowed for the creation of separate schools leading to provincially funded Catholic schools and to racially segregated schools.[9]

The School Act of 1871

The School Act made elementary education compulsory and free up to age 12.[10] The Act also created two streams of secondary education: high schools, the lower stream, and collegiate institutes, the higher stream. Extra funding was provided for collegiate institutes "with a daily average attendance of sixty boys studying Latin and Greek under a minimum of four masters."[11]

Ryerson and girls' education

While Ryerson did not oppose female heads of household voting in school boards' elections, he did not support the education of women in general beyond the elementary level, due to a belief that their duty was to be wives and mothers.[12] He ended co-educational instruction at the Upper Canada Academy and opposed the participation of girls at grammar schools in the province.[13] He also insisted on the separation of boys and girls in common schools.

Ryerson and residential schools

Egerton Ryerson, Ryerson University by Hamilton MacCarthy in 2005

Egerton Ryerson is recognized as a key influence in the design of the Canadian Indian residential school system. His expert advice was sought by the Department of Indian Affairs of the Province of Canada, leading to an 1847 report.[14] More than 50 years later (and 16 years after Ryerson died), Ryerson's recommendations for Aboriginal schools were appended to the first publication in 1898 of "Statistics Respecting Residential Schools" since the Indian Act (1876); "Agriculture being the chief interest, and probably the most suitable employment of the civilized Indians, I think the great object of industrial schools should be to fit the pupils for becoming working farmers and agricultural labourers, fortified of course by Christian principles, feelings and habits."[15]

Ryerson's argument in 1847 that Indigenous peoples should be educated in separate boarding schools that were denominational, English-only and agriculturally/industrially oriented[16]:16 was the framework used in Canada's residential school system.[17] Ryerson University's Aboriginal Education Council issued a statement regarding this involvement in 2010 calling for the university to acknowledge Ryerson's role in the conceptualization of residential schools and to create an environment welcoming to Aboriginal peoples as part of the truth and reconciliation process.[18] Senator Murray Sinclair has declared that Ryerson University has shown leadership in its commitment to equity and diversity and is clearly dedicated to righting the wrongs of the past. Sinclair lauded the university for its response to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's Calls to Action.[19]

On June 25, 2018 there was an official installation of a plaque that contextualizes and acknowledges Egerton Ryerson's involvement in the history of residential schools beside the statue of his likeness on Ryerson University campus. The plaque contains the following text:

This plaque serves as a reminder of Ryerson University's commitment to moving forward in the spirit of truth and reconciliation. Egerton Ryerson is widely known for his contributions to Ontario's public educational system. As Chief Superintendent of Education, Ryerson's recommendations were instrumental in the design and implementation of the Indian Residential School System. In 2015, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission concluded that the assimilation amounted to cultural genocide.[20]

Beneath this text are the following two quotations:

"Let us put our minds together to see what kind of lives we can create for our children" - Chief Sitting Bull

"For the child taken, for the parent left behind" - Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada[21]

On July 18, 2020, three people were arrested for splattering pink paint on the Egerton Ryerson statue - in addition to two others of John A. Macdonald and King Edward VII at the Ontario Legislature - as part of a demand to tear down the monuments. Black Lives Matter Toronto claimed responsibility for the actions stating that "The action comes after the City of Toronto and the Province of Ontario have failed to take action against police violence against Black people." Three people were each charged with three counts of mischief under $5,000 and conspiracy to commit a summary offence;[22] the charges were dropped the following year.[23]

On June 1, 2021, following the discovery of 215 unmarked graves at the Kamloops Indian Residential School, the statue was vandalized again, this time with red paint.[24] On June 6, the statue was toppled, decapitated and thrown into Toronto Harbour; Ryerson University stated that the statue will not be restored or replaced.[25][26] The head of the statue was subsequently placed on a pike at the Six Nations of the Grand River near Caledonia, Ontario.[27]

On June 8, 2021, the town of Owen Sound, Ontario removed the name plaque of Ryerson Park. The park, named for Egerton Ryerson, will be renamed at the request of 1,000 residents of Owen Sound. The town pre-emptively removed the plaque to prevent its defacement and damage.[28] A school named for Ryerson in Owen Sound was closed in 1990.[28]

Personal

Views on culture

Ryerson and his daughter Sophia had collected forms of art (buying a total of 236 paintings by more than one hundred artists) in Europe to add to The Educational Museum (which was to be affiliated with the Normal School) in Toronto, this museum would be open to teachers and the public. This resulted in the opening of cultural education and expanded urban centres. He did this to elevate cultural perspectives, Ryerson ensured that the paintings he came across. while travelling was touching in the sense that it would get the public to use their mind and spirit - throughout this trip with his daughter (Sophia) he kept in touch with John George Hodgins, his Deputy Superintendent in the Ontario Education Department.[29]

Egerton Ryerson was instrumental in building the current education system in Canada. His most notable achievement was the creation of the Normal School in Toronto which was a college for in-class training of teachers. The normal school was also home to the department of education and a museum which introduced people to art and different scientific activities that normalized publicly funded art galleries, museums and other places in Canada.[30]

Cultural education led Ryerson to coin a theory in which he believed that family was the "link between individual and the society"[31] - the family is where individuals learn who they are and what role they will play in civilization.

Ryerson had thought society in terms of a "union of individuals"[31] people showed their basic premise to society. He strongly believed that a strong, well-intact government was important to society, because without individuals passions will cause chaos, so it was, therefore, important that interests were preserved for the greater good.

Ryerson was a believer that rising in social scale depends on the work you put into society and with the rise in this social scare; individuals would gain respect from others. Individuals needed to learn about this at a young age so they would have a stronger likelihood of being successful. He strongly suggested that the well-being of an individual and their scale in terms of society go hand-in-hand, he, therefore, did not develop any desire to have a strong footing in society for his benefit. Ryerson suggested that many societies problems are fixed by sharing historical experiences, from this Political Leaders would decide what their next decision would be. Due to the way Ryerson viewed how to solve for a societal problem he was viewed as a leader who strongly believed in symbolism and history.[31]

The Common School Bill of 1846, was an act that had established the First General School Board, where it would consist of Seven Members, that would each have their own responsibilities.[10] Ryerson set the groundwork for compulsory education, which is what it has become today, he ensured that curriculums were made and that teaching and learning materials were provided and delivered to Schools, in the result of the best possible education.[32]

The common school act of 1871 was created in hopes to improve the education system Ontario had at the time. This act was supposed to ensure free and standardized education for all. Religious teachings were made illegal in order to let people from all kinds of different religious backgrounds have access to proper education. This act also made it mandatory for children to be in school until the age of 14. Egerton Ryerson believed by creating this act he would be closer to defeating issues in Ontario such as poverty, deviance and people being uneducated.[33][9]

Egerton Ryerson was also well known as an advocate for freedom of religion. He believed that freedom of religion and proper education were the keys to improving people and society as a whole.[34]

Family

Ryerson was married twice and had several children. In 1828, he married Hannah Aikman. She died in 1832, soon after the birth of their second child. Their children were John and Lucilla Hannah. John died of dysentery in 1835 at age six, and Lucilla died of consumption (tuberculosis) in 1849 at age 17.[34]

In 1833, Ryerson married Mary Armstrong in York (Toronto). Together they had two children, Sophia in 1836 and Charles Egerton in 1847:[34]

  • Charles Egerton Ryerson (1847-1909) - secretary-treasurer and assistant librarian of Toronto; his children with Emily Eliza Beatty (1848-1947) were:
    • Egerton Ryerson (1876-?), a missionary priest in Japan
    • Edward Stanley Ryerson (1879-1963)
    • Mary Ella Ryerson (1882-1983)
    • Isabel Louise Ryerson (1884-1954)
    • John Egerton Ryerson (1887-1916)
  • Sophia Ryerson Harris (1836-1898)

References

  1. ^ Ontario Historical Society (1899). Catalogue Canadian Historical Exhibition. William Briggs. p. 102.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Putman, Harold J. (1912). Egerton Ryerson and Education in Upper Canada. Toronto: William Briggs. pp. 7-11, 71-72, 123-26, 140.
  3. ^ Hopkins, J. Castell (1898). An historical sketch of Canadian literature and journalism. Toronto: Lincott. p. 221. ISBN 0665080484.
  4. ^ Victor Shepherd (2001), "The Methodist Tradition in Canada." Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  5. ^ "Egerton". Archived from the original on 2010-11-30. Retrieved .
  6. ^ Ryerson Township - History of Ryerson Archived 2016-01-17 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ a b c Hodgins, John George (1899). Documentary History of Education in Upper Canada: 1846 (Volume VI: 1846 ed.). Toronto: Warwick Brothers and Rutter. pp. 72-74.
  8. ^ Hodgins, John George (1902). Documentary History of Education in Upper Canada. Toronto: L.K. Cameron Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty. pp. 73, 76, 81. Documentary History of Education in Upper Canada 1902.
  9. ^ a b Hardy, Edwin Austen (1950). Cochrane, Honora M. (ed.). Centennial Story: The Board of Education for the City of Toronto 1850-1950. Toronto, ON: Thomson Nelson and Sons (Canada) Limited.
  10. ^ a b Putman, John Harold. Egerton Ryerson and Education in Upper Canada.
  11. ^ Gelman, Susan (1991). ""Chapter 4: The "Feminization" of the High School: Women Secondary Schoolteachers in Toronto: 1871-1930". In Prentice, Alison (ed.). Gender and Education in Ontario: An Historical Reader. Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholars' Press. pp. 72-73.
  12. ^ Ryerson, Egerton (1847). Annual Report 1847, Chief Superintendent of Schools. Toronto, ON. p. 6.
  13. ^ Prentice, Alison (2004). The School Promoters: Education and Social Class in Mid-Nineteenth Century Upper Canada. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0802086921.
  14. ^ Ryerson, Egerton, 1803-1882; Canada. Dept of Indian Affairs. (1898-01-01), English: Indian schools in the Dominion. "Report of Dr. Ryerson on Industrial Schools, 1847": pp. 73-77. (PDF), retrieved
  15. ^ Egerton, Ryerson (1847). "Statistics respecting Indian schools" (PDF). Department of Indian Affairs. pp. 73-77.
  16. ^ Carney, Robert (1995). "Aboriginal Residential Schools Before Confederation: The Early Experience1" (PDF). Historical Studies. 61: 13-40. Retrieved 2016.
  17. ^ "A timeline of residential schools, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission". CBC. 16 May 2008. Retrieved 2016.
  18. ^ "Egerton Ryerson, the Residential School System and Truth and Reconciliation" (PDF). Ryerson University's Aboriginal Education Council. August 2010. Retrieved 2016.
  19. ^ Brown, Louise (May 19, 2016). "Murray Sinclair lauds Ryerson University for championing equity". The Toronto Star. Retrieved 2016.
  20. ^ "Honouring the Truth, Reconciling for the Future: Summary of the Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada" (PDF). National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. 31 May 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  21. ^ Sloan, Will (July 10, 2018). "Plaque unveiling a step towards truth and reconciliation". Retrieved 2018.
  22. ^ Draaisma, Muriel (July 18, 2020). "Police charge 3 people after Black Lives Matter protesters splatter paint on statues in Toronto". CBC news. Retrieved 2020.
  23. ^ "Charges withdrawn against three protesters in paint attacks on Ryerson, Macdonald statues". thestar.com. June 16, 2021.
  24. ^ Wilson, Kerissa (2021-06-01). "Ryerson statue honouring architect of Canada's residential school system vandalized again". CP24. Retrieved .
  25. ^ "A message from President Lachemi on the removal of the Egerton Ryerson statue". Ryerson University. Retrieved .
  26. ^ "School task force on Egerton Ryerson legacy won't speed up report despite protests". ctvnews.ca. 6 June 2021.
  27. ^ "The head of the statue of Egerton Ryerson now on a spike at Land Back Lane in Caledonia, Ont". cbc.ca. 10 June 2021.
  28. ^ a b Langlois, Denis (June 8, 2021). "City removes Ryerson Park sign before council discusses renaming park". Owen Sound Sun Times. Retrieved 2021.
  29. ^ Nixon, Virginia (2006). "Egerton Ryerson and the Old Master Copy as an Instrument of Public Education". Journal of Canadian Art History. 27: 94-113. JSTOR 42616414.
  30. ^ Archives, Ryerson University. "Egerton Ryerson, 1803-1882". Ryerson University.
  31. ^ a b c Pearce, Colin (December 1988). "Canadian Journal of Political Science". 21 (4): 771-93. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  32. ^ Ryerson University's Aboriginal Education Council (August 2010). "Egerton Ryerson, The Residential School System and Truth and Reconciliation" (PDF). Ryerson.
  33. ^ Nicolson, Joanne. "1871 Education Act". Radical Reform. Toronto District School Board.
  34. ^ a b c Semple, Neil. "Egerton Ryerson".

Further reading

  • French, Goldwin. Parsons & Politics. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1962.
  • Thomas, Clara. Ryerson of Upper Canada. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1969.
  • Westfall, William. Two Worlds: The Protestant Culture of Nineteenth Century Ontario. Kingston: McGill-Queen's UP, 1989.
  • Brown, Jennifer S. H. (ed.), Elizabeth Bingham Young, E. Ryerson Young. "Mission Life in Cree-Ojibwe Country: Memories of a Mother and Son." Edmonton: Athabasca University Press, 2014.
  • Nixon, Virginia (2006). "EGERTON RYERSON AND THE OLD MASTER COPY AS AN INSTRUMENT OF PUBLIC EDUCATION". Journal of Canadian Art History. 27: 94-113 - via JSTOR.
  • Archives, Ryerson University. "Egerton Ryerson, 1803-1882". Ryerson University.
  • Pearce, Colin (December 1988). "Canadian Journal of Political Science". 21 (4): 771-793.
  • Pearce, Colin (December 1988). "Canadian Journal of Political Science". 21 (4): 771-793.
  • Semple, Neil. "Egerton Ryerson".
  • Pearce, Colin (December 1988). "Canadian Journal of Political Science". 21 (4): 771-793.
  • Putman, John Harold. Egerton Ryerson and Education in Upper Canada.
  • Nixon, Virginia (2006). "EGERTON RYERSON AND THE OLD MASTER COPY AS AN INSTRUMENT OF PUBLIC EDUCATION". Journal of Canadian Art History. 27: 94-113 - via JSTOR.
  • Ryerson University's Aboriginal Education Council (August 2010). "Egerton Ryerson, The Residential School System and Truth and Reconciliation" (PDF). Ryerson.
  • Nicolson, Joanne. "1871 Education Act". Radical Reform. Toronto District School Board.
  • Sissons, C.B. Egerton Ryerson: His Life and Letters. Clarke, Irwin and Company, Ltd. 1947.

External links

Selected works available online

Primary sources


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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