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Dhikr (Arabic: ‎, IPA: [ð?kr]), also spelled Zikr, Thikr, Zekr,[1] or Zikar,[2][3] literally means "remembrance, reminder" or "mention, utterance". They are Islamic devotional acts, in which phrases or prayers are repeated. It can be counted on a set of prayer beads (Misbaha ) or through the fingers of the hand. It plays a central role in Sufi Islam.[4] A person who recites the Dhikr is called a kir (, [ða:k?r]). Tasbih (), literally meaning "glorification" (i.e. the saying of "subna -ll?hi" [Arabic: ‎]) is a form of dhikr that involves the repetitive utterances of short sentences glorifying God. Dhikr is used in tasbih. The content of the prayers includes the names of God, or a dua (prayer of supplication) taken from the hadiths or the Quran. The word Dhikr is also the origin of the name Dhakir (?) literally means "mentioner".

Allah as having been written on the disciple's heart according to Sarwari Qadri Order


There are several verses in the Quran that emphasize the importance of remembering the will of God by saying phrases such as "God willing" "God knows best," and "If it is your will.' This is the basis for dhikr. Surah al-Kahf (18), Ayah 24 states a person who forgets to say, "God willing", should immediately remember God by saying, "Maybe my Lord will guide me to [something] more akin to rectitude than this."[5] Other verses include Surah al-Ahzab (33), Ayah 41, "O you who have faith! Remember Allah with frequent remembrance",[6] and Surah ar-Ra'd (13), Ayah 28, "those who have faith, and whose hearts find rest in the remembrance of Allah.' Look! The hearts find rest in Allah's remembrance!"[7]

Muslims believe dhikr is one of the best ways to enter the higher level of Heaven and to glorify the Monotheistic Oneness of God.[8]

To Sufis, dhikr is seen as a way to gain spiritual enlightenment and achieve union (visal) or annihilation (fana) in God. All Muslim sects endorse individual rosaries as a method of meditation, the goal of which is to obtain a feeling of peace, separation from worldly values (dunya), and, in general, strengthen Iman (faith).[]

Common types

Qur?anic spelling
? bismi -ll?hi r-ra?m?ni r-rami
/bis.mi?l.la:.hir.ra?.ma:.ni ?r.ra.?i:.mi/
In the name of God, the All-Merciful, the Especially-Merciful.
? ? ? ?
? ? ? ?
?au bi-ll?hi mina ?-?ayni r-raj?mi
/?a.?u:.ðu bil.la:.hi mi.na.?aj.t?a:.ni?r.ra.di:.mi/
I seek refuge in God from the pelted Satan.
? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ?
?au bi-ll?hi s-sami l-?al?mi mina ?-?ayni r-raj?mi
/?a.?u:.ðu bil.la:.hi?s.sa.mi:.?i?l.?a.li:.mi mi.na.?aj.t?a:.ni?r.ra.di:.mi/
I seek refuge in God, the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing, from the pelted Satan.

subna -ll?hi
Glorified is God.
?al?amdu lill?hi
/?al.?am.du lil.la:.hi/
All praise is due to God.
? l? ?il?ha ?ill? -ll?hu
/lai.la:.ha ?il.la.?a:.hu/
There is no deity but God.
?all?hu ?akbaru
/?a?.?a:.hu ?ak.ba.ru/
God is greater [than everything].
?asta?firu -ll?ha
I seek the forgiveness of God.
?asta?firu -ll?ha rabb? wa-?at?bu ?ilayhi
/?as.ta?.fi.ru.?a:.ha rab.bi: wa.?a.tu:.bu ?i.laj.hi/
I seek the forgiveness of God, my Lord, and repent to Him.

subnaka -ll?humma
Glorified are you, O God.

subna -ll?hi wa-bi-?amdih?
/sub.?a:.na.?a:.hi wa.bi.?am.di.hi:/
Glorified is God and with His praise.
? ?
? ?
subna rabbiya l-?ami wa-bi-?amdih?
/sub.?a:.na rab.bi.ja?l.?a.ð?i:.mi wa.bi.?am.di.hi:/
Glorified is my God, the Great, and with His praise.
subna rabbiya l-?a?l? wa-bi-?amdih?
/sub.?a:.na rab.bi.ja?l.?a?.la: wa.bi.?am.di.hi:/
Glorified is my God, the Most High, and with His praise.
? ? ? ? l? ?awla wa-l? quwwata ?ill? bi-ll?hi l-?al?yi l-?ami
/laaw.la wa.la: quw.wa.ta ?il.la: bil.la:.hi?l.?a.li:.ji?l.?a.ð?i:.mi/
There is no power no strength except from God, the Exalted, the Great.
? ? ?
? ? ?
l? ?il?ha ?ill? ?anta subnaka ?inn? kuntu mina ?-lim?na
/lai.la:.ha ?il.laan.ta sub.?a:.na.ka ?in.ni: kun.tu mi.na?ð?.ð?a:.li.mi:.na/
There is no god except You, glorified are you! I have indeed been among the wrongdoers.
? ?asbun? -ll?hu wa-ni?ma l-wak?lu
/?as.bu.na.?a:.hu wa.ni?.ma?l.wa.ki:.lu/
God is sufficient for us, and He is an excellent Trustee.
?inn? lill?hi wa-?inn? ?ilayhi r?jina
/?in.na: lil.la:.hi wa.?in.nai.laj.hi ra:.di.?u:.na/
Verily we belong to God, and verily to Him do we return.
? ? m? a -ll?hu k?na wa-m? lam ya?a? lam yakun
/maa:.?a.?a:.hu ka:.na wa.ma: lam ja.?a? lam ja.kun/
What God wills will be, and what God does not will, will not be.
? ?in a -ll?hu
/?in ?a:.?a.?a:.hu/
If God wills.
m? a -ll?hu
What God wills.
bi-?i?ni -ll?hi
With the permission of God.
? ? jaz?ka -ll?hu khayr?n
/da.za:.ka.?a:.hu xaj.ran/
God reward you [with] goodness.
b?raka -ll?hu f?ka
/ba:.ra.ka.?a:.hu fi:.ka/
God bless you.
? f? sab?li -ll?hi
/fi: sa.bi:.li?l.la:.hi/
On the path of God.
? ? l? ?il?ha ?ill? -ll?hu mu?ammadun ras?lu -ll?hi
/lai.la:.ha ?il.la.?a:.hu mu.?am.ma.dun ra.su:.lu.?a:.hi/
There is no deity but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God.
? ? ? ? l? ?il?ha ?ill? -ll?hu mu?ammadun ras?lu -ll?hi ?al?yun wal?yu -ll?hi
/lai.la:.ha ?il.la.?a:.hu mu.?am.ma.dun ra.su:.lu.?a:.hi ?a.li:.jun wa.li:.ju.?a:.hi/
There is no deity but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God, Ali is the vicegerent of God. (Usually recited by Shia Muslims)
? ? ? ? ? ?a?hadu ?an l? ?il?ha ?ill? -ll?hu wa-?a?hadu ?anna mu?ammadan ras?lu -ll?hi
/?a?.ha.du ?an lai.la:.ha ?il.la.?a:.hu wa.?a?.ha.du ?an.na mu.?am.ma.dan ra.su:.lu.?a:.hi/
I bear witness that there is no deity but God, and I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger of God.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?a?hadu ?an l? ?il?ha ?ill? -ll?hu wa-?a?hadu ?anna mu?ammadan ras?lu -ll?hi wa-?a?hadu ?anna ?al?yan wal?yu -ll?hi
/?a?.ha.du ?an lai.la:.ha ?il.la.?a:.hu wa.?a?.ha.du ?an.na mu.?am.ma.dan ra.su:.lu.?a:.hi wa.?a?.ha.du ?an.na ?a.li:.jan wa.li:.ju.?a:.hi/
I bear witness that there is no deity but God, and I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger of God, and I bear witness that Ali is the vicegerent of God. (Usually recited by Shia Muslims)
?all?humma ?alli ?al? mu?ammadin wa-li mu?ammadin
/?a?.?a:.hum.ma s?al.li ?a.la: mu.?am.ma.din wa.?a:.li mu.?am.ma.din/
O God, bless Muhammad and the Progeny of Muhammad.
? ? ?all?humma ?alli ?al? mu?ammadin wa-li mu?ammadin wa-?ajjil farajahum wa-l?an ?a?dahum
/?a?.?a:.hum.ma s?al.li ?a.la: mu.?am.ma.din wa.?a:.li mu.?am.ma.din wa.?ad.dil fa.ra.da.hum wal.?an ?a?.da:.?a.hum/
O God, bless Muhammad and the Progeny of Muhammad, and hasten their alleviation and curse their enemies. (Usually recited by Shia Muslims)
? ?all?humma ?ajjil li-wal?yika l-faraja wa-l-fiyata wa-n-na?ra
/?a?.?a:.hum.ma ?ad.dil li.wa.li:.ji.ka?l.fa.ra.da wal.?a:.fi.ja.ta wan.nas?.ra/
O God, hasten the alleviation of your vicegerent (i.e. Imam Mahdi), and grant him vitality and victory. (Usually recited by Shia Muslims)

Phrases and expressions

There are numerous conventional phrases and expressions invoking God.

Name Phrase Citation
(Quran or Sunnah)
all?hu ?akbaru 9:72, 29:45, 40:10
God is greater [than all things]
subna ll?hi 23:91, 28:68, 37:159, 52:43, 59:23
Glory to God
al-?amdu li-ll?hi 1:2, 6:1, 29:63, 31:25, 34:1, 35:1, 35:34, 39:29, 39:74, 39:75, 40:65
Praise be to God
l? ?il?ha ?ill? ll?hu 37:38, 47:19
[There is] no god but God
mu?ammadun ras?lu ll?hi 48:29
Muhammad is the messenger of God
bi-smi ll?hi r-ra?m?ni r-rami 1:1
In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful
?in sha ll?hu 2:70, 12:99, 18:69, 28:27, 48:27
If God wills
m? sha ll?hu 6:128, 7:188, 10:49, 18:39, 87:7
What God wills
Alayhi as-Salam
sal?mu -ll?hi ?alayh?
? [10]
Blessing of God be upon him
?all? ll?hu ?alayhi wa-lih? wa-sallama
? ? [10]
God bless him and give him salvation
ra?imahu ll?hu / ra?imaka ll?hu
God have mercy upon him / God have mercy upon you
?asta?firu ll?hi 12:98, 19:47
I seek forgiveness from God
?l? ?awla wa-l? quwwata ?ill? bi-ll?hi Riyad as-Salihin 16:36
? ?
There is no might nor power except in God
?inn? li-ll?hi wa-?inn? ?ilayhi r?jina 2:156, 2:46, 2:156
Indeed, (we belong) to God and indeed to Him we shall return
jaz?ka ll?hu ?ayran Riyad as-Salihin 17:32, Tirmidhi 27:141, Bukhari 7:3
? ?
May God reward you well
?au bi-ll?hi mina ?-?ayni r-raj?mi Riyad as-Salihin 1:46
? ? ? ?
I seek refuge with God from the pelted Satan
Fi sabilillah
f? sab?li ll?hi 2:154, 2:190, 2:195, 2:218, 2:244, 2:246, etc.
in the cause (way) of God
yar?amuka ll?hu Bukhari 78:248, Riyad as-Salihin 6:35
May God have mercy on you
Honorifics often said or written alongside Allah
Subhanahu wa-Ta'ala
subnah? wa-tal?[11] 6:100, 10:18, 16:1, 17:43, 30:40, 39:67
Praised and exalted[12][13]
Tabaraka wa-Ta'ala
tab?raka wa-tal?
Blessed and exalted
Jalla Jalalah
jalla jal?lahu
May His glory be glorified
Azza wa Jall
?azza wa-jalla
Prestigious and Majestic

Quran as Dhikr

Reciting the Quran sincerely is also considered a kind of Dhikr. For example:

Hadiths mentioning virtues

"Shall I tell you about the best of deeds, the most pure in the Sight of your Lord, about the one that is of the highest order and is far better for you than spending gold and silver, even better for you than meeting your enemies in the battlefield where you strike at their necks and they at yours?" The companions replied, "Yes, O Messenger ? of Allah!" He replied, "Remembrance of Allah ?".

-- at-Tirmidhi

"People will not sit in an assembly in which they remember Allah ? without the angels surrounding them, mercy covering them, and Allah ? Mentioning them among those who are with Him"

-- narrated by Abu Hurairah, Sahih Muslim

"There is nothing that is a greater cause of salvation from the punishment of Allah than the remembrance of Allah"

-- Narrated by Mu'adh ibn Jabal, Sunan At-Tirmidhi, Book of Supplications

Hadhrat Mu`adh ibn Jabal said that the Prophet ? also said: "The People of Paradise will not regret except one thing alone: the hour that passed them by and in which they made no remembrance of Allah ?."

-- Narrated by Bayhaqi, Shu`ab al-iman

It is mentioned in hadith that where people are oblivious to dhikir, remembrance of Allah is like being steadfast in jihad when others are running away (Targhib, p. 193, vol. 3 ref. Bazar and Tibrani).

The Islamic Prophet Muhammad is reported to have thought his daughter Fatimah bint Rasul Allah a special manner of Dhikr which is known as the "Tasbih of Fatimah". This consists of:

  1. 33 repetitions of subna -llahi ( ‎), meaning "Glorified is God". This saying is known as Tasbih (‎).
  2. 33 repetitions of al-?amdu lill?hi ( ‎), meaning "All Praise belongs to God". This saying is known as Tahmid (‎).
  3. 34 repetitions of ?all?hu ?akbaru ( ), meaning "God is Greater [than everything]". This saying is known as Takbir (‎).

The Shia way of doing the Tasbih of Fatimah is:

  1. 34 repetitions of ?all?hu ?akbaru ( ), meaning "God is Greater [than everything]". This saying is known as Takbir (‎).
  2. 33 repetitions of al-?amdu lill?hi ( ‎), meaning "All Praise belongs to God". This saying is known as Tahmid (‎).
  3. 33 repetitions of subna -llahi ( ‎), meaning "Glorified is God". This saying is known as Tasbih (‎).
  4. Saying one time at the end: La ilaha il Allah (There is no god but Allah).

Prayer beads

Known also as Tasbih, these are usually Misbaha (prayer beads) upon a string, 99 or 100 in number, which correspond to the names of God in Islam and other recitations. The beads are used to keep track of the number of recitations that make up the dhikr.

When the dhikr involves the repetition of particular phrases a specific number of times, the beads are used to keep track so that the person performing dhikr can turn all of their focus on what is actually being said - as it can become difficult to concentrate simultaneously on the number and phrasing when one is doing so a substantial number of times.

In the United States, Muslim inmates are allowed to utilize prayer beads for therapeutic effects.[21] In Alameen v. Coughlin, 892 F. Supp. 440 (E.D.N.Y 1995), Imam Hamzah S. Alameen, a/k/a Gilbert Henry, and Robert Golden brought suit against Thomas A. Coughlin III, etc., et alia (Head of the Department of Corrections) in the State of New York pursuant to 42 USC Section 1983.[22] The plaintiffs argued that prisoners have a First Amendment Constitutional right to pursue Islamic healing therapy called KASM ( | qaasama | taking an oath ) which uses prayer beads. The rosary of oaths, which Alameen developed, was used to successfully rehabilitate inmates suffering from co-occurring mental health challenges and substance abuse issues during the 1990s. All people, including Muslims and Catholics, were allowed to use prayer beads inside prisons, lest their freedom of religion be violated when the prison administration forbade their possession as contraband in the penal system. The practice of carrying prayer beads became controversial when gang-members began carrying specific colors of prayer beads to identify themselves.


A group of Iranian Maddahs/Dhakirs, in a gathering

A "dhakir" (‎) or "Zaker" (literally "mentioner"' a speaker who refers to something briefly/incidentally),[23][24] or reminder,[25] is considered a maddah who reminds the remembering of Allah (and His Dhikr) for people, and he himself should also be reciter of dhikhr; namely, not only he ought to be a recital of Dhikr, but also he should put the audience in the situation of dhikr reminding (of Allah and likewise Ahl al-Bayt).[26] Idiomatically the term means "praiser of God" or "professional narrator of the tragedies of Karbala (and Ahl al-Bayt)". To some extent, it can mean Maddah/panegyrist too.[27][28]

The root of the word "Dhakir" (‎) is "Dhikr" (‎) which means remembering/praising; and the word "Dhakiri" (‎) is the act which is done by Dhakir, i.e. mentioning the Dhikr (of Allah, the Ahl al-Bayt, etc.) by observing its specific principles/manners.[29][30][31]

Sufi view

Every Tariqa have their own way of spiritual practices and all of them are connected to a certain lineage like (Chishtiya, Qadriya, Naqshbandiya, Burhaniya etc.) Followers of Sufism often engage in ritualized dhikr ceremonies, the details of which sometimes vary between Sufi orders or tariqah.[32] Each order, or lineage within an order, has one or more forms for group dhikr, the liturgy of which may include recitation, singing, music, dance, costumes, incense, muraqaba (meditation), ecstasy, and trance.[33] Though the extent, usage and acceptability of many of these elements vary from order to order - with many condemning the usage of instruments (considered unlawful by most scholars)[34] and intentional loss of control. In addition, costumes are quite uncommon and is almost exclusively unique to the Mevlavi order in Turkey - which is an official cultural "heritage" of the secular Turkish state. In Sufism, group dhikr does not necessarily entail all of these forms.

The most common forms of Sufi group dhikr consist in the recital of particular litanies (e.g. Hizb al-Bahr of the Shadhilis), a composition of Quranic phrases and Prophetic supplications (e.g. Wird al-Latif of the Ba `Alawis), or a liturgical repetition of various formula and prayers (e.g. al-Wadhifa of the Tijanis [35]). All of these forms are referred to as a "hizb" (pl. "ahzab") or a "wird" (pl. "awrad"). This terminological usage is important as some critics often mistakenly believe that the word hizb only refers to a portion of the Quran.[36] In addition, many recite extended prayers upon Muhammad (known as durood) of which the Dala'il al-Khayrat is perhaps the most popular. Though common to almost all Sufi orders, some (such as the Naqsbandis) prefer to perform their dhikr silently - even in group settings.[37] In addition, most gatherings are held on Thursday or Sunday nights as part of the institutional practices of the tariqah (since Thursday is the night marks the entrance of the Muslim "holy" day of Friday and Sundays are a convenient congregational time in most contemporary societies) - though people who don't live near their official zawiya gather whenever is convenient for the most people.

Another type of group dhikr ceremony that is most commonly performed in Arabic countries is called the ha?ra (lit. presence).[38] The ha?ra is a communal gathering for dhikr and its associated liturgical rituals, prayers, and song recitals, performing both in private or public. Though the ha?ra is popular (in part because of the controversy surrounding it), it is mostly practiced in North Africa, the Middle-East and Turkey. In Turkey this ceremony is called "Zikr-i Kiyam" (Standing dhikr) and "imara" in Algeria and Morocco. In places like Syria where Sufis are a visible part of the fabric and psyche of society, each order typically has their private gathering on one day and will participate in a public ha?ra at a central location to which both the affiliated and unaffiliated alike are invited as an expression of unity. Similar public ceremonies occur in Turkey, Egypt, Algeria and Morocco.

Dhikr hadrah articulation, upward beams indicating inhalation and downward beams indicating exhalation [39]

For those who perform it, the ha?ra marks the climax of the Sufi's gathering regardless of any teaching or formal structure - it often follows a formal teaching session as a way of internalizing the lessons. Musically, the structure of the ha?ra includes several secular Arab genres (each of which expresses a different emotion) and can last for hours.[39] It is directed by the sheikh of the tariqa or one of his representatives; monitoring the intensity, depth and duration of the phases of the ha?ra, the sheikh aims to draw the circle into deep awareness of God and away from the participants own individuatedness. The dhikr ceremonies may have a ritually determined length or may last as long as the Sheikh deems his murids require. The ha?ra section consists of the ostinato-like repetition of the name of God over which the soloist performs a richly ornamented song. In many ha?ras, this repetition proceeds from the chest and has the effect of a percussion instrument, with the participants bending forward while exhaling and stand straight while inhaling so that both the movement and sound contribute to the overall rhythm. The climax is usually reached through cries of "Allah! Allah!" or "hu hu" (which is either the pronoun "he" or the last vowel on the word "Allah" depending on the method) while the participants are moving up and down. Universally, the ha?ra is almost always followed by Quranic recital in the tarteel style - which according to al-Junayd al-Baghdadi, was a prophetic instruction received through a dream.

More common than the ha?ra is the sama` (lit. audition), a type of group ceremony that consist mostly of the audition of spiritual poetry and Quranic recitation in an emotionally charged manner; and thus is not dhikr is the technical sense the word implies. However, the same debate over certain matters of decorum apply as exists with the ha?ra. Even though group dhikr is popular and makes up the spiritual life of most Sufi adherents, other more private forms of dhikr are performed more routinely - usually consisting of the order's wird (daily litany) - which adherents usually recite privately, even if gathered together. So although group dhikr is seen as a hallmark of Sufism, the Sufis themselves practice the same private forms of worship that other Muslims practice, though usually more frequently and methodically; group dhikr is a less frequent occurrence and is not the end-all-and-be-all of Sufism, as some Sufi orders do not even perform it.

See also


  1. ^ Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi (26 March 2016). The Laws of Islam (PDF). Enlight Press. ISBN 978-0994240989. Retrieved 2017.
  2. ^ "Evening Azkar". Dua and Adhkar. Retrieved 2020.
  3. ^ "Mishkat al-Masabih 2264 - Supplications - ? ? - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad ( ? ? ? )". sunnah.com. Retrieved .
  4. ^ Le Gall, Dina (2005). A Culture of Sufism: Naqshbandis in the Ottoman World, 1450-1700. SUNY Press. p. 117. Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^ Quran 18:24
  6. ^ Quran 33:41
  7. ^ Quran 13:28
  8. ^ "Dhikr, remembrance of God". sunnah.org. Retrieved .
  9. ^ The phrase is encoded at Unicode code point U+FDFD ?
  10. ^ a b The phrase is encoded as a ligature at Unicode code point FDFA ?
  11. ^ Often abbreviated "SWT" or "swt".
  12. ^ Grob, Eva Mira (2010). Documentary Arabic private and business letters on papyrus: form and function, content and context. New York, N.Y.: De Gruyter. p. 26. ISBN 978-3110247046.
  13. ^ Reynolds, Gabriel Said, ed. (2011). New perspectives on the Qur'an: The Qur'an in its historical context 2. London: Routledge. p. 259. ISBN 978-1136700781.
  14. ^ The phrase is encoded as a ligature at Unicode code point U+FDFB ?
  15. ^ al-Bukhaari. p. 4628.
  16. ^ Saheeh al-Jaami' al-Sagheer. p. 6472.
  17. ^ Mu'jam Al-Kabeer. p. 13319.
  18. ^ Tafsir Ibn Kathir.
  19. ^ Tafsir Ibn Kathir.
  20. ^ Jami at-Tirmidh, Hadith 2894.
  21. ^ United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York Archived 2007-03-11 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ "Alameen v. Coughlin, 892 F. Supp. 440 (E.D.N.Y. 1995)". Justia Law. Retrieved .
  23. ^ Mentioner (in dictionary) vocabulary.com Retrieved 12 Jan 2019
  24. ^ Definitions for mentioner definitions.net Retrieved 12 Jan 2019
  25. ^ Dhakir vajehyab.com Retrieved 12 Jan 2019
  26. ^ The definition of Dhakiri maddahi.com Retrieved 12 Jan 2019
  27. ^ (The meaning of) Dhakir vajehyab.com
  28. ^ Dhakir (meaning of) dictionary.abadis.ir Retrieved 12 Jan 2019
  29. ^ Rules/principles of Dhakiri estejab.com Retrieved 12 Jan 2019
  30. ^ The rules and principles of Dhakiri maddahi.com Retrieved 12 Jan 2019
  31. ^ Rules and principles of Dhakiri bayanbox.ir Retrieved 12 Jan 2019
  32. ^ Friedlander, p. 20.
  33. ^ Touma, p.162.
  34. ^ In his "The Whirling Dervishes and Orthodox Islam" the Nuh Ha Mim Keller (an indisputed shaykh of the Hashimi-Shadhili order) criticizes the common usage of music by the contemporary Turkish branch of the Mevlavi order in particular - arguing that the Sufis are not exempt from following Islamic law. See The Whirling Dervishes and Orthodox Islam Archived 2012-04-02 at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ "The Litany of Tijani Prayers". Retrieved 2011.
  36. ^ For instance, Ahmad al-Tijani is often unfairly criticized for saying that the Salat al-Fatih which he instructed his students to recite is "more valuable than a hizb". This "hizb" that he was referring to was not a hizb of the Quran, but a hizb of the Dala'il al-Khayrat which was so commonly recited in Tijani's time that many people recited the entire composition several times a day.
  37. ^ Ahmad, Zulfaqir. Wisdom for the Seeker (PDF). Concerning the Dhikr of the Naqsbandi-Mujaddid Tariqa. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-05. Retrieved .
  38. ^ In earlier orders, the "presence" referred to was that of God, but since the 18th century it has been considered to be the spiritual presence of Muhammad (John L. Esposito, "Hadrah." The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Web. 3 Apr. 2010.) The shifting focus, however, is not shared by all and is a result of the Sufi reforms which sought to mitigate the heretical belief of theopanism committed by some Sufi claimants through a greater focus on the spirit and active life of Muhammad instead of a metaphorical union with God.(Ira Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, p. 210)
  39. ^ a b Touma, p.165.


Further reading

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