Demographics of Honduras
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Demographics of Honduras

Honduras population pyramid in 2020
A village in Copán
Talanga road, Honduras

This article is about the ethnic groups and population of Honduras.

Population

According to the 2019 revision of the World Population Prospects[2][3] the total population was 9,587,522 in 2018, compared to 1,487,000 in 1950 (a fivefold increase in 60 years). The proportion of the population aged below 15 in 2010 was 36.8%, 58.9% were aged between 15 and 65 years of age, and 4.3% were aged 65 years or older.[4]

As of 2014, 60% of Hondurans live below the poverty line.[5] More than 30% of the population is divided between the lower middle and upper middle class, less than 10% are wealthy or belong to the higher social class (most live in Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula).

Total population
(x 1000)
Proportion
aged 0-14
(%)
Proportion
aged 15-64
(%)
Proportion
aged 65+
(%)
1950 1 487 42.2 53.8 4.0
1955 1 717 44.3 52.3 3.4
1960 2 002 46.1 50.8 3.2
1965 2 353 47.1 49.8 3.1
1970 2 691 47.7 49.2 3.1
1975 3 108 47.5 49.3 3.2
1980 3 636 47.0 49.8 3.2
1985 4 238 46.2 50.6 3.2
1990 4 904 45.5 51.1 3.4
1995 5 592 44.3 52.1 3.6
2000 6 575 42.8 53.5 3.7
2005 7 459 40.6 55.6 3.8
2010 8 317 37.6 58.4 4.0
2015 9 113 33.7 61.9 4.3
2020 9 905 30.6 64.4 5.0

Structure of the population

Structure of the population (01.07.2007) (estimates) (data refer to projections based on the 2001 Population Census):[6]

Age group Male Female Total %
Total 3,717,577 3,819,375 7,536,952 100
0-4 541 070 522 177 1,063,247 14.11
5-9 511 733 497 666 1,009,399 13.39
10-14 464 403 456 447 920 850 12.22
15-19 402 792 400 001 802 793 10.65
20-24 353 317 357 434 710 751 9.43
25-29 308 283 318 130 626 413 8.31
30-34 255 818 266 861 522 679 6.93
35-39 205 171 219 874 425 045 5.64
40-44 157 492 177 140 334 632 4.44
45-49 128 813 147 464 276 277 3.67
50-54 105 428 121 993 227 421 3.02
55-59 83 643 97 033 180 676 2.40
60-64 63 863 73 789 137 652 1.83
65-69 49 404 58 136 107 540 1.43
70-74 37 134 44 984 82 118 1.09
75-79 24 368 30 225 54 593 0.72
80+ 24 845 30 021 54 866 0.73
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 1,517,206 1,476,290 2,993,496 39.72
15-64 2,064,620 2,179,719 4,244,339 56.31
65+ 135 751 163 366 299 117 3.97

Structure of the population (01.07.2010) (estimates):

Age group Male Female Total %
Total 3,965,430 4,080,560 8,045,990 100
0-4 549 179 530 110 1,079,289 13.41
5-9 525 938 509 139 1,035,077 12.86
10-14 492 090 481 523 973 613 12.10
15-19 434 856 431 337 866 193 10.77
20-24 371 818 375 696 747 514 9.29
25-29 326 377 337 526 663 903 8.25
30-34 282 042 295 519 577 561 7.18
35-39 230 506 244 378 474 884 5.90
40-44 181 554 200 161 381 715 4.74
45-49 140 031 161 534 301 565 3.75
50-54 116 240 135 378 251 618 3.13
55-59 93 205 109 982 203 187 2.53
60-64 72 071 85 246 157 317 1.96
65-69 53 835 63 955 117 790 1.46
70-74 40 470 49 655 90 125 1.12
75-79 27 381 34 757 62 138 0.77
80+ 27 837 34 664 62 501 0.78
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 1,567,207 1,520,772 3,087,979 38.38
15-64 2,248,700 2,376,757 4,625,457 57.49
65+ 149 523 183 031 332 554 4.13

Vital statistics

Registration of vital events is in Honduras not complete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [4]

Period Live births
per year
Deaths
per year
Natural change
per year
CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR* Life expectancy
total
Life expectancy
for males
Life expectancy
for females
1950-1955 84 000 40 000 44 000 52.1 24.7 27.4 7.50 169 41.8 40.5 43.1
1955-1960 95 000 40 000 55 000 51.1 21.5 29.6 7.50 154 44.6 43.0 46.3
1960-1965 108 000 40 000 68 000 49.5 18.3 31.2 7.42 136 48.0 46.3 49.8
1965-1970 122 000 40 000 82 000 48.4 16.0 32.4 7.42 119 51.0 49.2 53.0
1970-1975 133 000 40 000 93 000 45.9 13.7 32.2 7.05 104 54.1 52.1 56.2
1975-1980 150 000 38 000 112 000 44.5 11.4 33.1 6.60 81 57.7 55.6 59.9
1980-1985 166 000 36 000 130 000 42.3 9.2 33.1 6.00 65 61.6 59.4 63.8
1985-1990 180 000 33 000 147 000 39.5 7.3 32.2 5.37 53 65.4 63.2 67.7
1990-1995 195 000 33 000 162 000 37.1 6.3 30.8 4.92 43 67.7 65.4 70.1
1995-2000 198 000 33 000 165 000 33.4 5.5 27.9 4.30 35 69.8 67.5 72.3
2000-2005 197 000 35 000 163 000 31.4 5.0 26.4 3.87 31 71.0 68.6 73.4
2005-2010 201 000 37 000 164 000 27.1 4.7 22.4 3.24 28 72.1 69.7 74.5
2010-2015 23.4 4.5 18.9 2.73
2015-2020 21.8 4.4 17.4 2.49
2020-2025 20.3 4.5 15.8 2.32
2025-2030 18.6 4.6 14.0 2.19
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Births and deaths[6] [7]

Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
2010 200,293 22,843 177,450
2011 201,494 25,012 176,482
2012 8,169,047 196,119 25,249 170,870 4.5 16 3.2
2013 8,303,771 4.6 16 2.7
2014 8,432,153 4.5 15 2.7
2015 8,576,532 204,594 4.5 17 2.6
2016 8,721,014 184,312 4.5 17 2.6
2017 8,859,980 4.4 16 2.5
2018 9,023,838 4.5 16 2.5
2019 9,151,940 4.5 16 2.5

Fertility and births

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[8]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1998-2001 4.4
2005-2006 27 3,3 (2,3) 24 2,6 (1,9) 29 4,1 (2,8)
2011-2012 25.6 2,9 (2,2) 24.2 2,5 (1,9) 27.2 3,5 (2,6)

Ethnic groups

Immigrants in Honduras[9]
Country Immigrants
 El Salvador 9,000+
 Nicaragua 8,000+
 United States 7,000+
 Guatemala 5,000+
 Mexico 2,000+
 China 1,000+
 Colombia 1,000+
 Costa Rica 1,000+
 Cuba 1,000+
 Spain 1,000+

Ethnic groups in Honduras %[10]

  Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) (40%)
  Amerindians (28%)
  Blacks (31%)
  Whites (1%)

Religions: in Honduras %[10]

  Roman Catholic (46%)
  Protestant (39%)

Mestizos

Mestizos (meaning mixed European and Amerindian) have been reported by the CIA World Factbook to be about 87% of the population of Honduras.[10] As in other Latin American countries, the question of racial breakdown of a national population is contentious. Since the beginning of the 20th century at least, Honduras has publicly framed itself as a mestizo nation, along other Latin American countries such as Guatemala or Mexico, ignoring and at times disparaging both the European component of the population and the surviving Amerindian population that was still regarded as "pure blood". It's well known that many Hondurans of European or almost entirely Amerindian background consider themselves mestizo.[11][12]

Because of social stigmas attached, many Honduran people denied having African ancestry, and after African descended Caribbean workers arrived in Honduras, an active campaign to denigrate all people of African descent, made persons of mixed race anxious to deny any African ancestry. Hence official statistics quite uniformly under-represent those people who have ancestry in favor of a "two race" solution.[11]

Examples of Honduran mestizos are, Poet Clemetina Suarez, actress America Ferrera, Novelist and poet Roberto Sosa, Footballer Noel Valladares, Ex president Manuel Zelaya.

Gallery

Amerindian

The Amerindian population is the first biggest minority in Honduras, the biggest ethnic group that made up the native population is the Lencan. These people has been living in Honduran territory before the colonization of the americas developing their pown societies and civilizations and still has many communities all along the country. According to the 2001 census the Amerindian population in Honduras included 381,495 people (6.3% of the total population).[13] With the exception of the Lenca and the Ch'orti' they still keep their language.

Six different Amerindian groups were counted at the 2001 census:

  • the Lenca (279,507 in 2001;4.6% of the total population) living in the La Paz, Intibucá, and Lempira departments;
  • the Miskito (51,607 in 2001; 0.8%) living on the northeast coast along the border with Nicaragua.
  • the Ch'orti' (34,453 in 2001;0.6% of the total population), a Mayan group living in the northwest on the border with Guatemala;
  • the Tolupan (also called Jicaque, "Xicaque", or Tol; 9,617 in 2001; 0.2% of the total population), living in the reserve of the Montaña de la Flor and parts of the department of Yoro;
  • the Pech or Paya Indians (3,848 in 2001; 0.1% of the total population) living in a small area in the Olancho department;
  • the Mayangna or Tawahka (2,463 in 2001; <0.1%)

Examples of Honduran natives are the many Mayan rules of Copan and other Mayan cities, native leaders as Lempira and Cicumba, and environmental and feminist activist Berta Caceres.

Gallery

Afro-Hondurans

The Afro-Honduran population consist of people of African descent, Garifuna and Creoles. Most of them are descendants of African people brought by the Spanish and other European colonizers between the 16th and 18th centuries. Many of them came from the west African coast, from places like Angola or Senegambia, where European bought slaves for their colonies, while others came from the other colonies in the Caribbean.

  • The Garifuna are descendants of Carib, Arawak, and West African people. This ethnic group has its origins in a group from St. Vincent islands in the Caribbean, who came in 1797. At the 2001 census 46,448 people were registered as Garifuna, 0.8% of the total population of Honduras.[13] The Garifuna speak an Arawakan language. They live along the entire Caribbean coastline of Honduras, and in the Bay Islands.
  • The number of Creoles was 12,370 (0.2%) in 2001.

Examples of well-known Afro-Hondurans are footballers David Suazo, Victor "Muma" Bernardez, Dr. Emet Cherefant, and Wilson Palacios.

Gallery

Euro-Hondurans

White people along with Afro-descendants and Amerindians belong to the minorities of Honduras. Most of the Honduran whites are descendants of the Spanish colonist, mostly people from southern Spain, they inhabit most of the western part of the country. Other Honduran whites are descendants of European immigrants who arrived at the beginning of the 20th century. The Italians that gained residence in Honduras were 389 in 2014, nearly all of them concentrated in the capital area.[14] However, the term "white person" in Honduras remains somewhat ambiguous, Honduras has one of the largest Arab communities in Latin America (being 3% of the total population), of which are considered to be white. Percentages of whites varied from between 4% to 9%, due to the fact that the majority of Hondurans identify themselves as mestizos, regardless of their ethnic and racial category. Which makes it more difficult to study the number of people who fit into the white category in Honduras. In a census a total of 450,000 of people from Honduras have appeared who identify themselves as whites, therefore it gives the percentage is 4%.

However, other studies report that the percentage could rise much more, reaching close to a half a million white people in Honduras, which according to official national sources would make a percentage of between 5% to 6.9% of white Hondurans. This is because the majority of whites in Honduras do not identify themselves as Euro-descendants as such, adopting and feeling more identified with the mestizo identity.

Examples of white Hondurans are ex president Simon Azcona del Hoyo, biomedic Salvador Moncada, film director Juan Carlos Fanconi, politician Roberto Micheletti, General Florencio Xatruch and former president of the Central American federation Don Francisco Morazán Quezada.

Gallery

Other ethnicities

Asians

East Asians

There's a small Chinese community in Honduras. A lawyer of the Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras (CODEH) stated that the Chinese community in Honduras is rather small. Many of the Chinese are immigrants who arrived from China after the revolution and their descendants.[15]

Arabs

Honduras hosts a significant Palestinian community (the vast majority of whom are Christian Arabs).[16] These Arab-Hondurans are sometimes called "Turcos", because they arrived in Honduras using Turkish travel documents, as their homeland was then under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The Palestinians arrived in the country in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, establishing themselves especially in the city of San Pedro Sula.[17] As mentioned earlier, they are also considered whites in the country's censuses, in total the Arab-Hondurans make up 3% of the Honduran population.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ cruz, Eduardo. "Gobierno suma a 152 microempresarias en Pimienta, Cortés". www.ine.gob.hn.
  2. ^ ""World Population prospects - Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 2019.
  3. ^ ""Overall total population" - World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 2019.
  4. ^ a b "Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision".
  5. ^ "CIA - The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2014.
  6. ^ a b "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". unstats.un.org.
  7. ^ "CIFRAS DE PAÍS". Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas Honduras. Retrieved 2021.
  8. ^ "MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys". microdata.worldbank.org.
  9. ^ "Immigrant and Emigrant Populations". Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved 2021.
  10. ^ a b c "Central America and Caribbean :: HONDURAS". CIA The World Factbook.
  11. ^ a b Dario Euraque, "The Threat of Blackness to the Mestizo Nation: Race and Ethnicity in the Honduran Banana Economy, 1920s and 1930s," in Steve Striffler and Mark Moberg, eds. Banana Wars: Power, Production and History in the Americas (Duke University Press, 2003), pp. 229-49.
  12. ^ Dario Euraque, "Antropólogos, archaeólogos, imperialismo y la mayanicación de Honduras, 1890-1940," Revista Historia 45 (2002): 73-103
  13. ^ a b "Atlas sociolingüístico de Pueblos Indígenas de América Latina Fichas nacionales" (PDF). UNICEF.
  14. ^ https://www.elheraldo.hn/pais/575489-214/29-mil-extranjeros-viven-el-sueno-hondureno
  15. ^ [1]. The UN Refugee Agency. "Honduras: Information on racism and treatment of ethnic Chinese."
  16. ^ The Arabs of Honduras Archived 9 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Larry Luxner. Saudi Aramco World.
  17. ^ "Luxner - Articles". www.luxner.com. Archived from the original on 16 May 2006. Retrieved 2013.

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