Get Dyeus essential facts below. View Videos or join the Dyeus discussion. Add Dyeus to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
The sky over a field in Ukraine. *Dy?us ph?t?r has been translated as "father daylight-sky-god".

*Dy?us (lit. "daylight-sky-god"), also *Dy?us ph?t?r (lit. "father daylight-sky-god"),[1][2] is the reconstructed name of the daylight-sky god in Proto-Indo-European mythology. *Dy?us was conceived as a divine personification of the bright sky of the day and the seat of the gods, the *deyw?s. Associated with the vast diurnal sky and with the fertile rains, *Dy?us was often paired with *D?ém, the Earth Mother, in a relationship of union and contrast.

While its existence is not directly attested by archaeological or written materials, *Dy?us is considered by scholars the most securely reconstructed deity of the Indo-European pantheon, as identical formulas referring to him can be found among the subsequent Indo-European languages and myths of the Vedic Indo-Aryans, Latins, Greeks, Phrygians, Messapians, Thracians, Illyrians, Albanians and Hittites.[3][2]



The divine name *Dy?us stems from the root *dyeu-, denoting the "diurnal sky" or the "brightness of the day" (in contrast to the darkness of the night), ultimately deriving from *di or dei- ("to shine, be bright").[1][4] Cognates in Indo-European languages revolving around the concepts of "day", "sky" and "deity" and sharing the root *dyeu- as an etymon suggest that Dy?us was the vast and bright sky of the day conceived as a divine entity,[1][4] such as Sanskrit dyumán- 'heavenly, shining, radiant'.[5]

A v?ddhi-derivative appears in *deywós ("celestial"), the common word for "god" in Proto-Indo-European. In classic Indo-European, associated with the late Khvalynsk culture (3900-3500),[6] *Dy?us also had the meaning of "Heaven", whereas it denoted "god" in general (or the Sun-god in particular) in the Anatolian tradition.[7] The suffix-derivative *diwyós ("divine") is also attested in Latin, Greek and Sanskrit.[4][8]

The root *deynos ("day"), interpreted as a back-formation of *deywós, has descendant cognates in Vedic Sanskrit divé-dive ("day by day"), Latin Dies, goddess of the day and counterpart to Greek Hemera, Hittite siwat ("day"), Palaic T?yat- ("Sun, day"), Ancient Greek endios ("midday"), Old Armenian tiw (, "bright day"), Old Irish noenden ("nine-day period"), Welsh heddyw ("today"),[9][10] or Slavic Poludnitsa ("Lady Midday").[11][12]

While the Greek goddess Pandeia or Pandia (Greek: , ?, "all brightness") may have been another name for the Moon Goddess Selene,[13] her name still preserves the root *di-/*dei-, meaning "to shine, be bright".[14]


The most constant epithet associated with *Dy?us is "father" (*ph2t?r). The term "Father Dy?us" was inherited in the Vedic Dyáu? Pit, Greek Zeus Pat?r, Illyrian Dei-pátrous, Roman Jupiter (*Djous pat?r), even in the form of "dad" or "papa" in the Scythian Papaios for Zeus, or the Palaic expression Tiyaz papaz.[15] The epithet *Ph2t?r ?enh1-t?r ("Father Procreator") is also attested in the Vedic, Iranian, Greek, and perhaps the Roman ritual traditions.[16]


*Dy?us was the Sky or Day conceived as a divine entity, and thus the dwelling of the gods, the Heaven.[7] As the gateway to the deities and the father of both the Divine Twins and the goddess of the Dawn (*H2éws?s), *Dy?us was a prominent deity in the Proto-Indo-European pantheon.[17][18] He was however likely not their ruler or the holder of the supreme power like Zeus and Jupiter.[7]

*Dy?us was associated with the bright and vast sky, but also to the cloudy weather in the Vedic and Greek formulas *Dy?us' rain.[19] Although several reflexes of Dy?us are storm deities, such as Zeus and Jupiter, this is thought to be a late development exclusive to Mediterranean traditions, probably derived from syncretism with Canaanite deities and the Proto-Indo-European god *Perkwunos.[20]

Due to his celestial nature, *Dy?us is often described as "all-seeing" or "with wide vision" in Indo-European myths. It is unlikely however that he was in charge of the supervision of justice and righteousness, as it was the case for the Zeus or the Indo-Iranian Mithra-Varuna duo; but he was suited to serve at least as a witness to oaths and treaties.[21] Proto-Indo-Europeans also visualized the sun as the "lamp of Dy?us" or the "eye of Dy?us", as seen in various reflexes: "the god's lamp" in Euripides' Medes, "heaven's candle" in Beowulf, "the land of Hatti's torch" (the Sun-goddess of Arinna) in a Hittite prayer,[22] Helios as the eye of Zeus,[23][24] Hvare-khshaeta as the eye of Ahura Mazda, and the sun as "God's eye" in Romanian folklore.[25]


*Dy?us is often paired with *Dhé?h?m, the Earth goddess, and described as uniting with her to ensure the growth and sustenance of terrestrial life; the earth becomes pregnant as the rain falls from the sky.[26][18] The relationship between Father Sky (*Dy?us Ph2t?r) and Mother Earth (*Dhé?h?m Méhat?r) is also of contrast: the latter is portrayed as the vast and dark dwelling of mortals, located below the bright seat of the gods.[27] According to Jackson however, as the thunder-god is frequently associated with the fructifying rains, she may be a more fitting partner of *Perkwunos than of *Dy?us.[28]

While Hausos and the Divine Twins are generally considered the offsprings of *Dy?us alone,[29] some scholars have proposed a spouse-goddess reconstructed as *Diw?n? or *Diu?neh2,[30][31] with a possible descendant in Zeus's consort Dione. A thematic echo occurs in the Vedic tradition as Indra's wife Indr?n? displays a similar jealous and quarrelsome disposition under provocation. A second descendant may be found in Dia, a mortal said to unite with Zeus in a Greek myth. The story leads ultimately to the birth of the Centaurs after the mating of Dia's husband Ixion with the phantom of Hera, the spouse of Zeus.[29] Another reflex may be found in the Mycenaean Greek Diwia, possibly a feminine counterpart of Zeus attested in the second part of the 2nd millennium BC and which may have survived in the Pamphylian dialect of Asia Minor.[32][33][34] The reconstruction is however only based upon the Greek-and to a lesser extent the Vedic-tradition, and it remains therefore not secured.[29]

If the female goddesses Hera, Juno, Frigg and Shakti share a common association with marriage and fertility, Mallory and Adams note however that "these functions are much too generic to support the supposition of a distinct PIE 'consort goddess' and many of the 'consorts' probably represent assimilations of earlier goddesses who may have had nothing to do with marriage."[35]


Laurel-wreathed head of Zeus, c 360-340 BC.

Cognates stemming either from the root *dyeu ("daylight, bright sky"), the epithet *Dy?us Ph2ter ("Father Sky"), the v?ddhi-derivative *deiwós ("celestial", a "god"), the derivative *diwyós ("divine"), or the back-formation *deynos (a "day") are among the most widely attested in Indo-European languages.[2][3]

Sky-Father epithet

The Roman god Jupiter (Iovis-pater), 1811.

Ritual and formulaic expressions stemming from the form *Dy?us Ph2ter ("Father Dy?us") were inherited in the following liturgic and poetic traditions:

Other reflexes are variants that have retained both descendants of the root *dyeu- ("sky") and the original structure "Father God". Some traditions have replaced the epithet *ph2ter with the nursery word papa ("dad, daddy"):

Other variants are less secured:

  • Hittite: attas Isanus, "Father Sun-god"; the name of the sky-god was replaced with a Hattic sun-god loan, but the original structure of the formula left intact,[17]
  • Latvian: Debess t?vs, "Father of Heaven",[2]
  • Old Norse: Óðinn Alföðr, "Odin, All-Father" or "Odin Father of All",[70][71]
  • Russian: Stribog?, "Father God",[2]
  • Albanian: Zot, "lord" or "God", epithet of Zojz, the sky-father (generally thought to be derived from Proto-Albanian *d?ie?u ? a(t)t-, "heavenly father";[72] although the etymology *w(i)t?- pati-, "lord of the house", has also been proposed).[73]

"Celestial" derivations

The Germanic god Týr, 1895.

Cognates stemming from *deywós, a v?ddhi-derivation of *dy?us (the sky-god) are attested in the following traditions:[74]

Other cognates are less secured:

Other cognates deriving from the word *diwyós (*dyeu "sky" + yós, a thematic suffix) are attested in the following traditions:[115]


As the pantheons of the individual mythologies related to Proto-Indo-European religion evolved, attributes of *Dy?us seem to have been redistributed to other deities. In Greek and Roman mythology, *Dy?us was the chief god, while the etymological continuant of Dy?us became a very abstract god in Vedic mythology, and his original prominence over other gods largely diluted.[17][3]

In Slavic tradition

At one point, early Slavs, like some Iranian peoples after the Zoroastrian religious reformation, demonized the Slavic successor of *Dy?us (abandoning this word in the sense of "heaven" at the same time, keeping the word for day, however, and abandoning many of the names of the other Proto-Indo-European gods, replacing them with new Slavic or Iranian names), while not replacing it with any other specific god, as a result of cultural contacts with Iranian peoples in the first millennium BC. Hence, after the process of demonization by the Slavs, *Dy?us is considered to have originated two continuations: *divo ("strange, odd thing") and *div? ("demon").[122] The result of this demonization may be Pan-Slavic demons, e.g. Polish and Czech dziwo?ona, or Div occurring in The Tale of Igor's Campaign.[123][124]

According to some researchers, at least some of *Dy?us's traits could have been taken over by Svarog (Urba?czyk: Sun-Da?bóg - heavenly fire, Svaro?i? - earthly fire, Svarog - heaven, lightning).[125][126] Helmold recalls that the Slavs were also supposed to believe in a god in heaven, who only deals with heavenly matters and commands other gods.[127]

In non-Indo-European traditions

Various loanwords of *deiwós were introduced in non-Indo-European languages, such as Estonian taevas or Finnish taivas ("sky"), borrowed from Proto-Indo-Iranian.[1][128]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h West 2007, p. 167.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 431.
  3. ^ a b c d e West 2007, pp. 166-171.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Mallory & Adams 2006, pp. 408-409.
  5. ^ Vainik, Ene. (2014). "Jumala jälgi ajamas [Tracing back the word jumal 'god']". Mäetagused 58: 25. 10.7592/MT2014.58.vainik.
  6. ^ Anthony 2007, pp. 78-79.
  7. ^ a b c West 2007, p. 168: "But in general we may say that MIE had *dyéus (Dyéus) for 'heaven (Heaven)' [...] In Anatolian the picture is a little different [...] The reflex of *dyeus (Hittite sius) does not mean 'heaven' but either 'god' in general or the Sun-god. [...] The Greek Zeus is king of the gods and the supreme power in the world, his influence extending everywhere and into most spheres of life. There is little reason, however, to think that the Indo-European Dyeus had any such importance."
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m West 2007, p. 120.
  9. ^ a b West 2007, pp. 167-168.
  10. ^ de Vaan 2008, p. 170.
  11. ^ Dixon-Kennedy 1998, p. 227.
  12. ^ Máchal, Jan (1918). "Slavic Mythology". In L. H. Gray (ed.). The Mythology of all Races. III, Celtic and Slavic Mythology. Boston. p. 267.
  13. ^ Hard, Robin; Rose, H. J. (2004). The Routledge Handbook of Greek Mythology: Based on H.J. Rose's "Handbook of Greek Mythology". Routledge. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-415-18636-0.
  14. ^ Fairbanks, Arthur. The Mythology of Greece and Rome. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company. 1907. p. 162. Regarding the meaning of "Pandia", Kerenyi (Kerenyi, Karl. The Gods of the Greeks. Thames & Hudson. 1951), p. 197, says: '"the entirely shining" or the "entirely bright"-- doubtless the brightness of nights of full moon.'
  15. ^ a b c West 2007, p. 171.
  16. ^ Jackson 2002, p. 71.
  17. ^ a b c Mallory & Adams 1997, pp. 230-231.
  18. ^ a b Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 432.
  19. ^ West 2007, p. 169.
  20. ^ Green, Miranda J. (1990). "Pagan Celtic Religion: Archaeology and Myth". Transactions of the Honourable Society of the Cymmrodorion: 13-28.
  21. ^ West 2007, pp. 171-175.
  22. ^ West 2007, p. 195.
  23. ^ Sick, David (2004). "Mit(h)ra(s) and the Myths of the Sun". Numen. 51 (4): 432-467. doi:10.1163/1568527042500140. ISSN 1568-5276.
  24. ^ Bortolani, Ljuba Merlina (2016). Magical Hymns from Roman Egypt: A Study of Greek and Egyptian Traditions of Divinity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781316673270.
  25. ^ Ionescu, Doina; Dumitrache, Cristiana (2012). "The Sun Worship with the Romanians". Romanian Astronomical Journal. 22 (2): 155-166. Bibcode:2012RoAJ...22..155I.
  26. ^ West 2007, pp. 180-181, 191.
  27. ^ West 2007, pp. 178-179.
  28. ^ Jackson 2002, pp. 80-81.
  29. ^ a b c West 2007, pp. 192-193.
  30. ^ Dunkel, George E. (1988-1990). "Vater Himmels Gattin". Die Sprache. 34: 1-26.
  31. ^ Jackson 2002, pp. 72-74.
  32. ^ Ventris, Michael; Chadwick, John. Documents in Mycenaean Greek. Cambridge at the University Press. 1956. p. 125.
  33. ^ Bremmer, Jan N. (2010). Bremmer, Jan N.; Erskine, Andrew (eds.). Gods of Ancient Greece: Identities and Transformations: Identities and Transformations. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-4289-2.
  34. ^ Skelton, Christina. Greek-Anatolian Language Contact and the Settlement of Pamphylia. Classical Antiquity. Vol. 36, Issue 1. The Regents of the University of California. 2017. pp. 104-105. ISSN 0278-6656
  35. ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 124.
  36. ^ a b c Lubotsky, Alexander. "Indo-Aryan Inherited Lexicon". Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Project. Leiden University. See entries dyáv- and devá- (online database).
  37. ^ De Witt Griswold, Hervey (1923). The Religion of the Rigveda. H. Milford, Oxford University Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-8120807457.
  38. ^ a b c d e f de Vaan 2008, p. 315.
  39. ^ a b Beekes 2009, pp. 498-499.
  40. ^ Chaniotis, Angelos; Stavrianopoulou, Eftychia (1997). "Epigraphic Bulletin for Greek Religion 1993-1994". Kernos. Revue internationale et pluridisciplinaire de religion grecque antique (10): 269. ISSN 0776-3824.
  41. ^ Yon, Marguerite (2009). "Le culte impérial à Salamine". Cahiers du Centre d'Études Chypriotes. 39 (1): 300. doi:10.3406/cchyp.2009.929.
  42. ^ Fourrier, Sabine (2015). "Lieux de culte à Salamine à l'époque des royaumes" (PDF). Cahiers du Centre d'Études Chypriotes. 45 (1): 216. doi:10.3406/cchyp.2015.1635.
  43. ^ Yon, Marguerite. La ville de Salamine. Fouilles françaises 1964-1974 / The town of Salamis. French excavations 1964-1974. In: Kinyras : L'Archéologie française à Chypre / French Archaeology in Cyprus Table ronde tenue à Lyon, 5-6 novembre 1991 / Symposium held in Lyons November 5th-6th 1991 Lyon : Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée Jean Pouilloux, 1993. p. 145. (Travaux de la Maison de l'Orient, 22) www.persee.fr/doc/mom_0766-0510_1993_act_22_1_1796
  44. ^ a b c d e f Wodtko, Irslinger & Schneider 2008, pp. 70-71.
  45. ^ West 2007, pp. 166-167.
  46. ^ Buck, Carl Darling. Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin. Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago Press. 1933. p. 203.
  47. ^ Witczak, Krzysztof T. (1999). "On the Indo-European origin of two Lusitanian theonyms (laebo and reve)". Emerita. 67 (1): p. 71. doi:10.3989/emerita.1999.v67.i1.185. ISSN 1988-8384.
  48. ^ Watkins 1995, pp. 214-216.
  49. ^ Prósper, Blanca María (2011). "The instrumental case in the thematic noun inflection of Continental Celtic". Historische Sprachforschung. 124: 250-267. doi:10.13109/hisp.2011.124.1.250. ISSN 0935-3518. JSTOR 41553575.
  50. ^ Weinstock, Stefan (1960). "Two Archaic Inscriptions from Latium". The Journal of Roman Studies. 50 (1-2): 112-118. doi:10.2307/298293. ISSN 0075-4358. JSTOR 298293.
  51. ^ Kloekhorst 2008, pp. 766-767.
  52. ^ a b c Kloekhorst 2008, p. 763.
  53. ^ Tatishvili, Irene. "Transformations of the Relationship between Hittite Kings and Deities". In: Acts of the IXth International Congress of Hittitology (Çorum, 1-7 September 2014). Vol. II. Çorum: 2019. pp. 1048 and 1050. ISBN 978-975-17-4338-1
  54. ^ Ricl, Marijana. "Current Archaeological and Epigraphic Research in the Region of Lydia". In: L'Anatolie des peuples, des cités et des cultures (IIe millénaire av. J.-C. - Ve siècle ap. J.-C.). Colloque international de Besançon - 26-27 novembre 2010. Volume 2. Approches locales et régionales. Besançon: Institut des Sciences et Techniques de l'Antiquité, 2013. pp. 189-195. (Collection « ISTA », 1277) www.persee.fr/doc/ista_0000-0000_2013_act_1277_2_3751
  55. ^ Melchert, Harold Craig. Anatolian Historical Phonology. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi B. V. 1994. p. 351. ISBN 90-5183-697-X
  56. ^ a b De Simone 2017, p. 1843.
  57. ^ a b c West 2007, p. 166.
  58. ^ Mann 1952, p. 32.
  59. ^ Feizi 1929, p. 82.
  60. ^ West 2007, pp. 167, 243: "The Albanian Perëndi 'Heaven', 'God', has been analysed as a compound of which the first element is related to perun? and the second to *dyeus."
  61. ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, pp. 408-409, 582: "It is argued that the underlying meaning here is not oak but rather that the Norse and Baltic forms are from *per-kw-, an extension on the root *per- 'strike' [...] These would then be related to *peruhxnos 'the one with the thunder stone' [...], and possibly Albanian peren-di..."
  62. ^ Treimer 1971, pp. 31-33.
  63. ^ Lubotsky, Alexander M. (2004). "The Phrygian Zeus and the problem of the "Lautverschiebung"". In: Historische Sprachforschung 117(2): 229-237. [1]
  64. ^ Witczak, K. T. 1992-3: "Two Bithynian Deities in the Old and New Phrygian Inscriptional Texts". In: Folia Orientalia 29: pp. 265-271. [2]
  65. ^ Wissowa, Georg (1902). Religion und Kultus der Römer. C. H. Beck. p. 100. See Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights 5,12 (Loeb Classical Library).
  66. ^ Hamp, Eric P. (1997). Adams, Douglas Q. (ed.). Festschrift for Eric P. Hamp. 1. Institute for the Study of Man. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-941694-62-9.
  67. ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 130.
  68. ^ a b c Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 231.
  69. ^ a b c Delamarre 2003, p. 134.
  70. ^ Chaney, William A. (1970). The Cult of Kingship in Anglo-Saxon England: The Transition from Paganism to Christianity. University of California Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-520-01401-5.
  71. ^ Wanner, Kevin J. (2008). Snorri Sturluson and the Edda: The Conversion of Cultural Capital in Medieval Scandinavia. University of Toronto Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-8020-9801-6.
  72. ^ Treimer 1971, pp. 31-33; Mann 1977, p. 72; Demiraj 1997, pp. 431-432; Curtis 2017, pp. 1746, 1757, 2254
  73. ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 348; Orel 1998, p. 526
  74. ^ a b Ringe 2006, p. 14.
  75. ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 536.
  76. ^ Lurker, Manfred. The Routledge Dictionary Of Gods Goddesses Devils And Demons. Routledge. 2004. pp. 49-50. ISBN 978-04-15340-18-2
  77. ^ Kim 2017, p. 1980.
  78. ^ a b Derksen 2015, p. 128.
  79. ^ a b Bojtár, Endre (1999). Foreword to the Past: A Cultural History of the Baltic People. Central European University Press. pp. 280-281. ISBN 978-963-9116-42-9.
  80. ^ Doniger, Wendy, ed. (2006). Britannica Encyclopedia of World Religions. Encyclopaedia Britannica. p. 711. ISBN 978-1-59339-266-6.
  81. ^ Vai?k?nas, Jonas (2006). "The Moon in Lithuanian Folk Tradition" (PDF). Folklore. 32: 157-158. doi:10.7592/FEJF2006.32.moon.
  82. ^ Jasi?nait?, Birut?. "Maldel?s ? jaun? m?nul? ryt? Lietuvos folklore: etnolingvistinis aspektas" [Prayers to the New Moon in the Folklore of Eastern Lithuania: an Ethno-linguistic Aspect]. In: Baltistica, t. 41, Nr. 3, 2006. pp. 475-477. ISSN 0132-6503
  83. ^ a b c d Kroonen 2013, p. 519.
  84. ^ a b West 2007, p. 167 n. 8: "But he does not seem to be the old Sky-god, and it is preferable to suppose that he once had another name, which came to be supplanted by the title 'God'."
  85. ^ a b Simek 1996, p. 337.
  86. ^ a b West 2007, p. 120 n. 1.
  87. ^ Marold 1992, p. 714.
  88. ^ Lecouteux 2016.
  89. ^ a b c d e f de Vaan 2008, p. 167.
  90. ^ Lehmann 1986, p. 352.
  91. ^ Hunt, Ailsa. Reviving Roman Religion: Sacred Trees in the Roman World. Cambridge Classical Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2016. pp. 148-149 (footnote nr. 92). ISBN 978-1-107-15354-7
  92. ^ Rey, Alain (2011). Dictionnaire Historique de la langue française (in French). Nathan. p. 1079. ISBN 978-2-321-00013-6.
  93. ^ Woodard, Roger D. Myth, Ritual, and the Warrior in Roman and Indo-European Antiquity. Cambridge University Press. 2013. p. 197. ISBN 978-1-107-02240-9
  94. ^ Baldi, Phillip. The Foundations of Latin. New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 2002. pp. 140-142. ISBN 3-11-016294-6
  95. ^ a b c d Matasovi? 2009, pp. 96-97.
  96. ^ a b c d Delamarre 2003, pp. 142-143.
  97. ^ a b c Delamarre 2003, p. 142.
  98. ^ Rhys, John (2016). Celtic Folklore. Cambridge University Press. p. 441. ISBN 978-1-108-07909-9.
  99. ^ Wainwright, F. T. (1950). "Cledemutha". The English Historical Review. 65 (255): 203-212. doi:10.1093/ehr/LXV.CCLV.203. ISSN 0013-8266. JSTOR 554934.
  100. ^ James, Alan G. (2014). The Brittonic Language in the Old North: A Guide to the Place-name Evidence (PDF). Volume 2: Guide to the Elements. p. 139. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-09-11. |volume= has extra text (help)
  101. ^ MacLeod, Sharon P. (1998). "Mater Deorum Hibernensium: Identity and Cross-Correlation in Early Irish Mythology". Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic Colloquium. 18/19: 340-384. ISSN 1545-0155. JSTOR 20557350.
  102. ^ Strang, Alastair (1997). "Explaining Ptolemy's Roman Britain". Britannia. 28: 1-30. doi:10.2307/526763. ISSN 0068-113X. JSTOR 526763.
  103. ^ Marx, Christian (2014). "Rectification of position data of Scotland in Ptolemy's Geographike Hyphegesis". Survey Review. 46 (337): 231-244. arXiv:1511.06691. doi:10.1179/1752270613Y.0000000085. ISSN 0039-6265. S2CID 119211760.
  104. ^ West 2007, p. 216.
  105. ^ Carmichael, Alexander. Carmina gadelica: hymns and incantations with illustrative notes on words, rites, and customs, dying and obsolete. Edinburgh; London: Oliver and Boyd. 1928. pp. 316-317.
  106. ^ Rudnyckyj 1978, p. 79.
  107. ^ Gob 1992, p. 52.
  108. ^ a b Sakhno 2017, p. 1577.
  109. ^ a b Derksen 2008, p. 108.
  110. ^ Jakobson 1962, p. 228.
  111. ^ Kolankiewicz, Leszek. (1999). Dziady : teatr ?wi?ta zmar?ych. Gda?sk: S?owo/obraz terytoria. pp. 461-462. ISBN 83-87316-39-3. OCLC 46456548.
  112. ^ Witczak, Krzysztof T. (1999). "On the Indo-European origin of two Lusitanian theonyms (laebo and reve)". Emerita. 67 (1): 65-73. doi:10.3989/emerita.1999.v67.i1.185. ISSN 1988-8384.
  113. ^ FERNANDES, Luís S.; CARVALHO, Pedro Sobral de; FIGUEIRA, Nádia (2009). "Divindades indígenas numa ara inédita de Viseu". Acta Palaeohispanica X [Actas do X Colóquio sobre Línguas e culturas Paleo-hispânicas]. Paleohispanica, 9, 2009, pp. 143-155. ISSN 1578-5386 (in Portuguese)
  114. ^ d'Encarnação, José. "Testemunhos Recentes de Teónimos Pré-Romanos na Lusitânia". In: ANTROPE N. 12. julho 2020. Instituto Politécnico de Tomar. p. 255. ISSN 2183-1386 (in Portuguese)
  115. ^ a b c Ringe 2006, pp. 62-63.
  116. ^ Ringe 2006, p. 76.
  117. ^ a b c d Beekes 2009, p. 338.
  118. ^ West 2007, p. 192.
  119. ^ de Vaan 2008, p. 168.
  120. ^ Green, C. M. C. Roman Religion and the Cult of Diana at Aricia. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2007. pp. 71-73. ISBN 978-0-521-85158-9
  121. ^ de Vaan 2008, pp. 173-174.
  122. ^ Gieysztor 2006, p. 74.
  123. ^ Szyjewski 2003, p. 171.
  124. ^ Gieysztor 2006, p. 72.
  125. ^ Szyjewski 2003, p. 95.
  126. ^ Gieysztor 2006, p. 175.
  127. ^ Szyjewski 2003, p. 99-100.
  128. ^ Delamarre 2003, p. 143.


Further reading

  • "Indo-European *Deiwos and Related Words" by Grace Sturtevant Hopkins, Language Dissertations number XII, December 1932 (supplement to Language, journal of the Linguistic Society of America).
  • Cook, Arthur Bernard. "The European Sky-God. III: The Italians." Folklore 16, no. 3 (1905): 260-332. www.jstor.org/stable/1253947.
  • Cook, Arthur Bernard. "Zeus, Jupiter, and the Oak. (Conclusion.)." The Classical Review 18, no. 7 (1904): 360-75. www.jstor.org/stable/694614.
  • Kerényi, Carl, and Christopher Holme. "The Word 'Zeus' and Its Synonyms, 'Theos' and 'Daimon'." In Archetypal Images in Greek Religion: 5. Zeus and Hera: Archetypal Image of Father, Husband, and Wife, 3-20. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1975. doi:10.2307/j.ctt13x190c.5.
  • Kretschmer, Paul. "Dyaus, ?, Diespiter Und Die Abstrakta Im Indogermanischen." Glotta 13, no. 1/2 (1923): 101-14. www.jstor.org/stable/40265088.
  • Laroche, E. "Les Noms Anatoliens Du "dieu" Et Leurs Dérivés." Journal of Cuneiform Studies 21 (1967): 174-77. doi:10.2307/1359369.
  • Seebold, Elmar. "Der Himmel, Der Tag Und Die Götter Bei Den Indogermanen." Historische Sprachforschung / Historical Linguistics 104, no. 1 (1991): 29-45. www.jstor.org/stable/40849007.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes