Dyaus Pita
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Dyaus Pita

God of Sky and Heaven
Member of the Pancha Bhoota
Other namesAkasha
AffiliationDeva, Pancha Bhoota
AbodeDyuloka, Sky (?ka, ?)
ConsortPrithvi Mata
OffspringSurya, Ushas, and the other gods
Greek equivalentZeus
Roman equivalentJupiter

Dyaus ( DYOWSH), or Dyauspitar (Devanagari ?, Dyáu?pit), is the ?gvedic sky deity. His consort is Prithvi, the earth goddess, and together they are the archetypal parents in the ?g·veda.


Dyau? stems from Proto-Indo-Iranian *dyw?, from the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) daylight-sky god *Dy?us, and is cognate with the Greek Zeus Pat?r, Illyrian Dei-pátrous, or Latin Jupiter (from an earlier *Djous pat?r), stemming from the PIE Dy?us ph?t?r ("Daylight-sky Father").[1]

The noun dyaús (when used without the pit 'father') refers to the daylight sky, and occurs frequently in the ?g·veda, as an entity. The sky in Vedic writing was described as rising in three tiers, avamá, madhyamá, and uttamá or t?tya.[2]


Dyáu? Pit appears in hymns with Prithvi Mata 'Mother Earth' in the ancient Vedic scriptures of Hinduism.[3]

In the ?g·veda, Dyáu? Pit appears in verses 1.89.4, 1.90.7, 1.164.33, 1.191.6, 4.1.10. and 4.17.4[4] He is also referred to under different theonyms: Dyavaprithvi, for example, is a dvandva compound combining 'heaven' and 'earth' as Dyau? and Prithvi.

Dyau?'s most defining trait is his paternal role.[5] His daughter, U?as, personifies dawn.[6] The gods, especially S?rya, are stated to be the children of Dyau? and Prithvi.[7] Dyau?'s other sons include Agni, Parjanya, the ?dityas, the Maruts, and the Angirases.[5][7] The Ashvins are called "divó náp?t", meaning offspring/progeny/grandsons of Dyau?.[5][8] Dyau? is often visualized as a roaring animal, often a bull, who fertilizes the earth.[5] Dyau? is also known for the rape of his own daughter, which is vaguely but vividly mentioned in the ?g·veda.[7]

Dyau? is also stated to be like a black stallion studded with pearls in a simile with the night sky.[5][9]

Indra's separation of Dyau? and Prithvi is celebrated in the Rigveda as an important creation myth.[7]

See also


  1. ^ West 2007, p. 171.
  2. ^ ?g·veda, 5.60.6.
  3. ^ Leeming, David; Fee, Christopher (2016). The Goddess: Myths of the Great Mother. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-78023-538-7.
  4. ^ Sanskrit: ?g·veda, Wikisource; translation: Ralph T. H. Griffith Rigveda, Wikisource
  5. ^ a b c d e Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (1897). Vedic Mythology. Oxford University Press. pp. 21-22.
  6. ^ Roshen Dalal (2014). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books. ISBN 9788184752779. Entry: "Dyaus"
  7. ^ a b c d Jamison, Stephanie (2014). The Rigveda -- The Earliest Religious Poetry of India. Oxford University Press. pp. 50-51.
  8. ^ West, M. L. (2007). Indo-European Poetry and Myth. 978-0-19-928-075-9: Oxford University Press. p. 187.CS1 maint: location (link)
  9. ^ Jamison & Brereton 2014, p. 1492.
  • Oberlies, Thomas (1998). Die Religion des Rgveda. Vienna.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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