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Dolphin has been well received in the IT and video gaming media for its high compatibility, steady development progress, the number of available features, and the ability to play games with graphical improvements over the original consoles.
Dolphin was first released in September 2003 by Swedish programmer Henrik Rydgård (ector) and developer F|RES as an experimental GameCube emulator that could boot up and run commercial games. Audio was not yet emulated, and the overall performance quality was very poor. Many games crashed on start up or barely ran at all; average speed was from 2 to 20 frames per second (FPS). Its name refers to the development code name for the GameCube.
Dolphin was officially discontinued temporarily in December 2004, with the developers releasing version 1.01 as the final version of the emulator. The developers later revived the project in October 2005.
Open source, Wii emulation, and 2.0 release (2008-2010)
Dolphin became an open-source project on 13 July 2008 when the developers released the source code publicly on a SVN repository on Google Code under the GPL-2.0-only license. At this point, the emulator had basic Wii emulation implemented, limited Linux compatibility and a new GUI using wxWidgets. The preview builds and unofficial SVN builds were released with their revision number (e.g., RXXXX) rather than version numbers (e.g., 1.03). As with previous builds, differences between consecutive builds are typically minor.
As of February 2009, the software was able to successfully boot and run the official Wii System Menu v1.0. Shortly after, almost all versions of the Wii system software became bootable.
By April 2009, most commercial games, GameCube and Wii alike, could be fully played, albeit with minor problems and errors, with a large number of games running with few or no defects. Adjustments to the emulator had allowed users to play select games at full speed for the first time, audio was dramatically improved, and the graphical capabilities were made more consistent aside from minor problems.
By late October 2009, several new features were incorporated into the emulator, such as automatic frame-skipping, which increased the performance of the emulator, as well as increased stability of the emulator overall. Also improved was the Netplay feature of the emulator, which allowed players to play multiplayer GameCube and Wii games online with friends, as long as the game did not require a Wii Remote. The emulator's GUI was also reworked to make it more user-friendly, and the DirectX plug-in received further work.
On 12 April 2010 Dolphin 2.0 was released.
3.0 and 3.5 releases (2010-2012)
By the end of November 2010, the developers had fixed most of the sound issues such as crackling, added compatibility with more games, and increased the overall emulation speed and accuracy.
In June 2011, version 3.0 was released. Strange user interface behavior, crashes, graphical glitches and other various issues were fixed. The release notes state that the majority of games "run perfectly or with minor bugs." The release featured redesigned configuration windows, an improved LLE sound engine, new translations, added support for the Wii Remote speaker, EFB format change emulation, graphics debugger and audio dumping among several other new features. The 3.0 release removed the plug-in interface in order to "allow for a much better integration with the other parts of Dolphin." The developers also added a Direct3D 11 video back-end and an XAudio2 audio back-end.
On 6 April 2013, the Dolphin development team released the first builds for Google's Android mobile operating system. As of September 2013, only a handful of devices contained the hardware to support OpenGL ES 3.0, with Google officially supporting the standard in software since July 2014 with the introduction of Android 4.3 Jelly Bean. Games run at an average of 1 FPS. The developer has cited the Samsung Galaxy S4 as one of the first phones capable of playing games at higher speeds, but even it would have considerable performance limitations.
On 22 September 2013, version 4.0 of Dolphin was released, featuring back-end improvements to OpenGL rendering and OpenAL audio, broader controller support, networking enhancements, and performance tweaks for macOS and Linux builds. Months later, versions 4.0.1 and 4.0.2. were released, fixing minor bugs.
Drop of legacy technologies, accuracy improvements, and 5.0 release (2013-2016)
On 12 October 2013 (4.0-155), Direct3D 9 support was removed from the project, leaving Direct3D 11 and OpenGL as the two remaining video back-ends. The Dolphin Team explained this, stating that the plug-in was "inherently flawed" and that trying to evade its several flaws "wasted time and slowed development."
On 19 May 2014, the Dolphin Team announced that 32-bit support for Windows and Linux would be dropped. The Dolphin Team stated that it was becoming increasingly difficult to maintain the 32-bit builds, and that the 32-bit releases simply offered an inferior experience compared to their 64-bit counterparts. Furthermore, the vast majority of their users were already using 64-bit CPUs, and most users of 32-bit builds were 64-bit compatible yet were using 32-bit by mistake. The combination of these factors made 32-bit support unnecessary. 32-bit Android builds suffered from similar issues, but ARMv7 support remained for another year until the AArch64 JIT was ready and devices were available.
Game Boy Advance-GameCube linking is among the features emulated by Dolphin 5.0
Throughout 2014, several features were implemented into Dolphin, including disc loading emulation, native support for GameCube controllers, perfect audio emulation, and bug fixes for problems which had been present since the emulator's earliest days.Memory management unit (MMU) improvements allowed many games to boot and work properly for the first time. Improvements towards the emulator also allowed for it to run well on Android using the Nvidia Tegra processor, albeit with minor difficulties.
In August 2015, the Dolphin developers announced further improvements with audio and throughout December 2015 the Dolphin project fixed audio issues on TR Wii Remotes. Two months later, in February 2016, a DirectX 12 back-end was mainlined after months of development.
On 24 June 2016, version 5.0 of Dolphin was released, making various fixes and additions to the emulator.
Post-5.0 developments (ongoing)
Development of a Vulkan-based graphics renderer began in June 2016. After a month, the developer announced that it is "now feature-complete" and that it's "time for clean-ups/bug-fixing/performance work." Development of the renderer was still done in a dedicated branch for the next few months until the code was finally merged in October 2016.
In September 2016, Dolphin's developers announced the emulator was now able to boot all official GameCube titles. The last title to be supported for boot-up, Star Wars: The Clone Wars, had been particularly difficult to emulate due to the game's use of the memory management unit. Also they announced that they removed Triforce emulation, because of no maintenance in the Triforce emulation's code.
Two experimental features, both of which never reached maturity, were removed in May 2017: The DirectX 12 renderer - which found a suitable replacement in the Vulkan back-end - and the alternative CPU emulator JITIL.
Continuing this year's earlier work on graphics performance-related matters, Dolphin developers implemented a solution for the long-standing problem known as shader compilation stuttering. The stuttering is caused by the emulator waiting for the graphics driver to compile shaders required for new environments or objects. The solution that the Ubershaders - in development since 2015 - present to the problem was to emulate the Wii's and GameCube's rendering pipeline by way of an interpreter running on the host system's graphics processor itself until a specialized shader has been compiled and can be used for future frames, at a lower cost to performance.
18 August 2017 marks the culmination of work started in late 2016 when the cross-platformMMORPGDragon Quest X was added to the list of playable games just two months before support for the online functionality of the Wii version was dropped. The addition relied on a number of features that had been previously added to the emulator simply for the sake of accuracy, such as support for the Wii Shop Channel. Support for Wii File System, an encrypted file system that was originally designed for the Wii U, was also added after a rigorous amount of reverse engineering.
In the first half of 2018 Dolphin's developers deprecated the wxWidgetsGUI toolkit and replaced it with one based on Qt because the original GUI toolkit's limitations stood in the way of implementing new features. Among the other newly introduced features were Asynchronous Shader Compilation similar to Ishiiruka, an auto-update feature, and integration with Discord.
In the summer of 2018 Dolphin's Vulkan renderer was brought to macOS via MoltenVK and the Android version was brought back to Google Play with monthly updates. In April 2019, Dolphin added 3 new features; unification of common video backends, a NetPlay Server browser, and Wii MotionPlus emulation. The DirectX 12 renderer was also brought back.
During the timeframe between November 2019 and January 2020 support for Windows 10 on ARM has been added. According to the developers, "[i]t turned out to be quite easy" because support for AArch64 hardware has already been present as part of the Android port.
In the May and June progress report for 2020 the Dolphin team unveiled a new compression format which was built upon the WIA format called RVZ. It is claimed that the new format compared to the NKit format RVZ is able to have properly emulated load times. Additionally it is claimed that while remaining lossless it comes very close to the filesizes of scrubbed WIA and GCZ files.
In the December 2020 and January 2021 progress report the Dolphin team reports that support had been added for Nintendo DS communication. While they state that this definitely would not lead to Dolphin and DS emulator operability, with physical hardware or with emulator, it fixes a crash present in Driver: San Francisco and other games that attempt to initiate DS communications.
In July 2021, the Dolphin team announced the integration of the mGBA emulator into Dolphin, allowing a Game Boy Advance emulator to run within Dolphin simultaneously to simulate GameCube-GBA connectivity. In addition to supporting transfer of data to and from emulated GBA titles, up to four Game Boy Advance instances can be simultaneously active in Dolphin at once, making multiplayer in games that require the GBA such as The Legend of Zelda: Four Swords Adventures and Final Fantasy Crystal Chronicles viable within Dolphin locally and via netplay.
Peripherals connected to the Bluetooth-enabled Wii remotes also work with Dolphin
Two kinds of network play are supported by Dolphin: Emulated local multiplayer and Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection. The first only works among Dolphin users. It applies to games that by default have no online option. The second kind is for online gameplay for WFC supported Wii games with other Dolphin users as well as real Wii users.
Demonstration of anti-aliasing using simple shapes
Like many other console emulators on PC, Dolphin supports arbitrary resolutions, whereas the GameCube and Wii only support up to 480p.
Dolphin can load customized texture maps. These can also be of higher resolution than the original textures. The emulator also has the ability to export a game's textures in order for graphic artists to modify them.
Dolphin can output stereoscopic 3D graphics on any platform Dolphin runs. Special hardware such as Nvidia 3D Vision is also supported. The ability to play games in stereoscopic 3D is a feature the original consoles never had, although Nintendo did originally plan to release a stereoscopic 3D add-on screen for the GameCube.
The Dolphin emulator has been well received by the gaming community, with the program's ability to run games at a higher resolution than the GameCube's native 480i and Wii's native 480p resolution receiving particular praise from the gaming community.PC Gamer editor Wes Fenlon called it "one of the only emulators to make many games better" and praised it for continually "making major, sometimes huge improvements to compatibility and performance".Wololo.net praised the system's high compatibility.
Dolphin has been used by some people as a tool to mitigate certain shortcomings for gamers; in 2012, business owner and father Mike Hoye, who had been playing The Legend of Zelda: The Wind Waker with his daughter and realized that the game referred to the main character as a male individual regardless of the inputted name, changed all of the game's cutscene dialogue text to refer to a girl instead of a boy by editing it through a hex editor, testing out the game's ISO using Dolphin. The emulator's Netplay feature has been described by ArsTechnica to be serving as an alternative to the discontinued Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection.
A version of Dolphin made to emulate the Triforce arcade system titled Dolphin Triforce was in development by the Dolphin team, but was eventually disabled after development priorities shifted and the feature became unmaintained. Downloads of Dolphin Triforce are still available from the website and the source code is available from GitHub in a dedicated repository.
PC Gamer tested a few games with Dolphin VR. Metroid Prime and F-Zero GX received especially high praise with one editor feeling "childlike wonder when playing Metroid Prime in VR" and another stating that "F-Zero [is] the thing that sold me on Dolphin VR".
DolphiniOS used to be monetized by having beta releases be available earlier to Patreons; their Patreon program has been paused as of 6 October 2020[update] and they claim that they are now permanently discontinuing this practice. Along with this they also announced that the project would be going on hiatus due to the lead developer going on break.
The first pre-release version went public on 9 December 2019 with the 1.0 release following a week later. Version 2.0 has been released only a month later on 9 January 2020. The 2.0 version supports physical controllers, among other new features.
Version 3.0 was released on the 20 June 2020. Notable new features include the ability to display your games in a grid, the ability to update the Wii System Menu like on the desktop version of Dolphin, the ability to install WADS to the Wii NAND and the ability to change disc while the emulator is running. Versions 3.1.1 and 3.2.0 beta 1 have been released since the hiatus announcement. Rumble and motion control support was added for DualShock 4s and DolphiniOS now functions properly for users of the Odyssey jailbreak.
A writer from Wololo.net wrote regarding the performance of DolphiniOS: "On my iPad Pro 10.5-inch (A10X), Mario Kart Wii works pretty well and playing through the first two tracks of the Mushroom Cup provided excellent results!"
The fork attempts to remedy performance problems present in Dolphin such as microstuttering due to shader compilation. Ishiiruka serves as base for the canonical client of the Super Smash Bros. MeleeNetplay communities Faster Melee and SmashLadder.
John Linneman of Eurogamer talks in the October 2016 Metroid Prime episode of their Digital Foundry Retro video series about Ishiiruka. He compares playing Metroid Prime via Ishiiruka to playing it on original hardware, Wii and GameCube, and upstream Dolphin. Linneman argues that "the benefits [of emulation] kind of outweigh any of the smaller issues that you might encounter". He continues to point out features of Ishiiruka that "allow you to push the visuals beyond what you can achieve using standard Dolphin. For instance, you can add lots of cool additional enhancements like depth of field, ambient occlusion, various types of color correction and a whole lot more [...]. It's also worth noting that this version of Dolphin helps avoid the shader compilation stutters that plagued the official release of the emulator and it leads to a much more fluid experience."
PrimeHack is a version of Dolphin created by shiiion that has been modified to play Metroid Prime: Trilogy on PC with keyboard and mouse controls. Two variants exist of PrimeHack - one is based on Ishiiruka, the other one on Dolphin proper. The latter is as of October 2019 the focus of development after it laid dormant between February and October 2019.
^"And That's How the Nintendo 3DS Was Made". Iwata Asks. Nintendo. 2011. Archived from the original on 25 July 2015. Retrieved 2017. [...] Nintendo GameCube system actually had 3D-compatible circuitry built in. [...] Nintendo GameCube could display 3D images if you attached a special LCD, but that special liquid crystal was really expensive back then.
^ abLinneman, John (30 October 2016). "DF Retro: Metroid Prime - First Person Action Redefined". Eurogamer. Digital Foundry Retro. Gamer Network. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 2017. what is the best way to play Metroid Prime today? [...] I actually think in this case emulation is a pretty good option. Yes, I'm talking about Dolphin here which has come a long way - with games like Metroid Prime benefiting greatly in the process now. It's not yet flawless, mind you, but the benefits kind of outweigh any of the smaller issues that you might encounter. And, of course, while the standard version of Dolphin certainly gets the job done, I'm actually playing the game here using an unofficial Ishiiruka version of Dolphin which adds a ton of unique features that allow you to push the visuals beyond what you can achieve using standard Dolphin. For instance, you can add lots of cool additional enhancements like depth of field, ambient occlusion, various types of color correction and a whole lot more [...]. It's also worth noting that this version of Dolphin helps avoid the shader compilation stutters that plagued the official release of the emulator and it leads to a much more fluid experience. All around and as you can see the end results are pretty much excellent the game is sharper and cleaner than ever before.
^SirMangler. "PrimeHack and PrimeHack Updater notice". Discord. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 2019. I'm happy to announce that PrimeHack is now offered on the Mainline Branch of Dolphin (aka latest, non ishiiruka). [...] From now on we shall focus our updates onto the Mainline branch. This doesn't mean Ishiiruka has been abandoned, and it will still be supported. However it will no longer be our priority.