Declaration of War
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Declaration of War
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against Nazi Germany on December 11, 1941.

A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another. The declaration is a performative speech act (or the signing of a document) by an authorized party of a national government, in order to create a state of war between two or more states.

The legality of who is competent to declare war varies between nations and forms of government. In many nations, that power is given to the head of state or sovereign. In other cases, something short of a full declaration of war, such as a letter of marque or a covert operation, may authorise war-like acts by privateers or mercenaries. The official international protocol for declaring war was defined in the Hague Convention (III) of 1907 on the Opening of Hostilities.

Since 1945, developments in international law such as the United Nations Charter, which prohibits both the threat and the use of force in international conflicts, have made declarations of war largely obsolete in international relations.[1] The UN Security Council, under powers granted in articles 24 and 25, and Chapter VII of the Charter, may authorize collective action to maintain or enforce international peace and security. Article 51 of the United Nations (UN) Charter also states that: "Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right to individual or collective self-defence if an armed attack occurs against a state."[2]

Few nations have formally declared war upon another since then. In addition to this, non-state or terrorist organizations may claim to or be described as "declaring war" when engaging in violent acts.[3] These declarations may have no legal standing in themselves, but they may still act as a call to arms for supporters of these organizations.

Definitions

Theoretical perspectives

Brazilian President Venceslau Brás declares war on the Central Powers on October 26, 1917.

A definition of the three ways of thinking about a declaration of war was developed by Saikrishna Prakash.[4] He argues that a declaration of war can be seen from three perspectives:

  • Categorical theory, under which the power to declare war includes "the power to control all decisions to enter war". This means that the power to 'declare war' in effect rests with the ability to engage in combat.
  • Pragmatic theory, which states that the power to declare war can be made unnecessary by an act of war in itself.
  • Formalist theory, under which the power to declare war constitutes only a formal documentation of executive war-making decisions. This sits closest to traditional legal conceptions of what it is to declare a war.[5]

History

The practice of declaring war has a long history. The ancient Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh gives an account of it,[6] as does the Old Testament.[7][8] The Roman Republic formalized the declaration of war by a special ceremony, the ritual of the Fetials, though the practice started to decline into the Imperial era.

However, the practice of declaring war was not always strictly followed. In his study Hostilities without Declaration of War (1883), the British scholar John Frederick Maurice showed that between 1700 and 1870 war was declared in only 10 cases, while in another 107 cases war was waged without such declaration (these figures include only wars waged in Europe and between European states and the United States, not including colonial wars in Africa and Asia).

In modern public international law, a declaration of war entails the recognition between countries of a state of hostilities between these countries, and such declaration has acted to regulate the conduct between the military engagements between the forces of the respective countries. The primary multilateral treaties governing such declarations are the Hague Conventions.

The League of Nations, formed in 1919 in the wake of the First World War, and the General Treaty for the Renunciation of War of 1928 signed in Paris, France, demonstrated that world powers were seriously seeking a means to prevent the carnage of another world war. Nevertheless, these powers were unable to stop the outbreak of the Second World War, so the United Nations (UN) was established following that war in a renewed attempt to prevent international aggression through declarations of war.

Denigration of formal declarations of war before WWII

In classical times, Thucydides condemned the Thebans, allies of Sparta, for launching a surprise attack without a declaration of war against Plataea, Athens' ally - an event that began the Peloponnesian War.[9]

The utility of formal declarations of war has always been questioned, either as sentimental remnants of a long-gone age of chivalry or as imprudent warnings to the enemy. For example, writing in 1737, Cornelius van Bynkershoek judged that "nations and princes endowed with some pride are not generally willing to wage war without a previous declaration, for they wish by an open attack to render victory more honourable and glorious."[10] Writing in 1880, William Edward Hall judged that "any sort of previous declaration therefore is an empty formality unless the enemy must be given time and opportunity to put himself in a state of defence, and it is needless to say that no one asserts such a quixotism to be obligatory."[11]

Agreed Procedure for the Opening of Hostilities according to the Hague Convention

In the first Hague Convention of 1899, the signatory states agreed that at least one other nation be used to mediate disputes between states before engaging in hostilities:

1899

Title II, Article 2

In case of serious disagreement or conflict, before an appeal to arms, the signatory Powers agree to have recourse, as far as circumstances allow, to the good offices or mediation of one or more friendly Powers.[12]

1907

The Hague Convention (III) of 1907 called "Convention Relative to the Opening of Hostilities"[13] gives the international actions a country should perform when opening hostilities. The first two Articles say:

Article 1

The Contracting Powers recognize that hostilities between themselves must not commence without previous and explicit warning, in the form either of a reasoned declaration of war or of an ultimatum with conditional declaration of war.[14]

Article 2

The existence of a state of war must be notified to the neutral Powers without delay, and shall not take effect in regard to them until after the receipt of a notification, which may, however, be given by telegraph. Neutral Powers, nevertheless, cannot rely on the absence of notification if it is clearly established that they were in fact aware of the existence of a state of war.[15]

Formal declarations of war during World War I

Formal declarations of war during World War II

After World War II

In 1989, Panama declared itself to be in a state of war with the United States.[16] On 13 May 1998, at the outbreak of the Eritrean-Ethiopian War, Ethiopia, in what Eritrean radio described as a "total war" policy, mobilized its forces for a full assault against Eritrea.[17] The Claims Commission found that this was in essence an affirmation of the existence of a state of war between belligerents, not a declaration of war, and that Ethiopia also notified the United Nations Security Council, as required under Article 51 of the UN Charter.[18]

In December 2005, the government of Chad declared that a state of war existed with Sudan, after Sudan hosted Chadian rebel groups that were behind fatal cross border raids.[19]

In 2008, after armed clashes broke out during the Djiboutian-Eritrean border conflict, Djibouti's President Guelleh, when asked if his country was at war with Eritrea, replied with "absolutely".[20]

On 11 April 2012, Sudan declared war on South Sudan after weeks of border clashes.[21]

Declared wars since 1945

Declarations of war, while uncommon in the traditional sense, have mainly been limited to the conflict areas of the Western Asia and East Africa since 1945. Additionally, some small states have unilaterally declared war on major world powers such as the United States, United Kingdom, or Russia when faced with a hostile invasion and/or occupation.

This is a list of declarations of war (or the existence of war) by one sovereign state against another since the end of World War II in 1945. Only declarations that occurred in the context of a direct military conflict are included.

War(s) Date Titled Belligerents Ended References
Declaring party Opponent
Arab-Israeli War (1948-49) 15 May 1948 declaration of war Kingdom of Egypt Egypt  Israel 26 March 1979 [22]
Suez Crisis (1956)  Jordan 26 October 1994
Six-Day War (1967) Syria Syria Still at war
War of Attrition (1967-70) Kingdom of Iraq Iraq
Yom Kippur War (1973)  Lebanon
Ogaden War 13 July 1977  Somalia Ethiopia Ethiopia 15 March 1978
Uganda-Tanzania War 2 November 1978  Tanzania  Uganda 3 June 1979 [23]
Iran-Iraq War 22 September 1980 Iraq Iraq  Iran 20 July 1988 [24]
United States invasion of Panama 15 December 1989 existence of a state of war  Panama  United States 31 January 1990 [25]
Eritrean-Ethiopian War 14 May 1998  Ethiopia  Eritrea 12 December 2000 [17]
Chadian Civil War (2005-10) 23 December 2005  Chad  Sudan 15 January 2010 [26]
Djiboutian-Eritrean border conflict 13 June 2008  Djibouti  Eritrea 6 June 2010 [20]
Russo-Georgian War 9 August 2008 declaration of war (declaring the existence of a state of war.)  Georgia  Russia 16 August 2008 [27]
Heglig Crisis 11 April 2012 existence of a state of war  Sudan  South Sudan 26 May 2012 [28]
Sinai insurgency 1 July 2015  Egypt Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Islamic State Still at war [29]
2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict 27 September 2020  Azerbaijan  Armenia 10 November 2020 [30]
2020 Western Saharan clashes 14 November 2020 declaration of war  SADR  Morocco Still at war [31]

Legality of declarations of war since 1945

The United Nations Charter is the foundation of modern international law.[32] The UN Charter is a treaty ratified by members of the UN, which are therefore legally bound by its terms. Article 2(4) of the UN Charter generally bans the use of force by states except when carefully circumscribed conditions are met, stating:

All members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations.[33]

This rule was "enshrined in the United Nations Charter in 1945 for a good reason: to prevent states from using force as they felt so inclined", said Louise Doswald-Beck, Secretary-General International Commission of Jurists.[34]

Therefore, in the absence of an armed attack against a country or its allies, any legal use of force, or any legal threat of the use of force, has to be supported by a United Nations Security Council resolution authorizing member states to use force.

United Nations and war

In an effort to force nations to resolve issues without warfare, framers of the United Nations Charter attempted to commit member nations to using warfare only under limited circumstances, particularly for defensive purposes.

The UN became a combatant itself after North Korea invaded South Korea on 25 June 1950, which begun the Korean War. The UN Security Council condemned the North Korean action by a 9-0 resolution (with the Soviet Union absent) and called upon its member nations to come to the aid of South Korea. The United States and 15 other nations formed a "UN force" to pursue this action. In a press conference on 29 June 1950, U.S. President Harry S. Truman characterized these hostilities as not being a "war" but a "police action".[35]

The United Nations has issued Security Council Resolutions that declared some wars to be legal actions under international law, most notably Resolution 678, authorizing the 1991 Gulf War which was triggered by Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. UN Resolutions authorise the use of "force" or "all necessary means".[36][37]

Requirements by country

Commonwealth realms

Throughout the Commonwealth realms (the UK, Australia, Canada, et al.) the formal right to declare war rests with the monarch, currently Elizabeth II, or their representative (the governor-general), as part of the royal prerogative and exercised by the Prime Minister (for example in the UK) or that realm's written constitution. It is a very recent development in the United Kingdom that parliamentary approval be sought before deployment of combat forces overseas, for example in the Iraq War (2003) and airstrikes on Daesh (ISIL), but this is not a legal requirement.

Albania

Article 171 of the Albanian Constitution says that the President can declare war at the request of the Council of Ministers. The Assembly can also declare war on the proposal of the President.

Argentina

According to Article 75 of the Argentine Constitution, the Congress has the power to declare war.

Armenia

Article 118 of the Armenian Constitution allows the National Assembly to declare war and make peace with a majority vote among the parliamentarians. It proceeds to specify that the body shall determine the matter of declaring a state of war if it is unable to convene.

Austria

Article 38 of the Austrian Constitution states that the National Council and the Federal Council convene to adopt war declarations.

Brazil

According to Article 84 of Brazilian Constitution, the President of Brazil has the power to declare war, in the event of foreign aggression, when authorized by the National Congress or, upon its ratification if the aggression occurs between legislative sessions, and decree full or partial national mobilization under the same conditions.

Bulgaria

Article 84 of the Bulgarian Constitution states that the unicameral legislature can declare a state of war.

Chile

According to Article 32 of the Chilean Constitution, declaring war is a special power of the President of the Republic.

China

Article 62 of the Chinese Constitution states that the National People's Congress has the authority to decide any questions of both war and peace.

Colombia

According to Article 173 of the Colombian Constitution, the Senate can declare war.

Denmark

Part III of the Danish Constitution says that the King can use military force against the any other nation-state without the consideration of the Folketing--the Danish legislature--on the condition that he submits the motion to the body. If the Folketing is not in session at the time when the King utilizes this power, then it shall be convoked immediately.

Egypt

According to Article 152 of the Egyptian Constitution, the President of the Republic is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. Despite this role, the President is unable to declare war without consulting both the National Defense Council and the House of Representatives for approval. In the case of the House of Representatives, a two-thirds majority vote is required.

Ethiopia

Article 55 of the Ethiopian Constitution says that a state of war can be proclaimed by the legislature after a draft law is submitted by the Council of Ministers to it.

Finland

According to Article 93 of the Finnish Constitution, the President of Finland may declare war, or declare peace, with permission from the Parliament of Finland.[38]

France

According to Article 35 of the French Constitution, the French Parliament has the authority to issue any declaration of war. [39]

Georgia

According to Article 62 of the Georgian Constitution, Parliament can reach a determination on the matter of declaring war with a majority among the legislative members.

Germany

Article 115a of Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany says that, unless attacked by an opposing military force, Germany must vote a two-thirds majority vote in the Bundestag if the federal republic is under the threat of war.[40]

Greece

According to Article 36 of the Greek Constitution, the President can declare war.

Hungary

Article 1 of the Hungarian Constitution states that the Parliament has the power to declare war and make peace.

Indonesia

According to Article 11 of the Indonesian Constitution, the President can declare war and make peace with the approval of People's Representative Council--one of two chambers in the Indonesian legislature.

Iceland

The Icelandic Constitution is silent on the matters of declaring war and making peace.

Iran

According to Article 110 of the Iranian Constitution, the Leadership Council is responsible for both declaring war and making peace as well as mobilizing the armed forces.

Iraq

According to Article 61 of the Iraqi Constitution, the Council shall approve any war declarations.

Ireland

Article 28.3.1° of the Irish Constitution states that "war shall not be declared and the State shall not participate in any war save with the assent of Dáil Éireann." Ireland has taken a policy of non-alignment (what many confuse with neutrality see: Irish Neutrality) in military terms and is thus not a member of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

Israel

The Basic Laws of Israel says that declaring war can only be made in pursuant to a governmental decision.

Italy

According to the 11° Article of the Italian Constitution, Italy rejects war as an instrument of aggression.[41] Parliament has the power to declare war if it is necessary to create an order that ensures peace and justice among Nations;[42] the most reliable authors exclude that among the circumstances in which it can be declared the state of war under Article 78 of the Constitution may be included also the state of civil war within the country.[43]

Japan

According to Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution, the country is prohibited from engaging in war. This has been interpreted as including the declaration of war. However, in 2014, this portion of the constitution was reinterpreted by a constitutional amendment to allow a degree of leeway to the Japan Self-Defense Forces in order to fulfill the country's obligations as prescribed by its diplomatic relations.

Jordan

Article 33 of Jordanian Constitution states that the King declares war and makes peace.

Lebanon

Article 65 of the Lebanese Constitution says that executive power is vested in the Council of Ministers and the Armed Forces are subject to that authority. Of the powers that are listed in that section, one of them is declaring war.

Malaysia

The Malaysian Constitution states that declaring war is a legislative matter.

Mexico

According to Article 89 § VIII of the Mexican Constitution, the President may declare war in the name of the United Mexican States after the correspondent law is enacted by the Congress of the Union.[44]

Morocco

According to Article 49 of the Moroccan Constitution lists declaring war as a matter to be deliberated by the Council of Ministers.

Norway

The Norwegian Constitution is silent on the matters of declaring war and making peace.

Paraguay

Article 144 of the Paraguayan Constitution renounces war, but it also asserts the "principle of legitimate defense."

Peru

According to Article 118 of the Peruvian Constitution, the President of the Republic can declare war and sign peace treaties with the authorization of Congress.

Philippines

Section 23 of the Filipino Constitution says that the Congress shall decide on the matter of declaring war.

Poland

According to Article 116 of the Polish Constitution, the Sejm--the Polish legislature--has the power to declare war.

Portugal

Article 161 of the Portguese Constitution says that Assembly of the Republic is responsible for declaring war.

Romania

Article 65 of the Romanian Constitution states that the bicameral legislature can declare a state of war.

Russia

Article 71 of the Russian Constitution states that there is an authority to declare war, but it does not expressly state what entity can perform this action. In Article 106, however, it states that the Duma--the Russian legislature--has the jurisdiction to declare war and make peace.

Saudi Arabia

Article 61 of the Saudi Constitution states that declaring war is a matter for the King.

Serbia

The Serbian Constitution says that the National Assembly is responsible for declaring war. According to Article 106, upon declarations of war or emergency, the National Assembly shall be convoked without announcement.

Spain

According to Article 63 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978, the King, with prior authorization by the Parliament, has the power to declare war and make peace.

Sweden

According to 2010:1408 15 kap. 14 § entitled "Krigsförklaring" (declaration of war) the Swedish cabinet (regeringen) may not declare Sweden to be at war without the parliaments (riksdagen) consent unless Sweden is first attacked.[45]

Thailand

Section 177 of the Thai Constitution states that, with the approval of the National Assembly, declaring war is a "royal prerogative" of the King.

Turkey

According to Article 87 of the Turkish Constitution, the Grand National Assembly has the authority to declare war.

United States

In the United States, Congress, which makes the rules for the military, has the constitutional to "declare war". However neither the U.S. Constitution nor any Act of Congress stipulate what format a declaration of war must take. War declarations have the force of law and they are intended to be executed by the President as "commander in chief" of the armed forces. This is a power that has been unevenly performed by the federal government as many as eleven times across five armed conflicts: the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, the Spanish-American War, World War I, and World War II. Of those five, World War I and World War II were the only ones in which the United States issued more than one declaration of war. The last time Congress passed joint resolutions saying that a "state of war" existed was on June 5, 1942, when the U.S. issued three war declarations on Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania.[46] Since then, the US has used the term "authorization to use military force," as in the case against Iraq in 2003.

Sometimes decisions for military engagements were made by US presidents, without formal approval by Congress, based on UN Security Council resolutions that do not expressly declare the UN or its members to be at war. Part of the justification for the United States invasion of Panama was to capture Manuel Noriega (as a prisoner of war)[47] because he was declared a criminal rather than a belligerent.[]

In response to the September 11 attacks, the United States Congress passed the joint resolution Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists on September 14, 2001, which authorized the US President to fight the War on Terror.[48]

Uruguay

Article 85 of the Uruguayan Constitution says that the General Assembly is "competent to declare war."

Venezuela

The Venezuelan Constitution does not expressly state the power to declare war. According to Article 187 of it, however, the National Assembly has the power "to authorize the operation of Venezuelan military missions abroad or foreign military missions within the country." This can be interpreted as the power to propose a declaration of war.

Vietnam

Article 70 of the Vietnamese Constitution lists deciding on "issues of war and peace" as a legislative subject for the National Assembly.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Waging war: Parliament's role and responsibility" (PDF). House of Lords. 27 July 2006. Retrieved 2008. Developments in international law since 1945, notably the United Nations (UN) Charter, including its prohibition on the threat or use of force in international relations, may well have made the declaration of war redundant as a formal international legal instrument (unlawful recourse to force does not sit happily with an idea of legal equality).
  2. ^ "Charter of the United Nations". Wikisource. Retrieved 2019.
  3. ^ "Basque raid 'declaration of war'". BBC News. 6 October 2007. Retrieved 2008.
  4. ^ Unleashing the Dogs of War: What the Constitution Means by 'Declare War' Prakash, Saikrishna; 2007; Cornell Law Review, Vol. 93, Iss. 1, October 2007
  5. ^ Scholarship on the "Declare War" Power 22-01-08; Accessed 21-04-08
  6. ^ Brien Hallett, The Lost Art of Declaring War, University of Illinois Press, 1998, ISBN 0-252-06726-6, pp. 65f.
  7. ^ Deut. 20:10-12, Judg. 11:1-32.
  8. ^ Brien Hallett, The Lost Art of Declaring War, University of Illinois Press, 1998, ISBN 0-252-06726-6, pp. 66f.
  9. ^ Thucydides. History of the Peloponnesian War, Book II.
  10. ^ Bynkershoek, Cornelius van. 1930. Quæstionum Juris Publici Liber Duo (1737). Trans. Tenney Frank. The Classics of International Law No. 14 (2). Publications of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Oxford at the Clarendon Press. (I, ii, 8)
  11. ^ Hall, William Edward. 1924. A Treatise on International Law. 8th ed. by A. Pearce Higgins. London: Humphrey Milford: Oxford University Press. (p. 444)
  12. ^ Scott, James Brown, editor The Hague Conventions and Declarations of 1899 and 1907, Oxford Univ. Press (1918) p. 43 "Pacific Settlement of International Disputes"
  13. ^ "The Avalon Project - Laws of War : Opening of Hostilities (Hague III); October 18, 1907". Avalon.law.yale.edu. Retrieved 2015.
  14. ^ "The Avalon Project - Laws of War : Opening of Hostilities (Hague III); October 18, 1907". Avalon.law.yale.edu. Retrieved 2015.
  15. ^ "The Avalon Project - Laws of War : Opening of Hostilities (Hague III); October 18, 1907". Avalon.law.yale.edu. Retrieved 2015.
  16. ^ Hensel, Howard M.; Michaud, Nelson (2011). Global Media Perspectives on the Crisis in Panama. ISBN 9781409429494. Retrieved 2015.
  17. ^ a b World: Africa Eritrea: 'Ethiopia pursues total war'. BBC News. 6 June 1998.
  18. ^ Jus Ad Bellum Ethiopia's Claims 1-8 Archived October 31, 2008, at the Wayback Machine(pdf) Eritrea Ethiopia Claims Commission Archived January 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine p. 6. para 17 (A commentary on Eritrea Ethiopia Claims Commission findings Archived 2007-10-09 at the Wayback Machine)
  19. ^ Hancock, Stephanie (23 December 2005). "Chad in 'state of war' with Sudan". BBC News.
  20. ^ a b "France backing Djibouti in 'war'". BBC News. 13 June 2008.
  21. ^ "Sudan Vision Daily". Archived from the original on April 16, 2012. Retrieved 2015.
  22. ^ Michael Oren (2003). Six Days of War. New York: Random House Ballantine Publishing Group. p. 5. ISBN 0-345-46192-4.
  23. ^ Kamazima, Switbert Rwechungura (2004). Borders, boundaries, peoples, and states : a comparative analysis of post-independence Tanzania-Uganda border regions (PhD). University of Minnesota. p. 167. OCLC 62698476.
  24. ^ Robert Cowley (1996). "Iran-Iraq War". History.com.
  25. ^ Theodore Draper (29 March 1990). "Did Noriega declare war?". New York Review of Books. Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  26. ^ "Call to ease Chad-Sudan tension". BBC News. 25 December 2005.
  27. ^ Peter Walker (9 August 2008). "Georgia declares 'state of war' over South Ossetia". The Guardian.
  28. ^ Scott Baldauf (19 April 2012). "Sudan declares war on South Sudan". Christian Science Monitor.
  29. ^ "Egypt Officially Announces 'State Of War'". Egyptian Streets. 1 July 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  30. ^ Ruslan Rehimov (27 September 2020). "Azerbaijan declares state of war in some cities, regions". Anadolu Agency.
  31. ^ "Western Sahara independence group declares war on Morocco".
  32. ^ Howard Friel and Richard Falk, "The Record of the Paper: How the New York Times Misreports Foreign Policy," Chapter I, Without Law of Facts, The United States Invades Iraq," pp. 15-17
  33. ^ Article 2(4) of the UN Charter, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/un/unchart.htm#art2 Archived April 21, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ International Commission of Jurists, 18 March 2003, Iraq - ICJ Deplores Moves Toward a War of Aggression on Iraq Archived April 7, 2003, at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ "The President's News Conference". 1950-06-29. Archived from the original on 2010-12-26. Retrieved .
  36. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 2, 2015. Retrieved 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) The United Nations Security Council - Its Role in the Iraq Crisis: A Brief Overview
  37. ^ "UN Security Council Resolution 678 (1990)". UNHCR. Retrieved 2012.
  38. ^ "Suomen perustuslaki 731/1999 - Ajantasainen lainsäädäntö - FINLEX ®". Retrieved 2015.
  39. ^ "Constitution du 4 octobre 1958 - Legifrance". Retrieved 2015.
  40. ^ "Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany" (PDF).
  41. ^ "senato.it - La Costituzione - Articolo 11". www.senato.it. Retrieved .
  42. ^ (in Italian)Giampiero Buonomo, Limiti costituzionali all'uso della forza, in Il Parlamento, 1991.
  43. ^ Buonomo, Giampiero (2002). "Maxi-emendamento nella speranza di tappare le falle del codice militare di guerra". Diritto&Giustizia Edizione Online.[dead link]
  44. ^ "Capítulo III Del Poder Ejecutivo" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2016.
  45. ^ [1]
  46. ^ "Text of Declaration of War on Bulgaria - June 5, 1942 - Historical Resources About The Second World War". Historical Resources About The Second World War. Retrieved 2015.
  47. ^ Kwakwa, Edward (1992). The International Law of Armed Conflict. ISBN 9780792315582. Retrieved 2015.
  48. ^ Pub.L. 107-40 (text) (pdf)

External links


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